Cathedral of St. Stephen with belfry
|Region||Ústí nad Labem|
|• Mayor||Ladislav Chlupáč (ODS)|
|• Total||17.99 km2 (6.95 sq mi)|
|Elevation||136 m (446 ft)|
|• Density||1,300/km2 (3,400/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
Litoměřice (Czech pronunciation: [ˈlɪtomɲɛr̝ɪtsɛ] ; German : Leitmeritz) is a town in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 24,000 inhabitants. It lies at the junction of the rivers Elbe and Ohře, approximately 64 km (40 mi) northwest of Prague.
The area within the Ústí nad Labem Region is sometimes called The Garden of Bohemia due to the mild weather conditions important for growing fruits and grapes. During the time of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, many pensioners chose it over more southern areas of the Empire.
The town is also the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Litoměřice (part of Archdiocese of Prague), the 4th oldest – and 3rd still existing – Catholic diocese on present Czech territory.
The settlement of Litoměřice has a deep history of Paleolithic cultures as well as large Celtic settlements of the La Tène culture, which did not survive the incoming Germanic attacks. The area was later settled by Germanic tribes, when Litoměřice first appear on Ptolemy's Map in the 2nd Century under the name of Nomisterium. The Germanic tribes later migrated west and those remaining mingled with the incoming Slavs.
One of the oldest Czech towns, Litoměřice was established in the 10th century on the site of an early medieval Přemyslid Dynasty fort. The area was settled by the Czech tribe of Litoměřici, after which the town was named. In the High Middle Ages a small group of German settlers was also invited in by Slavic rulers. A royal-town statute was granted in 1219 by the king Ottokar I of Bohemia. From the 12th to the 17th century it was a significant trading centre in the Holy Roman Empire.
The population suffered during the 15th century Hussite Wars. After the Protestant tensions with the Catholics that triggered the Thirty Years' War and the Protestants' defeat in the Battle of White Mountain, the surviving population of the city was forced to accept Catholicism or face property confiscation and the obligation to leave the kingdom. In this way, the town became a Catholic bishop's residency in 1655. As a result, the Czech Protestant population shrank and the town became largely Germanized.
In 1918, Bohemia, Moravia and Czech Silesia became constituent parts of the newly-created Czechoslovakia (which was confirmed by the Treaty of St. Germain), along with a large border area inhabited predominantly by Germans. Local Germans tried to join German Austria (which in turn aimed to join post-war German Reich), but Czechoslovak troops prevented this. Known under the informal name of the Sudetenland, the region became the subject of political controversy in the following years. Slavs settled there again, but remained a minority. In 1938, after the Munich Agreement, German troops occupied the Sudetenland (and all the rest of Czech lands a few months later). The Czech population, which had grown to about 5,000 people, had to leave again.
Jews from Leitmeritz were forced to flee to the Protectorate or were deported during the Holocaust in the Sudetenland.From March 1944 to May 1945, Leitmeritz concentration camp was located west of the town. 18,000 prisoners passed through the camp and were forced to work mostly on excavating underground factories (Richard I and II) under Radobýl. 4,500 died.
In the final stages of World War II, German troops retreated to escape the advancing Red Army. The Czech resistance took control of the castle on 27 April 1945, and after a few days they started negotiations with the German commander about the terms of his surrender. The Wehrmacht capitulated in the night after 8 May, but German troops fled on 9 May, just before Soviet troops entered the town on 10 May 1945. Most of the German population of the town was expelled by the so-called Beneš decrees in August 1945, along with about 2.5 million other former Czechoslovak citizens of German ethnicity from the country.
There are several main sights already visible when approaching Litoměřice. The Baroque St. Stephen's Cathedral at the Cathedral Square (Dómské náměstí) was built in place of an older Romanasque basilica in the years 1664–1668. The interior is almost completely authentic with main and six side altars and a lot of original paintings. Right next to the dome is a bishop's residence built in 1683–1701 by Giulio Broggio. On the main square there is All-Saints Church and within distance there is an Annunciation (Lady Day) Church, another masterpiece built by the son of Giulio Broggio, Octavio. The old town hall (now city museum) and Black Eagle House (Dům u černého orla) on the main square are also worthy a look. The symbol of the city is a chalice, since the watchout tower on the Town Hall has this shape.
There are numerous cellars connected by an extensive web of underground ways under the town. In some places, the cellars were built in three floors. The ways are about three kilometers (1.9 miles) long and they belong to the longest of their kind in the Czech Republic. Unfortunately, only 336 metres (1,102 feet) of these underground ways are open to the public. You can notice the ancient town wall when entering the town. The original town wall was built in the Gothic style. Northern Bohemian Gallery of Creative Arts (SGVU) is based close the main square. Extensive collection spans from 13th century to contemporary art with numerous other exhibitions during the year.
Litoměřice is twinned with:
Bohemia is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic. Bohemia can also refer to a wider area consisting of the historical Lands of the Bohemian Crown ruled by the Bohemian kings, including Moravia and Czech Silesia, in which case the region is referred to as Bohemia proper as a means of distinction.
The Sudetenland is the historical German name for the northern, southern, and western areas of former Czechoslovakia which were inhabited primarily by Sudeten Germans. These German speakers had predominated in the border districts of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia from the time of the Austrian Empire.
Terezín is a former military fortress composed of the citadel and adjacent walled garrison town of Litoměřice District in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 2,900 inhabitants.
Teplice, Teplice-Šanov until 1948 is a statutory city in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic and the capital of the Teplice District. It has about 50,000 inhabitants. It is the Czech Republic's second largest spa town, after Karlovy Vary.
Chomutov is a city in the Czech Republic, in the Ústí nad Labem Region. Chomutov has been a statutory city since 1 July 2006. It occupies an area of 29.26 km² and has almost 50,000 inhabitants. There are almost 80,000 inhabitants in the city's wider metropolitan area.
Ústí nad Labem is a city in the Czech Republic. It has about 93,000 inhabitants. It is the capital of its eponymous region and district. It is a major industrial centre and, besides being an active river port, is an important railway junction.
Ústí nad Labem Region or Ústecký Region, is an administrative unit of the Czech Republic, located in the north-western part of the historical land of Bohemia, and named after the capital, Ústí nad Labem. It covers the majority of the former North Bohemia province and is part of the broader area of North Bohemia.
Most is a city in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 66,000 inhabitants. It is the capital of the Most District and it lies between the Central Bohemian Uplands and the Ore Mountains, approximately 77 km (48 mi) northwest of Prague along the Bílina River and southwest of Ústí nad Labem.
Lovosice is a town in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic. With population of around 8,800 it is the third largest town in Litoměřice District.
Šluknov is the northernmost town of the Czech Republic in its Ústí nad Labem Region. It has a population of about 5,700. It lies in the geographic region that shares its name, the Šluknov Hook, a small portion of Bohemia which lies between Saxon Switzerland and the Zittau Mountains. The administrative part of Rožany has a border crossing to Sohland an der Spree.
Duchcov is a town in the Teplice District in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic. It has a population of about 8,600 and is located at the foot of the Ore Mountains. It is also the site of the Duchcov Castle.
Jirkov is a town in Chomutov District in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 19,000 inhabitants.
The Province of German Bohemia was a province in Bohemia, now the Czech Republic, established for a short period of time after the First World War, as part of the Republic of German-Austria.
Litoměřice District is one of seven districts (okres) located within the Ústí nad Labem Region in the Czech Republic. Its capital is the town of Litoměřice.
Hoštka is a town in Litoměřice District in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 1,800 inhabitants.
Mimoň is a town in Česká Lípa District in the Liberec Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 6,400 inhabitants.
Tisá is a village, which belongs to the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic. The municipality covers an area of 11.85 square kilometres and has a population of 918 as of 2013. Tisá lies approximately 15 kilometres (9 mi) north of Ústí nad Labem and 84 km (52 mi) north of Prague and 3 kilometres (2 mi) south of borders with Germany. The village is situated in 548 – 550 meters above sea level.
North Bohemia, is a region in the north of the Czech Republic.
The Holocaust in the Sudetenland resulted in the flight, dispossession, deportation and ultimately death of many of the 24,505 Jews living in the Reichsgau Sudetenland, a Nazi German administrative region established from former Czechoslovak territory annexed after the October 1938 Munich Agreement. Due to harassment and violence, including during Kristallnacht, ninety percent of the Jews had already left the Sudetenland by mid-1939. The remaining Jews were subject to property confiscation and eventually deportation. During the later years of the war, tens of thousands of Jews and non-Jews were forced laborers in a network of concentration camps in the Sudetenland.
Leitmeritz was the largest subcamp of the Flossenbürg concentration camp, operated by Nazi Germany in Leitmeritz, Reichsgau Sudetenland. Established on 24 March 1944 as part of an effort to disperse and increase war production, its prisoners were forced to work in the caverns Richard I and II, producing Maybach HL230 tank engines for Auto Union and preparing the second site for intended production of tungsten and molybdenum wire and sheet metal by Osram. Of the 18,000 prisoners who passed through the camp, about 4,500 died due to disease, malnutrition, and accidents caused by the disregard for safety by the SS staff who administered the camp. In the last weeks of the war, the camp became a hub for death marches. The camp operated until 8 May 1945, when it was dissolved by the German surrender.
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