This is a list of stadtholders for the Low Countries provinces .
Stadtholder originally was the representative of the Burgundy and later Habsburg monarchs in the seventeen provinces. After the Northern Netherlands revolted against the Spanish crown, the function was kept to honor the nobles which represented the Dutch Republic, without allowing the nobles to become monarchs. Each province chose/elected their own Stadtholder. During the 80 years wars some areas had two stadholders: those nominated by the Habsburg monarchy and those elected by the individual provinces of the Dutch republic.
In the Low Countries, stadtholder was an office of steward, designated a medieval official and then a national leader. The stadtholder was the replacement of the duke or earl of a province during the Burgundian and Habsburg period (1384–1581/1795).
The stadtholdership of Holland and Zealand has always been combined. Since the office was instituted there in 1528, the stadtholder of Utrecht has been the same as the one of Holland, with one exception.
In 1572, William of Orange was elected as the stadtholder, although Philip II had appointed a different one.
Hugo van Lannoy, Lord of Santes, was a Flemish statesman in the service of the Dukes of Burgundy, most notably Philip III who founded the Order of the Golden Fleece.
Jean II de Lannoy or Jan van Lannoy (1410–1493), lord of Lannoy, Lys and Sébourg, was a nobleman from the County of Hainaut who played a prominent role in the politics of the Burgundian Netherlands.
Joost de Lalaing, lord of Montigny and of Santes, was a noble from Hainaut who filled several important posts in service of the Burgundian Dukes.
Count Henry III of Nassau-Dillenburg-Dietz, Lord of Breda, Lord of the Lek, of Dietz, etc. was a count of the House of Nassau.
Louis of Praet, Louis of Flanders, Lord of Praet, or locally Lodewijk van Praet was a nobleman from the Low Countries and an important diplomat and statesman under the Emperor Charles V.
Maximilien de Hénin-Liétard, Count of Boussu was a soldier and statesman from the Habsburg Netherlands. During the Eighty Years' War he was the royalist stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht from 1567 until he was made a prisoner of war during the Battle on the Zuiderzee in 1573. After being freed under the terms of the Pacification of Ghent he changed sides and became commander in chief of the forces of the States-General of the Netherlands.
Under the Dutch Republic:
Adolf van Nieuwenaar, Count of Limburg and Moers was a statesman and soldier, who was stadtholder of Overijssel, Guelders and Utrecht for the States-General of the Netherlands during the Eighty Years' War.
William II was sovereign Prince of Orange and stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands from 14 March 1647 until his death three years later. His only child, William III, reigned as King of England, Ireland, and Scotland.
First Stadtholderless Period, 1650–1672
Second Stadtholderless Period, 1702–1747
During the Stadtholderless Eras, the provinces of Holland, Zealand and Utrecht were governed by their States free from autocratic intervention. The Second Stadtholderless Era in Holland ended when the Frisian stadtholder became hereditary stadtholder for all provinces of the Dutch Republic.
Under the Dutch Republic:
Under control of the Dutch Republic :
Under control of Spain :
Under control of the Dutch Republic :
First Stadtholderless Era, 1650–1675 (this lasted longer than in Holland and Zeeland)
Second Stadtholderless Era, 1702–1722
The Lordship of Groningen under Habsburg rule
From 1584 to 1594, there were two stadtholders: one appointed by the King of Spain, whose authority was only recognized in the city of Groningen, and one on the side of the United Provinces.
Albertine Agnes of Nassau, regentess for Hendrick Casimir II, 1664–1673
Henriette Amalia von Anhalt, regentess for Johan Willem Friso, 1696–1707
Marie Louise von Hessen-Kassel, regentess for William IV, 1711–1729
Under control of Spain:
Under control of the Dutch Republic:
First Stadtholderless Period (1650 – 1675, this lasted longer than in Holland and Zeeland)
Second Stadtholderless Period (1702–1747)
The style was changed from 22 November 1747, when the office was enacted as hereditary in every province, to Stadhouder-generaal [Hereditary] 'General Stadholder'
Anne, Princess Royal, regentess for William V, 1751–1759
Marie Louise von Hessen-Kassel, regentess for William V, 1759–1765
Carolina of Orange-Nassau, regentess for William V, 1765–1766
On 16 February 1795, office of stadholder was abolished by the Staten-Generaal (now styled Algemene Staten, a Dutch purism, also translating as 'General Estates').
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The House of Orange-Nassau, a branch of the European House of Nassau, has played a central role in the politics and government of the Netherlands and Europe especially since William the Silent organized the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule, which after the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) led to an independent Dutch state.
William I, Prince of Orange, also known as William the Silent or William the Taciturn, or more commonly known as William of Orange, was the main leader of the Dutch Revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs that set off the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1581. He was born in the House of Nassau as Count of Nassau-Dillenburg. He became Prince of Orange in 1544 and is thereby the founder of the branch House of Orange-Nassau and the ancestor of the monarchy of the Netherlands. Within the Netherlands he is also known as Father of the Fatherland.
William IV was Prince of Orange-Nassau and the first hereditary stadtholder of all the United Provinces.
Frederick Henry, or Frederik Hendrik in Dutch, was the sovereign Prince of Orange and stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel from 1625 to 1647. He was the grandfather of William III of England.
George de Lalaing count Rennenberg, was stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen, Drenthe and Overijssel in the service of Philip II of Spain from 1577 to 1581. The Lalaing family came from Hainaut and had a tradition of governing. His father was Philip de Lalaing, count of Hoogstraten; his mother, Anna of Rennenberg.
William Frederick, Count of Nassau-Dietz, Stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe.
Willem IV, Count van den Bergh was Stadtholder of Guelders and Zutphen from 1581 until his arrest for suspected treason in 1583.
Charles de Brimeu, was the last count of Meghem, lord of Humbercourt, of Houdain and Éperlecques. He was grandson of Guy of Brimeu, who was beheaded in Ghent. He became the last ceremonial Hereditary Marshal of Brabant of his family: he sold this ceremonial office to Gaspard II Schetz.
Claude de Berlaymont, lord of Haultpenne was a Flemish military commander in Spain's Army of Flanders during the Eighty Years' War.
Gilles van Berlaymont was stadtholder for the Spanish Crown of Drenthe, Friesland, Groningen and Overijssel (1572-1573), stadtholder of Guelders (1572–1577), substitute stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht (1574–1577), stadtholder of Namur and Artois and baron of Hierges.
The Buren County was a territory situated in what is now the Dutch province of Gelderland. It was an independent county until the establishment of the Batavian Republic in 1795. Although it was not formally part of the United Provinces, in practice it was governed by it.
The Lordship of Frisia or Lordship of Friesland was a feudal dominion in the Netherlands. It was formed in 1524 when Emperor Charles V finally conquered Frisia.
Philip de Lalaing was 3rd Count of Lalaing and Lord of Escornaix and Wavrin.
Brimeu is a noble family, some members belonging to the Flemish aristocracy. Brimeux, previously in Flanders, is now in France.
Marie de Brimeu, was a Flemish noblewoman known for her knowledge of botany and horticulture. She inherited her titles from her uncle, Charles de Brimeu, Count of Meghem, when he died in 1572, becoming the Countess of Meghem. Her second marriage in 1580 to Charles III, Prince of Chimay, elevated her to the rank of Princess.