List of speakers of the British House of Commons

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This is a list of speakers of the House of Commons of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and the House of Commons of the United Kingdom from 1801.

Contents

For the 'prolocutors' and speakers of the House of Commons of England, see List of speakers of the House of Commons of England.

List of speakers

Speakers of the House of Commons of Great Britain, 1707–1800

The Kingdom of Great Britain was created by the Acts of Union 1707. At the beginning of 1801, Great Britain was combined with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, with a single House of Commons serving the whole kingdom.

John Smith, Speaker of the House of Commons of England since October 1705, was elected the first Speaker of the House of Commons of Great Britain.

PortraitName
Constituency
(Birth–Death)
Term of office
E: Election
R: Royal approbation
†: Death
Election(s) [1]
(in brackets if unopposed)
Parliament(s)
Retirement peerage
JohnSmithSpeaker.jpg John Smith
MP for Andover
(1656–1723)
E 23 October
R 30 October

1707
1708 [lower-alpha 1] (1707) [2] 1
1stLordOnslow.jpg Sir Richard Onslow
Bt
MP for Surrey
(1654–1717)
E 16 November
R 18 November

1708
1710 [lower-alpha 2] (1708) [3] 2 Baron Onslow
WilliamBromleySpeaker.jpg William Bromley
MP for Oxford University
(1663–1732)
E 25 November
R 27 November

1710
1713 [lower-alpha 3] (1710) [4] 3
Sir Thomas Hanmer by Godfrey Kneller.jpg Sir Thomas Hanmer
Bt
MP for Suffolk
(1677–1746)
E 16 February
R 18 February

1714
1715 [lower-alpha 4] (1714) [5] 4
Spencer Compton 1720s.jpg Sir Spencer Compton
KB
MP for Sussex
(c. 1673–1743)
E 17 March
R 21 March

1715
1727 [lower-alpha 5] (1715) [6]
(1722) [7]
5
6
Baron Wilmington
Arthur Onslow by Hans Hysing.jpg Arthur Onslow
MP for Surrey
(1691–1768)
E 23 January
R 27 January

1728
18 March
1761 [lower-alpha 6]
(1728) [9]
(1735) [10]
(1741) [11]
(1747) [12]
(1754) [13]
7
8
9
10
11
[lower-alpha 7]
Watercolour drawing of Sir John Cust, 3rd Baronet by Thomas Athow after Watson and Reynolds crop.jpg Sir John Cust
Bt
MP for Grantham
(1718–1770)
E 3 November
R 6 November

1761
19 January
1770 [lower-alpha 8]
(1761) [16]
(1768) [17]
12
13
[lower-alpha 9]
Fletcher Norton.jpg Sir Fletcher Norton
MP for Guildford
(1716–1789)
E 22 January
R 23 January

1770
31 October
1780 [lower-alpha 10]
1770 [18]
(1774) [19]
13
14
Baron Grantley
CW Cornwall by Phillips after Gainsborough.jpg Charles Wolfran Cornwall
MP for Winchelsea until 1784
MP for Rye from 1784
(1735–1789)
E 31 October
R 1 November

1780
2 January
1789
1780 [20]
(1784) [21]
15
16
[lower-alpha 11]
Lord Grenville as Chancellor of Oxford by William Owen.jpg William Wyndham Grenville
MP for Buckinghamshire
(1759–1834)
E 5 January
1789
no royal approbation [lower-alpha 12]
5 June
1789 [lower-alpha 13]
Jan.1789 [24] 16 Baron Grenville
John Singleton Copley - Henry Addington, First Viscount Sidmouth cropped.jpg Henry Addington
MP for Devizes
(1757–1844)
E 8 June
R 9 June

1789
continued as
UK Speaker
Jun.1789 [25]
(1790) [26]
(1796) [27]
16
17
18
Viscount Sidmouth

Speakers of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom from 1801

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was created in 1801. In 1922 the Irish Free State ceased to be part of the UK. The official name of the United Kingdom was changed to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, in 1927.

PortraitName
Constituency
(Birth–Death)
Term of office
E: Election
R: Royal approbation
†: Death
Election(s)
(in brackets if unopposed)
Parliament(s)
Party [lower-alpha 14] Retirement peerage
John Singleton Copley - Henry Addington, First Viscount Sidmouth cropped.jpg Henry Addington
MP for Devizes
(1757–1844)
E 22 January
R 23 January

1801
10 February
1801 [lower-alpha 15]
(Jan.1801) [31] 1 Tory Viscount Sidmouth
Sir John Freeman-Mitford by Thomas Lawrence.jpg Sir John Mitford
KC FRS
MP for East Looe
(1748–1830)
E 11 February
R 12 February

1801
9 February
1802 [lower-alpha 16]
(Feb.1801) [33] 1 Tory Baron Redesdale
Speaker Abbot after James Northcote.jpg Charles Abbot
FRS
MP for Helston until 1802
MP for Woodstock 1802–1806
MP for Oxford University after 1806
(1757–1829)
E 10 February
R 11 February

1802
2 June
1817
(Feb.1802) [34]
(Nov.1802) [35]
(1806) [36]
(1807) [37]
(1812) [38]
1
2
3
4
5
Tory Baron Colchester
Charles Manners Sutton, 1st Viscount Canterbury by Henry William Pickersgill.jpg Sir Charles Manners-Sutton
GCB
MP for Scarborough until 1832
MP for Cambridge University after 1832
(1780–1845)
E 2 June [39]
R 3 June [40]

1817
19 February
1835 [lower-alpha 17]
1817 [39]
(1819) [42]
(1820) [43]
(1826) [44]
(1830) [45]
(1831) [46]
1833 [47]
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Tory Viscount Canterbury
James Abercrombie of Fife, 1st Baron Dunfermline.jpg James Abercromby
MP for Edinburgh
(1776–1858)
E 19 February [41]
R 20 February [48]

1835
27 May
1839
1835 [41]
(1837) [49]
12
13
Whig Baron Dunfermline
Charles Shaw-Lefevre by Martin Archer Shee (crop).jpg Charles Shaw-Lefevre
MP for North Hampshire
(1794–1888)
E 27 May [50]
R 28 May [51]

1839
30 April
1857
1839 [50]
(1841) [52]
(1847) [53]
(1852) [54]
13
14
15
16
Whig Viscount Eversley
1stViscountOssington.jpg John Evelyn Denison
MP for North Nottinghamshire
(1800–1873)
E 30 April [55]
R 1 May [56]

1857
9 February
1872
(1857) [55]
(1859) [57]
(1866) [58]
(1868) [59]
17
18
19
20
Liberal Viscount Ossington
Henry Brand, 1st Viscount Hampden.jpg Sir Henry Brand
GCB
MP for Cambridgeshire
(1814–1892)
E 9 February [60]
R 12 February [61]

1872
26 February
1884
(1872) [60]
(1874) [62]
(1880) [63]
20
21
22
Liberal Viscount Hampden
Arthur Wellesley Peel NPG.jpg Arthur Peel
MP for Warwick until 1885
MP for Warwick and Leamington after 1885
(1829–1912)
E 26 February [64]
R 27 February [65]

1884
10 April
1895
(1884) [64]
(Jan.1886) [66]
(Aug.1886) [67]
(1892) [68]
22
23
24
25
Liberal Viscount Peel
William Court Gully NPG.jpg William Court Gully
KC
MP for Carlisle
(1835–1909)
E 10 April [69]
R 22 April [70]

1895
8 June
1905
Apr.1895 [69]
(Aug.1895) [71]
(1900) [72]
25
26
27
Liberal Viscount Selby
JW Lowther Speaker NPG.jpg James Lowther
MP for Penrith until 1918
MP for Penrith and Cockermouth after 1918
(1855–1949)
E 8 June [73]
R 20 June [74]

1905
28 April
1921
(1905) [73]
(1906) [75]
(1910) [76]
(1911) [77]
(1919) [78]
27
28
29
30
31
Conservative Viscount Ullswater
1915 John Henry Whitley.jpg John Henry Whitley
MP for Halifax
(1866–1935)
E & R [79]
28 April

1921
20 June
1928
(1921)
(1922) [80]
(Jan.1924) [81]
(Dec.1924)
31
32
33
34
Liberal
(Coalition)
[lower-alpha 18]
Edward FitzRoy, Commons Speaker.png Edward FitzRoy
DL
MP for Daventry
(1869–1943)
E 20 June [82]
R 21 June [83]

1928
3 March
1943
(1928) [82]
(1929)
(1931) [84]
(1935) [85]
34
35
36
37
Conservative [lower-alpha 19]
Douglas Clifton Brown 1925.jpg Douglas Clifton Brown
MP for Hexham
(1879–1958)
E [86] & R [87]
9 March

1943
31 October
1951
(1943) [86]
(1945) [88]
(1950) [89]
37
38
39
Conservative Viscount Ruffside
Lord Dunrossil-02.jpg William Morrison
MC QC
MP for Cirencester and Tewkesbury
(1893–1961)
E 31 October [90]
R 1 November [91]

1951
19 September
1959
1951 [90]
(1955) [92]
40
41
Conservative Viscount Dunrossil
Sir Harry Hylton-Foster
MP for Cities of London and Westminster
(1905–1965)
E 20 October [93]
R 21 October [94]

1959
2 September
1965
(1959) [93]
(1964) [95]
42
43
Conservative [lower-alpha 20]
Horace King in Bonn, 1966.jpg Horace King
MP for Southampton Itchen
(1901–1986)
E [96] & R [97]
26 October

1965
12 January
1971
(1965) [96]
(1966) [98]
(1970) [99]
43
44
45
Labour Baron Maybray-King for Life
SelwynLloyd1960.jpg Selwyn Lloyd
CH CBE QC DL
MP for Wirral
(1904–1978)
E [100] & R [101]
12 January

1971
3 February
1976
1971 [100]
(Mar.1974) [102]
(Oct.1974) [103]
45
46
47
Conservative Baron Selwyn-Lloyd for Life
George Thomas
MP for Cardiff West
(1909–1997)
E [104] & R [105]
3 February

1976
10 June
1983
(1976) [104]
(1979) [106]
47
48
Labour Viscount Tonypandy
Bernard Weatherill
MP for Croydon North East
(1920–2007)
E 15 June [107]
R 16 June [108]

1983
9 April
1992
(1983) [107]
(1987) [109]
49
50
Conservative Baron Weatherill for Life
Official portrait of Baroness Boothroyd crop 2.jpg Betty Boothroyd
MP for West Bromwich West
(born 1929)
E 27 April [110]
R 28 April [111]

1992
23 October
2000
1992 [110]
(1997) [112]
51
52
Labour Baroness Boothroyd for Life
Michael Martin MP (cropped).jpg Michael Martin
MP for Glasgow Springburn until 2005
MP for Glasgow North East after 2005
(1945–2018)
E [113] & R [114]
23 October

2000
22 June
2009
[lower-alpha 21]
2000 [113]
(2001) [115]
(2005) [116]
52
53
54
Labour Baron Martin of Springburn for Life
Apvienotas Karalistes parlamenta Parstavju palatas priekssedetaja oficiala vizite Latvija (39361465685) (cropped).jpg John Bercow
MP for Buckingham
(born 1963)
E & R
22 June

2009
4 November
2019
2009 [117]
(2010) [118]
(2015) [119]
(2017) [120]
54
55
56

57

Conservative
Official portrait of Rt Hon Sir Lindsay Hoyle MP crop 2.jpg Sir Lindsay Hoyle [121]
MP for Chorley
(born 1957)
E & R
4 November

2019
Incumbent Nov.2019 [122]
(Dec.2019) [123]
57
58
Labour

Notes

  1. Smith resigned from the chair to become Chancellor of the Exchequer. He continued to serve in the House of Commons until his death in 1723.
  2. Onslow was the last Speaker to be defeated in his constituency in a general election.
  3. Bromley resigned from the chair to become Secretary of State for the Northern Department. He continued to serve in the House of Commons until his death in 1732.
  4. Hanmer vacated the chair but continued to serve in the House of Commons until 1727.
  5. Compton vacated the chair but continued to serve in the House of Commons until 1728.
  6. Onslow retired on 18 March 1761, receiving the unanimous thanks of the House of Commons. [8]
  7. Onslow, the longest-serving Speaker, retired from the chair and the House of Commons. He seems to have been the last Speaker who survived his term by a significant period without being offered a peerage. His only son was created Baron Cranley in 20 May 1776, inherited the Baron Onslow on 8 October 1776 through Special Remainder.
  8. On 17 January 1770, Cust sent word to the House of Commons that he was too ill to attend. [14] He resigned on 19 January, and died on 24 January. [15]
  9. Cust died five days after his resignation, his son was created The Baron Brownlow in 1776.
  10. Norton was not re-elected as Speaker in 1780, but retained his seat as an MP until 1782.
  11. Cornwall died in office.
  12. Due to the illness of King George III, "the usual formalities of receiving the royal permission to elect a speaker, and the royal approbation of him when elected, could not be observed, and Grenville taking his seat immediately performed all the duties of his office." [22]
  13. Grenville resigned from the chair on 5 June 1789 [23] to become Home Secretary. He continued to serve in the House of Commons until 1790.
  14. Party allegiance at the time of first election as Speaker. The modern convention is for the Speaker to sever connections with his or her former party. [28] From 1935, the Speaker has sought re-election as such, not using a party label. [29] The general convention is that the Speaker is not opposed by major party candidates at general elections.
  15. Addington resigned from the chair on 10 February 1801 [30] to become Prime Minister. He continued to serve in the House of Commons until 1805.
  16. Mitford resigned from the chair on 9 February 1802 [32] to become the Lord High Chancellor of Ireland.
  17. In 1835 he was defeated for re-election as Speaker, [41] but retained his seat as an MP for a few weeks until he was created a peer. No subsequent Speaker has been defeated or remained in the House of Commons, for more than a few days after leaving the chair.
  18. Whitley declined the customary peerage upon his retirement from the chair and the House of Commons.
  19. Fitzroy died in office. His widow was created The Viscountess Daventry.
  20. Hylton-Foster died in office. His widow was created The Baroness Hylton-Foster for Life.
  21. Martin resigned the speakership in 2009. He was the first Speaker to be forced to leave the chair by public pressure since Sir John Trevor was expelled from the House and the chair in 1695.

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References

  1. Smith, Henry Stooks (1845). "Elections for Speaker". The Parliaments of England. 2. p. 205. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  2. Cobbett , (1810) vol. 6 , pp. 589–594
  3. Cobbett , (1810) vol. 6 , pp. 744–752
  4. Cobbett , (1810) vol. 6 , pp. 918–927
  5. Cobbett , (1810) vol. 6 , pp. 1242–1256
  6. Cobbett , (1811) vol. 7 , pp. 27, 38–42
  7. Cobbett , (1811) vol. 8 , pp. 1, 21–25
  8. Cobbett, (1813) vol. 16, p. 1013–1015
  9. Cobbett , (1811) vol. 8 , pp. 607–608, 629–634
  10. Cobbett , (1811) vol. 9 , pp. 615–616, 634–639
  11. Cobbett , (1812) vol. 12 , pp. 188–192, 214–221
  12. Cobbett , (1813) vol. 14 , pp. 67, 87–94
  13. Cobbett , (1813) vol. 15 , pp. 293–294, 322–328
  14. Cobbett, (1813) vol. 16, p. 733
  15. Barker, G. F. R. (1888). "Cust, John"  . In Stephen, Leslie (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography . 13. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  16. Cobbett , (1813) vol. 15 , pp. 1072–1073, 1100–1106
  17. Cobbett , (1813) vol. 16 , pp. 424–425, 454–460
  18. Cobbett , (1813) vol. 16 , pp. 734–741
  19. Cobbett , (1813) vol. 18 , pp. 1–5, 31–33
  20. Cobbett , (1814) vol. 21 , pp.768–769, 793–807
  21. Cobbett , (1815) vol. 24 , pp. 775, 800–804
  22. Barker, G. F. R. (1890). "Grenville, William Wyndham"  . In Stephen, Leslie; Lee, Sidney (eds.). Dictionary of National Biography . 23. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  23. Cobbett, (1816) vol. 28, p. 147
  24. Journals of the House of Commons. 44. 1788. p. 45. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
  25. Cobbett , (1816) vol. 28 , pp. 148–157
  26. Cobbett , (1816) vol. 28 , pp. 876–880
  27. Cobbett , (1818) vol. 32 , pp. 1158–1161
  28. "Speakers must be politically impartial. Therefore, on election the new Speaker must resign from their political party and remain separate from political issues even in retirement. However, the Speaker will deal with their constituents' problems like a normal MP." cf
  29. Craig, F.W.S. (1989). British Electoral Facts 1832–1987. Politico's Publishing. ISBN   978-0-900178-30-6.
  30. Cobbett, (1819) vol. 35, pp. 946–947
  31. Cobbett , (1819) vol. 35 , pp. 859–864
  32. Cobbett, (1820) vol. 36, pp. 314–315
  33. Cobbett , (1819) vol. 35 , pp. 948–955
  34. Cobbett , (1820) vol. 36 , pp. 315–321
  35. Cobbett , (1820) vol. 36 , pp. 914–919
  36. "Choice of a Speaker". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) . 8. House of Commons. 15 December 1806. col. 3–12.
  37. "Choice of a Speaker". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) . 9. House of Commons. 22 June 1807. col. 567–74.
  38. "Choice of a Speaker". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) . 24. House of Commons. 24 November 1812. col. 2–8.
  39. 1 2 "Choice of a Speaker". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) . 36. House of Commons. 2 June 1817. col. 843–55.
  40. "The New Speaker Approved by the Prince Regent". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) . 36. House of Lords. 3 June 1817. col. 856–7.
  41. 1 2 3 "Choice of a Speaker". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) . 26. House of Commons. 19 February 1835. col. 3–59.
  42. "Choice of a Speaker". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) . 39. House of Commons. 14 January 1819. col. 3–15.
  43. "Choice of a Speaker". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) . 1. House of Commons. 21 April 1820. col. 2–9.
  44. "Choice of a Speaker". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) . 16. House of Commons. 14 November 1826. col. 2–7.
  45. "Choice of a Speaker". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) . 1. House of Commons. 26 October 1830. col. 2–5.
  46. "Choice of a Speaker". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) . 4. House of Commons. 14 June 1831. col. 73–79.
  47. "Choice of a Speaker". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) . 15. House of Commons. 29 January 1833. col. 35–83.
  48. "His Majesty's Approval of the Speaker". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) . 26. House of Lords. 20 February 1835. col. 61–63.
  49. "Opening of Parliament – Choice of a Speaker". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) . 39. House of Commons. 15 November 1837. col. 3–12.
  50. 1 2 "Election of Speaker". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) . 47. House of Commons. 27 May 1839. col. 1034–56.
  51. "Royal Approbation of the Speaker". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) . 47. House of Lords. 28 May 1839. col. 1056–7.
  52. "Election of Speaker". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) . 59. House of Commons. 19 August 1841. col. 3–11.
  53. "Election of Speaker". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) . 95. House of Commons. 18 November 1847. col. 3–8.
  54. "Election of Speaker". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) . 123. House of Commons. 4 November 1852. col. 3–13.
  55. 1 2 "Choice of a Speaker". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) . 145. House of Commons. 30 April 1857. col. 4–11.
  56. "Presented and Approved". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) . 145. House of Lords. 1 May 1857. col. 12–13.
  57. "Choice of a Speaker". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) . 154. House of Commons. 31 May 1859. col. 4–10.
  58. "Choice of a Speaker". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) . 181. House of Commons. 1 February 1866. col. 4–17.
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