This article is a list of universities in China, which is defined as the People's Republic of China (PRC) in mainland China and Hong Kong and Macau SARs.
By May 2017, there were 2,914 colleges and universities, with over 20 million students enrolled in mainland China.and 156 colleges in the ROC free area. More than 6 million Chinese students graduated from university in 2008. The "Project 211" for creating 100 universities began in the mid-1990s, and has merged more than 700 institutions of higher learning into about 300 universities. Corresponding with the merging of many public universities, has been the rapid expansion of the private sector in mainland China since 1999. Although private university enrollments are not clear, one report listed that in 2006 private universities accounted for around 6 percent, or about 1.3 million, of the 20 million students enrolled in formal higher education in China. The quality of universities and higher education in China is internationally recognized as China has established educational cooperation and exchanges with 188 countries and regions and 46 major international organizations, and signed agreements with 54 countries such as the US, British, Australia and Germany on mutual recognition of higher education qualifications and academic degrees.
The country had the world's second-highest number of top universities, after the United States in the Academic Ranking of World Universities and the US News & World Report Best Global University Ranking.In 2017, China surpassed the U.S. with the highest number of scientific publications. In the 2020 CWTS Leiden Ranking edition, China surpassed the U.S. with the number of universities including in the ranking for the first time (204 vs.198). The University Ranking by Academic Performance 2019-2020 includes 2500 universities in the rankings: China tops the list, with 389, followed by the US with 352. China is also home to the two best Asian universities with Tsinghua and Peking Universities, ranked at 20th and 23rd respectively in the world, according to the latest Times Higher Education World University Rankings. China has dominated the QS BRICS University Rankings and the THE's Emerging Economies University Rankings, claiming seven of the top 10 spots for both rankings. China is also the most-represented nation overall.
The following notation is used:
The default list should follow the neutral order provided by MOE, namely the numerical order of identification codes.
Peking University is the first formally established modern national university of China. It was founded as Imperial University of Peking (京師大學堂) in 1898 in Beijing as a replacement of the ancient Guozijian , the national central institute of learning in China's traditional educational system in the past thousands of years. Three years earlier, Sheng Xuanhuai submitted a memorial to Guangxu Emperor to request for approval to set up a modern higher education institution in Tianjin. After approval on 2 October 1895, Peiyang Western Study School (天津北洋西學學堂) was founded by him and American educator Charles Daniel Tenney (丁家立) and later developed to Peiyang University (北洋大學堂). In 1896, Sheng Xuanhuai delivered his new memorials to Guangxu Emperor to make a suggestion that two official modern higher education institutions should be established in Beijing/Tangshan and Shanghai. In the same year, he founded Nanyang Public School (南洋公學) in Shanghai by an imperial edict issued by Guangxu Emperor. The institution initially included an elementary school, secondary school, college, and a normal school. Later the institution changed its name to Jiao Tong University (also known as Chiao Tung University). In the 1930s, the university often referred itself as "MIT in the East" due to its reputation of nurturing top engineers and scientists. In the 1950s, part of this university was moved to Xi'an, Shaanxi, and was established as Xi'an Jiaotong University; the part of the university remaining in Shanghai was renamed Shanghai Jiao Tong University. These two universities have developed independently since then, along with the original Beijing Jiaotong University.
Meanwhile, Wuhan University also claimed that its predecessor Ziqiang Institute (自強學堂) was the first modern higher education institution in China. On 29 November 1893, Zhang Zhidong submitted his memorial to Guangxu Emperor to request for approval to set up an institution designed for training students specializing in foreign languages, mathematics, science, and business. After Ziqiang was founded in Wuchang, not only courses in foreign languages was taught, courses in science (chemical and mining courses starting from 1896) and business (business course starting from the very beginning) were also developed at the school. Later, although the school officially changed its name to Foreign Languages Institute (方言學堂) in 1902, the school still offered courses in science and business. In China, there had been some earlier schools specializing in foreign languages learning, such as Schools of Combined Learning in Beijing (京師同文館, founded in 1862 ), in Shanghai (上海同文館/上海廣方言館, founded in 1863), and in Guangzhou (廣州同文館), founded in 1864, but few provided courses in other fields, which hardly qualified as modern education institutions. Some argued that Wuhan University can only trace its history back to 1913 when the National Wuchang Higher Normal College (國立武昌高等師範學校) was established, but Wuhan University officially recognized its establishment as in 1893, relying on the abundance of historical documentation and the experts' endorsement.
Besides, Tianjin University celebrated its 100th anniversary in 1995, which would predate the establishment of Peking University. Jiao Tong University (in all Beijing Jiaotong University, Shanghai and Xi'an) followed in 1996. Other leading universities, such as Zhejiang University (1897), Peking University (1898), Shanxi University (1902), Nanjing University (1902), Hunan University (1903), Fudan University (1905), Tongji University (1907) and Tsinghua University (1911) also recently celebrated their hundredth anniversaries, one after another.
After the Chinese Civil War, parts of some famous universities of mainland China were transferred to the island of Taiwan: notably the National Central University and National Tsing Hua University. As a result, some universities on both sides of the Taiwan Strait share the same names. In the ROC-controlled Fujian, only one university, National Quemoy University was founded in 1997.
The C9 League is an alliance of nine most prestigious universities in mainland China, including Fudan University, Harbin Institute of Technology, Nanjing University, Peking University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Tsinghua University, University of Science and Technology of China, Xi'an Jiaotong University, and Zhejiang University. People's Daily, an official newspaper of the Chinese Communist Party, and others refer to the C9 League as China's Ivy League.These nine universities made up the C9 League in 2009. According to the latest rankings in the Academic Ranking of World Universities, six of the C9 members are ranked in the top 100 universities in the world and all the C9 members are ranked in the world's top 150 universities.
The Academic Ranking of World Universities 2019/20, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2020/21, and the U.S. News & World Report Best Global University Ranking 2019/20 ranked most of the 39 universities in the Project 985 among the top 500 universities in the world and most of the 116 universities in the Project 211 are ranked among the top 1000 universities worldwide.
|Beijing (8)||Beijing (8)||Peking University|
|Renmin University of China|
|Beijing Normal University|
|Beihang University (formerly known as Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics)|
|Beijing Institute of Technology|
|China Agricultural University|
|Minzu University of China (formerly known as the Central University for Nationalities)|
|Tianjin (2)||Tianjin (2)||Nankai University|
|Heilongjiang||Harbin||Harbin Institute of Technology|
|Liaoning (2）||Dalian||Dalian University of Technology|
|Anhui||Hefei||University of Science and Technology of China|
|Jiangsu (2)||Nanjing (2)||Nanjing University|
|Shandong (2)||Jinan||Shandong University|
|Qingdao||Ocean University of China|
|Shanghai (4)||Shanghai (4)||Fudan University|
|Shanghai Jiao Tong University|
|East China Normal University|
|South Central (7)|
|Guangdong (2)||Guangzhou (2)||Sun Yat-sen University|
|South China University of Technology|
|Hubei (2)||Wuhan (2)||Wuhan University|
|Huazhong University of Science and Technology|
|Hunan (3)||Changsha (3)||Hunan University|
|Central South University|
|National University of Defense Technology|
|Shaanxi (3)||Xi'an (2)||Northwestern Polytechnical University|
|Xi'an Jiaotong University|
|Xianyang||Northwest A&F University|
|Sichuan (2)||Chengdu (2)||Sichuan University|
|University of Electronic Science and Technology of China|
|Beijing (26)||Beijing (26)|
|Shanghai (10)||Shanghai (10)|
|Tianjin (3)||Tianjin (3)|
|Chongqing (2)||Chongqing (2)|
|Anhui (3)||Hefei (3)|
|Guangdong (4)||Guangzhou (4)|
|Heilongjiang (4)||Harbin (4)|
|Hubei (7)||Wuhan (7)|
|Hunan (4)||Changsha (4)|
|Liaoning (4)||Shenyang (2)|
|Shaanxi (9)||Xi'an (7)|
|Shandong (3)||Qingdao (2)|
China has a number of Sino-foreign cooperative universities, which are legally independent entities formed as joint ventures between Chinese universities and international partners. They include:
|Hong Kong (6)||The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, The University of Hong Kong, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, City University of Hong Kong, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong Baptist University|
|Macau (1)||University of Macau|
Some established rankings in Wikipedia:
Other rankings in external links:
Peking University, is a major research university in Beijing, China, and a member of the elite C9 League of Chinese universities. It is perennially ranked as one of the top academic institutions in China, Asia, and worldwide.
Tsinghua University is a major research university in Beijing, and a member of the C9 League of Chinese universities. Since its establishment in 1911, it has graduated Chinese leaders in science, engineering, politics, business, academia, and culture. The university is consistently ranked within the top 20 universities in the world in several most cited global university rankings and is considered to be the best university in the Asia by THEAsia and the US News and Emerging countries by the QS BRICS and the THE Emerging.
National Taiwan University is a national university in Taipei City, Taiwan. NTU is the most prestigious comprehensive university in Taiwan and one of the top-ranked universities in Asia. It consists of 11 colleges, 56 departments, 112 graduate institutes, four research centers and a school of professional education and continuing studies.
National Tsing Hua University is a research university in Hsinchu City, Taiwan.
East China Normal University (ECNU) is a comprehensive public research university in Shanghai. It was formed in 1951 by the merger of the Great China University founded in 1924 and Kwang Hua University which had its ultimate origins in the St. John's College established in the city in 1879. Its original role was to train teachers for secondary and higher education, as suggested in the name "Normal", but very soon housed top-class researchers and evolved into an elite research-intensive university.
Jiaotong University, Jiao Tong University or Chiao Tung University may refer to:
Renmin University of China, often referred to as RUC, or colloquially Renda, is a research university located in Haidian District of Beijing. RUC is classified as a Class A university under the Double First Class University Plan and is generally considered one of the premier universities in the country. It is also funded by Project 985 and by Project 211. RUC is entitled 25 national key disciplines, ranks No.5 of China, 13 national key research bases of humanities and social sciences, ranks No.1 of China, and 6 national teaching and research bases of fundamental arts disciplines, ranks No.1 of China. RUC is often ranked among the top 100-200 band globally in "arts and humanities'' and "social sciences" subjects according to the most cited world university rankings.
Xi'an Jiaotong University is a C9 League university with strengths in engineering, technology, management, and life sciences located in Xi'an, Shaanxi, China. It is a Chinese Ministry of Education Class A Double First Class University. XJTU's twenty schools comprise a comprehensive research university offering programs in nine areas: science, engineering, medicine, economics, management, art, law, philosophy and education.
Beijing Normal University, colloquially known as Beishida (北师大), is a public research university located in Beijing, China, with a strong emphasis on basic disciplines of the humanities and sciences. It is one of the oldest and most prestigious universities in China, and was recognized by the Chinese Ministry of Education as a Class A Double First Class University. BNU is often ranked no.1 among Chinese universities in Education according to the most recent QS World University Rankings by Subjects and Academic Ranking of World Universities by Subjects.
Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU), also known as Shanghai Ranking, is one of the annual publications of world university rankings. The league table was originally compiled and issued by Shanghai Jiao Tong University in 2003, making it the first global university ranking with multifarious indicators.
The University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (UCAS) is a public university for graduate education, under the direct leadership of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The predecessors of UCAS are the Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (GUCAS) and the Graduate School of the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), which was founded in 1978 as the first graduate school in China by approval of the State Council.
Higher education in China is the largest in the world. By May 2017, there were 2,914 colleges and universities, with over 20 million students enrolled in mainland China. The system includes Bachelors, Masters and Doctoral degrees, as well as non-degree programs, and is also open to foreign students.
The Chinese university ranking is a ranking of universities in Mainland China compiled by Wu Shulian. He has been studying "Chinese University Ranking" since 1991 and leader of "Chinese University Ranking Research Group".
The C9 League is an official alliance of nine universities in mainland China, initiated by the Chinese Central Government through Project 985 to promote the development and reputation of higher education in China. Collectively, universities in the C9 League account for 3% of the country's researchers, but receive 10% of national research expenditures. They produce 20% of the nation's academic publications and 30% of total citations. People's Daily, an official newspaper of the Chinese Communist Party, refers to the C9 League as China's Ivy League.
The Chinese university ranking is a ranking of universities in mainland China by Netbig, an internet company focused on higher education, founded by Jiang Jining, who graduated from University of Science and Technology of China. The ranking is conducted annually since 1999, and is generally released in July, around the time of college entrance examination. This ranking, however, has ceased to publish newer versions since 2013.
Nanjing University, known as Nanda, is a major public university, the oldest institution of higher learning in Nanjing, Jiangsu, and a member of the elite C9 League of Chinese universities.
Shanghai Jiao Tong University is a major research university in Shanghai. Established on April 8, 1896, as Nanyang Public School by an imperial edict issued by the Guangxu Emperor, it is one China's oldest universities. Shanghai Jiao Tong University is a C9 League university and a Chinese Ministry of Education Class A Double First Class University.
The China University of Petroleum is a university in China. It consists of China University of Petroleum (Beijing), and China University of Petroleum (Huadong). Both are regarded as the best universities in the field of petroleum related subjects in China according to the QS World University Rankings by Subjects in "Petroleum Engineering" subjects. It is placed under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education. It is a Chinese Ministry of Education Double First Class Discipline University, with Double First Class status in certain disciplines.
Program of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities, Plan 111, also be referred to as Project 111 or 111 Project is a project initiated in 2006 by the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China and State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs to establish innovation centers. The MoE has announced the creation of 100 innovation centers for the plan. The plan will establish innovation centers and gather groups of first-class minds from around the world. It will bring in about 1,000 overseas talents from the top 100 universities and research institutes worldwide. According to the Academic Ranking of World Universities 2018/19 and the Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2019/20, most of the universities in Plan 111 are considered as among the top 1000 universities in the world with most of the C9 League universities in the top 200 worldwide.
The World First Class University and First Class Academic Discipline Construction, combined together and known as Double First Class, is a tertiary education development initiative designed by the People's Republic of China government, in 2015, which aimed to comprehensively developing elite Chinese universities and their individual faculty departments into world-class institutions by the end of 2050.