List of universities in China

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Map showing locations of major universities in China Double first class universities.png
Map showing locations of major universities in China

This article is a non-comprehensive list of universities in China, which is defined as the People's Republic of China (PRC) in mainland China and Hong Kong and Macau SARs.

Contents

By September 2021, there were 3,012 colleges and universities, with over 40 million students enrolled in mainland China, and 156 colleges in the ROC free area. [1] [2] [3] More than 40 million Chinese students graduated from university from 2016-2020. [4] Corresponding with the merging of many public universities, has been the rapid expansion of the private sector in mainland China since 1990s. Although private university enrollments are not clear, one report listed that in 2006 private universities accounted for approximately 6%, or about 1.3 million, of the 20 million students enrolled in formal higher education in China. [5] The quality of universities and higher education in China is internationally recognized as China has established educational cooperation and exchanges with 188 countries and regions and 46 major international organizations, and signed agreements with 54 countries such as the US, British, Australia and Germany on mutual recognition of higher education qualifications and academic degrees. [6]

The country had the world's second-highest number of top universities. [7] [8] In 2017, China surpassed the U.S. with the highest number of scientific publications. [9] [10] China has the largest number of universities (204) including in the 2020 CWTS Leiden Ranking edition. [11] Regardless of a variety of rankings about universities in China, the Ministry of Education of China does not advocate or recognize any ranking conducted by a third party. [12] [13]

In 2015, a tertiary education development initiative (Double First Class University Plan) designed by the People's Republic of China government was launched, which aims to comprehensively develop elite Chinese universities into world first class institutions by improving their faculty departments to world-class level by the end of 2050. The full list of the sponsored universities was published in September 2017, which includes 140 Double First Class Universities. [14]

In February 2022, with the approval of the State Council of China, the list of "Double First-Class Universities" was updated and announced. According to the Phase 2 List of the Double First-Class University Plan, 147 universities were included in the plan after seven universities were added to the list in February 2022, representing the top 5% of the total 3,012 universities and colleges in China. [15]

Municipalities

Provinces

Autonomous regions

Special administrative regions

Leading and time-honored universities in China

Peking University first formally established modern national university of China. It was founded as Imperial University of Peking (京師大學堂) in 1898 in Beijing as a replacement of the ancient Guozijian , the national central institute of learning in China's traditional educational system in the past thousands of years. Three years earlier, Sheng Xuanhuai submitted a memorial to Guangxu Emperor to request for approval to set up a modern higher education institution in Tianjin. After approval on 2 October 1895, Peiyang Western Study School (天津北洋西學學堂) was founded by him and American educator Charles Daniel Tenney (丁家立) and later developed to Peiyang University (北洋大學堂). In 1896, Sheng Xuanhuai delivered his new memorials to Guangxu Emperor to make a suggestion that two official modern higher education institutions should be established in Beijing/Tangshan and Shanghai. In the same year, he founded Nanyang Public School (南洋公學) in Shanghai by an imperial edict issued by Guangxu Emperor. The institution initially included an elementary school, secondary school, college, and a normal school. Later the institution changed its name to Jiao Tong University (also known as Chiao Tung University). In the 1930s, the university often referred itself as "MIT in the East" [16] [17] due to its reputation of nurturing top engineers and scientists. In the 1950s, part of this university was moved to Xi'an, Shaanxi, and was established as Xi'an Jiaotong University; the part of the university remaining in Shanghai was renamed Shanghai Jiao Tong University. These two universities have developed independently since then, along with the original Beijing Jiaotong University.

Meanwhile, Wuhan University also claimed that its predecessor Ziqiang Institute (自強學堂) was the first modern higher education institution in China. On 29 November 1893, Zhang Zhidong submitted his memorial to Guangxu Emperor to request for approval to set up an institution designed for training students specializing in foreign languages, mathematics, science, and business. After Ziqiang was founded in Wuchang, not only courses in foreign languages was taught, courses in science (chemical and mining courses starting from 1896) and business (business course starting from the very beginning) were also developed at the school. [18] Later, although the school officially changed its name to Foreign Languages Institute (方言學堂) in 1902, the school still offered courses in science and business. [18] In China, there had been some earlier schools specializing in foreign languages learning, such as Schools of Combined Learning in Beijing (京師同文館, founded in 1862 [remark 1] ), in Shanghai (上海同文館/上海廣方言館, founded in 1863), and in Guangzhou (廣州同文館), founded in 1864, but few provided courses in other fields, which hardly qualified as modern education institutions. Some argued that Wuhan University can only trace its history back to 1913 when the National Wuchang Higher Normal College (國立武昌高等師範學校) was established, but Wuhan University officially recognized its establishment as in 1893, relying on the abundance of historical documentation and the experts' endorsement. [19]

Tianjin University celebrated its 100th anniversary in 1995, which would predate the establishment of Peking University. Jiao Tong University (in all Beijing Jiaotong University, Shanghai and Xi'an) followed in 1996. Other leading universities, such as Zhejiang University (1897), Peking University (1898), Shanxi University (1902), Nanjing University (1902), Hunan University (1903), Fudan University (1905), Tongji University (1907) and Tsinghua University (1911) also recently celebrated their hundredth anniversaries, one after another.

After the Chinese Civil War, parts of some famous universities of mainland China were transferred to the island of Taiwan: notably the National Central University and National Tsing Hua University. As a result, some universities on both sides of the Taiwan Strait share the same names. In the ROC-controlled Fujian, only one university, National Quemoy University was founded in 1997.

Remark:

  1. In 1902, School of Combined Learning in Beijing was merged with Imperial Capital University, now Peking University. However, Peking University never claims 1862 as its year founded. Neither does Peking University claim the year of establishing the Guozijian, which can date back more than one thousand years. Hunan University, with a similar history with Peking, often traced its history back to a school established in 976 A.D, thus giving this university a thousand years of history. See "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 March 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link).

Universities in People's Republic of China

Double First Class University Plan

In October 2015, the State Council of the People's Republic of China published the 'Overall Plan for Promoting the Construction of World First Class Universities and First Class Disciplines' (Overall Plan for Double First Class University Plan), aiming to comprehensively develop elite Chinese universities into world-class institutions through building and strengthening their disciplines and faculties, and eventually developing the universities included in this plan into 'world-first-class' universities by 2050. The Double First Class University Plan makes new arrangements for the development of higher education in China, and represents a whole new way of ranking universities in China, integrating previous projects such as 'Project 211', 'Project 985' or 'Project Characteristic Key Disciplines'. [20]

In September 2017, the full list of the Double First Class University Plan universities and disciplines was published by the Ministry of Education of China, the Ministry of Finance of China and the National Development and Reform Commission of China. 140 elite Chinese universities are included in the Double First Class University Plan. [21] In February 2022, with the approval of the State Council of China, the updated list of "Double First Class Universities" was released by the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Finance, and the National Development and Reform Commission. Apart from the 140 remained universities, 7 universities have been newly added into the Double First Class University Plan, and the previous university classifications within the plan have been abolished. [22] The 147 Double First Class universities account for roughly 4.88% of the total 3,012 universities and colleges in China, representing the most elite part of Chinese higher education institutions.

Province/MunicipalityCityUniversity
Beijing (34) Beijing (34)
Jiangsu (16) Xuzhou
Wuxi
Suzhou
Nanjing (13)
Shanghai (15) Shanghai (15)
Guangdong (8) Guangzhou (7)
Shenzhen
Shaanxi (8) Xi'an (7)
Xianyang
Sichuan (8) Chengdu (7)
Ya'an
Hubei (7) Wuhan (7)
Tianjin (6) Tianjin (6)
Hunan (5) Changsha (4)
Xiangtan
Heilongjiang (4) Harbin (4)
Liaoning (4) Shenyang (2)
Dalian (2)
Anhui (3) Hefei (3)
Jilin (3) Changchun (2)
Yanji
Shandong (3) Qingdao (2)
Jinan
Zhejiang (3) Hangzhou (2)
Ningbo
Chongqing (2) Chongqing (2)
Fujian (2) Xiamen
Fuzhou
Henan (2) Kaifeng
Zhengzhou
Shanxi (2) Taiyuan
Xinjiang (2) Shihezi
Ürümqi
Guizhou Guiyang
Gansu Lanzhou
Hainan Haikou
Jiangxi Nanchang
Qinghai Xining
Yunnan Kunming
Zhejiang Hangzhou
Guangxi Nanning
Inner Mongolia Hohhot
Ningxia Yinchuan
Tibet Lhasa

* represent the newly added universities in the Phase 2 list of Double First Class University Plan.

Sino-foreign cooperative universities

China has a number of Sino-foreign cooperative universities, which are legally independent entities formed as joint ventures between Chinese universities and international partners. It includes:

Leading universities in Hong Kong and Macau

Hong Kong (6) The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, The University of Hong Kong, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, City University of Hong Kong, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong Baptist University
Macau (1) University of Macau

Rankings

Regardless of a variety of rankings about universities in China, the Ministry of Education of China does not advocate or recognize any ranking conducted by any third party. [13] [23]

Other international rankings in external links:

See also

Related Research Articles

Beijing Jiaotong University Chinese public university

Beijing Jiaotong University, formerly Northern Jiaotong University, is one of the oldest public universities in mainland China. The main campus is located in the Haidian District in central Beijing. Its coordinates are 116.348 degrees east and 39.959 degrees north. The university's name is often abbreviated by locals to BeiJiaoDa (北交大). JiaoDa is a participant in the Ministry of Education's Project 211, classifying it as a top Chinese university. It is a Chinese state Double First Class University Plan university identified by the Ministry of Education. Beijing Jiaotong university is a prominent research university in the field of Transportation Science and Technology. According to the 2018 Shanghai subject ranking for Transportation Science and Technology, BJTU has achieved first place.

Donghua University

Donghua University is a public research university in Shanghai, China. "Donghua" literally means East China. Established in 1951, it is directly administered by the Ministry of Education of China as part of the Double First Class University Plan and former Project 211 for National Key Universities. It is best known for its research and education in engineering, management, design and materials science disciplines.

Shanghai International Studies University

The Shanghai International Studies University is a Chinese university specialising in languages, literary studies, comparative culture and diplomatic studies. It is one of the top eight foreign studies universities in China, and is a Chinese state Double First Class University identified by the Ministry of Education.

Second Military Medical University

The People's Liberation Army Naval Medical University (中国人民解放军海军军医大学), also known as the PLA Second Military Medical University (SMMU) (中国人民解放军第二军医大学), is a public university in Shanghai, China. It was founded in September 1949 and named in July 1951. It is a national key university supported by the state Project 211. It is a Chinese state Double First Class University, included in the national Double First Class University Plan. As of 2021, the Second Military Medical University is ranked between top 701-800 among world universities according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities.

Project 211 Former Chinese university education plan

Project 211 was a former project of high-level comprehensive universities and colleges initiated in 1995 by the Ministry of Education of China, with the intent of raising the research standards of high-level universities and cultivating strategies for socio-economic development. During the first phase of the project, from 1996 to 2000, approximately US$2 billion was distributed. The name for the project comes from an abbreviation of the slogan "面向21世纪,办好100所高校 ". One hundred was the approximate number of participating universities.

National Key Universities previously referred to universities recognized as prestigious and which received a high level of support from the central government of the People's Republic of China. The term is no longer in official use by 1990s as these schools have been coordinated into Project 211 or Project 985. However, it remains part of the vernacular, as evidenced by numerous Chinese media articles which still refer to "National Key Universities".

Project 985 Chinese higher education project of Jiang Zemin

Project 985 was a project that was first announced by General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party Jiang Zemin at the 100th anniversary of Peking University on May 4, 1998, to promote the development and reputation of the Chinese higher education system by founding world-class universities in the 21st century. The name derives from the date of the announcement, May 1998, or 98/5 according to the Chinese date format. The project involves both national and local governments allocating large amounts of funding to certain universities in order to build new research centers, improve facilities, hold international conferences, attract world-renowned faculty and visiting scholars, and help Chinese faculty attend conferences abroad.

Nanjing Agricultural University

Nanjing Agricultural University is a public research university located in Nanjing, Jiangsu province, China. It is funded by the Ministry of Education of China as part of the nation's Double First Class University Plan and former Project 211 for leading national universities. It is also a designated Chinese state Double First Class University identified by the Ministry of Education.

Huazhong Agricultural University

Huazhong Agricultural University is a multi-disciplinary comprehensive university in Wuhan, giving priority to agriculture, characterized by life sciences and supplemented by the combination of agriculture, basic sciences, engineering, liberal arts, law, economic trade, and management. HAU, one of the first groups of universities in China which are authorized to confer Ph.D. and M.A. degrees, has produced the new China's first doctor majoring in agronomy. Firmly adhering to the two central tasks like teaching and scientific research, HAU maintains its management by levels and flexible forms. As far as education quality and academic level, HAU ranks first among the agricultural universities in China. In addition, it has been converted into a nationally important base for training senior special agricultural personnel and developing agricultural science and technology. It is a Chinese state Double First Class University Plan university, identified by the Ministry of Education.

China University of Mining and Technology

The China University of Mining and Technology (CUMT), colloquially 矿大, is a national key university under the direct supervision of the Ministry of Education of China, and a Double First Class University Plan, former Project 211 and Project 985 platform university of China. It is a Chinese state Double First Class University. The university is ranked as the best mining university in China and has a worldwide reputation in coal mining technology and research.

China Conservatory of Music

The China Conservatory of Music is a prominent Chinese music conservatory. It was established in 1964 and is currently based in Chaoyang District, Beijing, just outside the city's northern 4th Ring Road.

Higher education in China is the largest in the world. By September 2021, there were 3,012 colleges and universities, with over 40 million students enrolled in mainland China. The system includes Bachelors, Masters and Doctoral degrees, as well as non-degree programs, and is also open to foreign students.

Zhongnan University of Economics and Law

Zhongnan University of Economics and Law is a Double First Class University located in Wuhan, China. Zhongnan, literally means "central south", indicates a geographical region in China. Directly administratered by the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, it is renowned as a leading institution of China in economics, finance, statistics, management, and law.

Ningbo University University in Ningbo, China

Ningbo University is located in Jiangbei District, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China. It is a provincially governed key university in Zhejiang Province. It is a Chinese state Double First Class University Plan university, identified by the Ministry of Education.

The Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications is a public university located in Nanjing, China. It is jointly developed by the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the State Post Bureau, and the Jiangsu Provincial Government under the Double First Class University Plan.

Nanjing Forestry University

Nanjing Forestry University(NFU or NJFU, simplified Chinese: 南京林业大学; traditional Chinese: 南京林業大學; pinyin: Nánjīng Línyè Dàxué. Chinese abbr. 南林大 or 南林) is an institution of higher learning in Nanjing, China. It is jointly run and administered by central government of Jiangsu Provincial Government. It is a Chinese state Double First Class University, included in the Double First Class University Plan identified by the Ministry of Education of China.

C9 League Alliance of top Chinese universities

The C9 League is an alliance of nine universities in China, initiated by the Chinese Central Government to promote the development and reputation of higher education in China in 2009. Collectively, universities in the C9 League account for 3% of the country's researchers, but receive 10% of national research expenditures. They produce 20% of the nation's academic publications and 30% of total citations. People's Daily, an official newspaper of the Chinese Communist Party, refers to the C9 League as China's Ivy League. The grouping has been compared to other elite university groupings around the world, such as the Ivy League, Russell Group, U15, and Group of Eight.

Southern University of Science and Technology

Southern University of Science and Technology (SUSTech) simplified Chinese: 南方科技大学; traditional Chinese: 南方科技大學; pinyin: Nánfāng Kējì Dàxué) is a public research university in Nanshan District, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. The University changed its English name from South University of Science and Technology of China (SUSTC) to Southern University of Science and Technology after 2016. It is ranked as the 162nd best University in the world and 26th for all of Asia. In Feb 2022, Southern University of Science and Technology and its mathematics subject were selected into the list of "Double First-class" project, and SUSTech has become a Chinese state Double First Class University.

China University of Petroleum University in China

The China University of Petroleum is a state Double First Class University in China. It consists of China University of Petroleum (Beijing), and China University of Petroleum (Huadong). Both are regarded as the best universities in China according to the QS World University Rankings by Subjects in "Petroleum Engineering" subjects. It is placed under the administration of the Ministry of Education. The China University of Petroleum is a Chinese state Double First Class University included in the Double First Class University Plan, approved by the central government of China.

Double First Class University Plan Chinese university development plan

The World First Class UniversityandFirst Class Academic Discipline Construction, together known as Double First Class, is a tertiary education development initiative designed by the People's Republic of China central government in 2015, which aims to comprehensively develop elite Chinese universities into world-class institutions by the end of 2050 through developing and strengthening their individual faculty departments. The Double First-Class University Plan has made new arrangements for the Chinese higher education institution development. The universities included in this plan are called Double First Class Universities.

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Further reading