Japanese colonial empire
|Currency|| Japanese yen,|
Japanese military yen,
This is a list of regions occupied or annexed by the Empire of Japan until 1945, the year of the end of World War II in Asia, after the surrender of Japan. Control over all territories except the Japanese mainland (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku, and some 6,000 small surrounding islands) was renounced by Japan in the Unconditional Surrender after World War II and the Treaty of San Francisco. A number of territories occupied by the United States after 1945 were returned to Japan, but there are still a number of disputed territories between Japan and Russia (the Kuril Islands dispute), South Korea and North Korea (the Liancourt Rocks dispute), the People's Republic of China and Taiwan (the Senkaku Islands dispute).
|Territory||Japanese name||Date||Population est.(1943)||Notes|
|South Sakhalin||Karafuto Prefecture (樺太庁) of Imperial Japan||prewar-1945||406,000|
|Mainland China||Chūgoku tairiku (中国大陸)||1931–1945||200,000,000 (est)||Manchukuo 50 million (1940), Jehol, Kwantung Leased Territory, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Shandong, Hebei, Beijing, Tianjin, plus parts of : Guangdong, Guangxi, Hubei, Hunan, Fujian, Guizhou, Inner Mongolia|
|Japan||Naichi (内地)||prewar-1945||72,000,000||Present day Japan, Kuril and Ryukyu Islands|
|Korea||Chōsen (朝鮮)||prewar-1945||25,500,000||Both North and South|
|Hong Kong||Hon Kon (香港)||December 12, 1941 – August 15, 1945||1,400,000||Hong Kong (UK)|
|:: East Asia (subtotal)||Higashi Ajia (東アジア)||–||306,792,000|
|Vietnam||Annan (安南)||July 15, 1940 – August 29, 1945||22,122,000||As French Indochina (FR)|
|Cambodia||Kanbojia (カンボジア)||July 15, 1940 – August 29, 1945||3,100,000||As French Indochina, Japanese occupation of Cambodia|
|Laos||Raosu (ラオス)||July 15, 1940 – August 29, 1945||1,400,000||As French Indochina, Japanese occupation of Laos|
|Thailand||Tai (タイ)||December 8, 1941 – August 15, 1945||16,216,000||Independent State but Allied with Japan|
|Malaysia||Maraya (マラヤ), Kita Boruneo (北ボルネオ), Marai (マライ)||March 27, 1942 – September 6, 1945 (Malaya), March 29, 1942 – September 9, 1945 (Sarawak, Brunei, Labuan, North Borneo)||4,938,000 plus 39,000 (Brunei)||As Malaya (UK), British Borneo (UK), Brunei (UK)|
|Philippines||Firipin (フィリピン)||May 8, 1942 – July 5, 1945||17,419,000||Philippines (US)|
|Dutch East Indies||Higashi Indo (東印度）||January 18, 1942 – October 21, 1945||72,146,000||Dutch East Indies (NL)|
|Singapore||Syōnan-tō (昭南島)||February 15, 1942 – September 9, 1945||795,000||Singapore (UK)|
|Myanmar||Biruma (ビルマ)||1942–1945||16,800,000||Burma (UK)|
|East Timor||Higashi Chimōru (東チモール）||February 19, 1942 – September 2, 1945||450,000||Portuguese Timor (PT)|
|:: Southeast Asia (subtotal)||Tōnan Ajia (東南アジア)||–||155,452,000|
|New Guinea||Nyū Ginia (ニューギニア)||December 27, 1941 – September 15, 1945||1,400,000||As Papua and New Guinea (AU)|
|Guam||Ōmiya-tō (大宮島)||January 6, 1942 – October 24, 1945||from Guam (US)|
|South Seas Mandate||Nan'yō Guntō (南洋群島)||1919–1945||129,000||from German Empire|
|Nauru||Nauru (ナウル)||August 26, 1942 – September 13, 1945||3,000||from United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand|
|Wake Island, US||Ōtori-shima, -jima (大鳥島)||December 27, 1941 – September 4, 1945||nil||US|
|Kiribati||Kiribasu (キリバス)||December 1941 – January 22, 1944||28,000||from Gilbert Islands (UK)|
|:: Pacific Islands (subtotal)||–||–||1,433,000|
|:: Total Population||–||–||463,677,000|
Disclaimer: Not all areas were considered part of Imperial Japan but rather part of puppet states & sphere of influence, allies, included separately for demographic purposes. Sources: POPULSTAT AsiaOceania
Other occupied World War 2 islands:
The Sea of Okhotsk is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean. It is located between Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula on the east, the Kuril Islands on the southeast, Japan's island of Hokkaido on the south, the island of Sakhalin along the west, and a stretch of eastern Siberian coast along the west and north. The northeast corner is the Shelikhov Gulf. The sea is named after Okhotsk, the first Russian settlement in the Far East.
The Empire of Japan was a historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 until the enactment of the post-World War II 1947 constitution and subsequent formation of modern Japan. It encompassed the Japanese archipelago and several colonies, protectorates, mandates, and other territories.
The Kuril Islands or Kurile Islands is a Russian-controlled volcanic archipelago part of the country's far eastern Sakhalin Oblast. It stretches approximately 1,300 km (810 mi) northeast from Hokkaido of Japan to Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the north Pacific Ocean. There are 56 islands and many minor rocks. The Kuril Islands consist of the Greater Kuril Chain and the Lesser Kuril Chain. They cover an area of around 10,503.2 square kilometres (4,055.3 sq mi), with a population of roughly 20,000.
The Treaty of San Francisco, also called the Treaty of Peace with Japan, re-established peaceful relations between Japan and the Allied Powers on behalf of the United Nations by ending the legal state of war and providing for redress for hostile actions up to and including World War II. It was signed by 49 nations on 8 September 1951, in San Francisco, California, U.S. at the War Memorial Opera House, with three member states refusing to sign: The Soviet Union, Poland and Czechoslovakia, all part of the Soviet Bloc, and a further two states refused to send representatives: India and Yugoslavia. Italy and China were not invited, the latter due to disagreements on whether the Republic of China or the People's Republic of China represented the Chinese people. Korea was also not invited due to a similar disagreement on whether South Korea or North Korea represented the Korean people.
The Kuril Islands dispute, also known in Japan as the Northern Territories dispute, is a disagreement between Japan and Russia and also some individuals of the Ainu people over sovereignty of the four southernmost Kuril Islands. The Kuril Islands is a chain of islands that stretch between the Japanese island of Hokkaido at the southern end and the Russian Kamchatka Peninsula at the northern end. The islands separate the Sea of Okhotsk from the Pacific Ocean. The four disputed islands, like other islands in the Kuril chain that are not in dispute, were annexed by the Soviet Union following the Kuril Islands landing operation at the end of World War II. The disputed islands are under Russian administration as the South Kuril District of the Sakhalin Oblast. They are claimed by Japan, which refers to them as its Northern Territories or Southern Chishima, and considers them part of the Nemuro Subprefecture of Hokkaido Prefecture.
Kushiro is a city in Kushiro Subprefecture on the island of Hokkaido, Japan. It serves as the subprefecture's capital and it is the most populated city in the eastern part of the island.
A subregion is a part of a larger region or continent and is usually based on location. Cardinal directions, such as south or southern, are commonly used to define a subregion.
Karafuto Prefecture, commonly known as South Sakhalin, was a prefecture of Japan located in Sakhalin from 1907 to 1949.
The South Seas Mandate, officially the Mandate for the German Possessions in the Pacific Ocean lying North of the Equator, was a League of Nations mandate in the "South Seas" given to the Empire of Japan by the League of Nations following World War I. The mandate consisted of islands in the north Pacific Ocean that had been part of German New Guinea within the German colonial empire until they were occupied by Japan during World War I. Japan governed the islands under the mandate as part of the Japanese colonial empire until World War II, when the United States captured the islands. The islands then became the United Nations-established Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands governed by the United States. The islands are now part of Palau, Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, and Marshall Islands.
Japan–Russia relations or Japanese–Russian relations refers to the bilateral international relations between Japan and the Russian Federation. Relations between Russia and Japan are the continuation of the relationship of Japan with the Soviet Union from 1917 to 1991, and with the Russian Empire from 1855 to 1917. Historically, the two countries had cordial relations until a clash of territorial ambitions in the Manchuria region of northeastern China led to the Russo–Japanese War in 1904, ending in a Japanese victory which contributed to the weakening of the monarchy in Russia. Japan would later intervene in the Russian Civil War from 1918 until 1922, sending troops to the Russian Far East and Siberia. That was followed by border conflicts between the new Soviet Union and the Empire of Japan throughout the 1930s. The two countries signed a nonaggression pact in 1941, although the Soviet government declared war on Japan anyway in August 1945, invading the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo as well as seizing the Kuril chain of islands just north of Japan. The two countries ended their formal state of war with the Soviet–Japanese Joint Declaration of 1956, but as of December 2020 have not resolved this territorial dispute over ownership of the Kurils.
A colonial empire is a collective of territories, either contiguous with the imperial center or located overseas, settled by the population of a certain state and governed by that state. Example:- Mughal Empire, British Empire.
Shumshu is the second-northernmost island of the Kuril Islands chain, which divides the Sea of Okhotsk from the northwest Pacific Ocean. The name of the island is derived from the Ainu language, meaning "good island". It is separated from Paramushir by the very narrow Second Kuril Strait in the northeast 2.5 kilometres (1.6 mi), and its northern tip is 11 kilometres (6.8 mi), from Cape Lopatka at the southern tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula. The island has a seasonal population of around 100 inhabitants.
Relations between the Empire of Japan and the Russian Empire (1855–1917) were minimal until 1855, mostly friendly from 1855 to the early 1890s, but then turned hostile, largely over the status of Manchuria and of Korea. The two empires established diplomatic and commercial relations from 1855 onwards. The Russian Empire officially ended in 1917, and was succeeded by Communist rule formalized in 1922 with the formation of the Soviet Union.
The Japanese colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies established by Imperial Japan in the Western Pacific and East Asia region from 1895. Victories over China and Russia expanded the Japanese sphere of influence, notably in Taiwan and Korea, and southern Sakhalin became a colony of Japan as the Karafuto Prefecture in 1905. At its apex, the Japanese colonial empire was one of the largest empires in history. Including the home islands, the total amount of land under Japanese sovereignty reached 8,510,000 km2 (3,300,000 sq mi) in 1942. By 1943, it accounted for more than 20% of the world's population at the time with 463 million people in its occupied regions and territories.
Japan is currently engaged in several territorial disputes with nearby countries, including Russia, South Korea, North Korea, the People's Republic of China, and the Republic of China.
The Japan–Russia border is the de facto maritime boundary that separates the territorial waters of the two countries. According to the Russia border agency, the border's length is 194.3 km (120.7 mi).
Before Pearl Harbor the Japanese had already begun imperial expansion in Manchuria, (1931) Inner Mongolia, (1936) Jehol, (1933) China, (1937) and in other territories and islands during World War 1. The Empire of Japan entered World War II on 27th, September, 1940 by signing the Tripartite Pact with Germany and Italy, and the Japanese invasion of French Indochina, though it wasn't until the attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941 that the U.S. entered the conflict. Over the course of seven hours there were coordinated Japanese attacks on the U.S. -held Philippines, Guam and Wake Island, the Dutch Empire in the Dutch East Indies, Thailand and on the British Empire in Borneo, Malaya and Hong Kong. The strategic goals of the offensive were to cripple the U.S. Pacific fleet, capture oil fields in the Dutch East Indies, and maintain their sphere of influence of China, East Asia, and also Korea. It was also to expand the outer reaches of the Japanese Empire to create a formidable defensive perimeter around newly acquired territory.
During the Soviet-Japanese War in August 1945, the Soviet Union made plans to invade Hokkaido, the northernmost of Japan's four main Home Islands. Opposition from the United States and doubts within the Soviet high command caused the plans to be canceled before the invasion could begin.