List of stadtholders for the Low Countries provinces

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This is a list of stadtholders for the Low Countries provinces .


Stadtholders of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht

Stadtholder originally was the representative of the Burgundy and later Habsburg monarchs in the seventeen provinces. After the Northern Netherlands revolted against the Spanish crown, the function was kept to honor the nobles which represented the Dutch Republic, without allowing the nobles to become monarchs. Each province chose/elected their own Stadtholder. During the 80 years wars some areas had two stadholders: those nominated by the Habsburg monarchy and those elected by the individual provinces of the Dutch republic.

Stadtholder title used in parts of Europe

In the Low Countries, stadtholder was an office of steward, designated a medieval official and then a national leader. The stadtholder was the replacement of the duke or earl of a province during the Burgundian and Habsburg period (1384–1581/1795).

The stadtholdership of Holland and Zealand has always been combined. Since the office was instituted there in 1528, the stadtholder of Utrecht has been the same as the one of Holland, with one exception.

In 1572, William of Orange was elected as the stadtholder, although Philip II had appointed a different one.

For Burgundy:

Hugo van Lannoy Flemish diplomat

Hugo van Lannoy, Lord of Santes, was a Flemish statesman in the service of the Dukes of Burgundy, most notably Philip III who founded the Order of the Golden Fleece.

Jean de Lannoy Flemish diplomat

Jean II de Lannoy or Jan van Lannoy (1410–1493), lord of Lannoy, Lys and Sébourg, was a nobleman from the County of Hainaut who played a prominent role in the politics of the Burgundian Netherlands.

Joost de Lalaing Dutch stadtholder

Joost de Lalaing, lord of Montigny and of Santes, was a noble from Hainaut who filled several important posts in service of the Burgundian Dukes.

For Habsburg:

Henry III of Nassau-Breda Baron of Breda

Count Henry III of Nassau-Dillenburg-Dietz, Lord of Breda, Lord of the Lek, of Dietz, etc. was a count of the House of Nassau.

Louis of Praet Belgian politician

Louis of Praet, Louis of Flanders, Lord of Praet, or locally Lodewijk van Praet was a nobleman from the Low Countries and an important diplomat and statesman under the Emperor Charles V.

Maximilien de Hénin, 3rd Count of Bossu

Maximilien de Hénin-Liétard, Count of Boussu was a soldier and statesman from the Habsburg Netherlands. During the Eighty Years' War he was the royalist stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht from 1567 until he was made a prisoner of war during the Battle on the Zuiderzee in 1573. After being freed under the terms of the Pacification of Ghent he changed sides and became commander in chief of the forces of the States-General of the Netherlands.

Under the Dutch Republic:

Adolf van Nieuwenaar count of Limburg and Moers

Adolf van Nieuwenaar, Count of Limburg and Moers was a statesman and soldier, who was stadtholder of Overijssel, Guelders and Utrecht for the States-General of the Netherlands during the Eighty Years' War.

William II, Prince of Orange Prince of Orange and Stadtholder of Holland

William II was sovereign Prince of Orange and stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands from 14 March 1647 until his death three years later. His only child, William III, reigned as King of England, Ireland, and Scotland.

First Stadtholderless Period, 1650–1672

Second Stadtholderless Period, 1702–1747

During the Stadtholderless Eras, the provinces of Holland, Zealand and Utrecht were governed by their States free from autocratic intervention. The Second Stadtholderless Era in Holland ended when the Frisian stadtholder became hereditary stadtholder for all provinces of the Dutch Republic.

Stadtholders of Friesland

For Habsburg:

Under the Dutch Republic:

Stadtholders of Guelders

Under control of the Dutch Republic  :

Under control of Spain :

Under control of the Dutch Republic  :

First Stadtholderless Era, 1650–1675 (this lasted longer than in Holland and Zeeland)

Second Stadtholderless Era, 1702–1722

Stadtholders of Upper Guelders

Stadtholders of Groningen

The Lordship of Groningen under Habsburg rule

From 1584 to 1594, there were two stadtholders: one appointed by the King of Spain, whose authority was only recognized in the city of Groningen, and one on the side of the United Provinces.

Albertine Agnes of Nassau, regentess for Hendrick Casimir II, 1664–1673

Henriette Amalia von Anhalt, regentess for Johan Willem Friso, 1696–1707

Marie Louise von Hessen-Kassel, regentess for William IV, 1711–1729

Stadtholders of Overijssel

Under control of Spain:

Under control of the Dutch Republic:

First Stadtholderless Period (1650 – 1675, this lasted longer than in Holland and Zeeland)

Second Stadtholderless Period (1702–1747)

Stadtholders of Luxembourg

Stadtholders of Hainaut

(General) Hereditary Stadtholders of the United Provinces

The style was changed from 22 November 1747, when the office was enacted as hereditary in every province, to Stadhouder-generaal [Hereditary] 'General Stadholder'

Anne, Princess Royal, regentess for William V, 1751–1759
Marie Louise von Hessen-Kassel, regentess for William V, 1759–1765
Carolina of Orange-Nassau, regentess for William V, 1765–1766

On 16 February 1795, office of stadholder was abolished by the Staten-Generaal (now styled Algemene Staten, a Dutch purism, also translating as 'General Estates').

See also

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Charles de Brimeu, was the last count of Meghem, lord of Humbercourt, of Houdain and Éperlecques. He was grandson of Guy of Brimeu, who was beheaded in Ghent. He became the last ceremonial Hereditary Marshal of Brabant of his family: he sold this ceremonial office to Gaspard II Schetz.

Claude de Berlaymont Flemish military commander

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Gilles van Berlaymont was stadtholder for the Spanish Crown of Drenthe, Friesland, Groningen and Overijssel (1572-1573), stadtholder of Guelders (1572–1577), substitute stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht (1574–1577), stadtholder of Namur and Artois and baron of Hierges.

County of Buren

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Lordship of Frisia

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Philip de Lalaing, 3rd Count of Lalaing Dutch politician

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House of Brimeu noble family

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Marie de Brimeu dutch botanist

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