In mathematics, a lituus is a spiral with polar equation
where k is any non-zero constant. Thus, the angle θ is inversely proportional to the square of the radius r.
This spiral, which has two branches depending on the sign of , is asymptotic to the axis. Its points of inflexion are at and .
The curve was named for the ancient Roman lituus by Roger Cotes in a collection of papers entitled Harmonia Mensurarum (1722), which was published six years after his death.
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In mathematics, the arithmetic–geometric mean (AGM) of two positive real numbers x and y is defined as follows:
In integral calculus, an elliptic integral is one of a number of related functions defined as the value of certain integrals. Originally, they arose in connection with the problem of finding the arc length of an ellipse and were first studied by Giulio Fagnano and Leonhard Euler. Modern mathematics defines an "elliptic integral" as any function f which can be expressed in the form
In mathematics, the polar coordinate system is a two-dimensional coordinate system in which each point on a plane is determined by a distance from a reference point and an angle from a reference direction. The reference point is called the pole, and the ray from the pole in the reference direction is the polar axis. The distance from the pole is called the radial coordinate, radial distance or simply radius, and the angle is called the angular coordinate, polar angle, or azimuth. The radial coordinate is often denoted by r or ρ, and the angular coordinate by φ, θ, or t. Angles in polar notation are generally expressed in either degrees or radians.
The Archimedean spiral is a spiral named after the 3rd-century BC Greek mathematician Archimedes. It is the locus of points corresponding to the locations over time of a point moving away from a fixed point with a constant speed along a line that rotates with constant angular velocity. Equivalently, in polar coordinates it can be described by the equation
In mathematics, a spiral is a curve which emanates from a point, moving farther away as it revolves around the point.
In physical science and mathematics, Legendre polynomials are a system of complete and orthogonal polynomials, with a vast number of mathematical properties, and numerous applications. They can be defined in many ways, and the various definitions highlight different aspects as well as suggest generalizations and connections to different mathematical structures and physical and numerical applications.
A Fermat's spiral or parabolic spiral is a plane curve named after Pierre de Fermat. Its polar coordinate representation is given by
In mathematics, theta functions are special functions of several complex variables. They are important in many areas, including the theories of Abelian varieties and moduli spaces, and of quadratic forms. They have also been applied to soliton theory. When generalized to a Grassmann algebra, they also appear in quantum field theory.
In mathematics, Felix Klein's j-invariant or j function, regarded as a function of a complex variable τ, is a modular function of weight zero for SL(2, Z) defined on the upper half-plane of complex numbers. It is the unique such function which is holomorphic away from a simple pole at the cusp such that
In geometry, a limaçon or limacon, also known as a limaçon of Pascal, is defined as a roulette formed by the path of a point fixed to a circle when that circle rolls around the outside of a circle of equal radius. It can also be defined as the roulette formed when a circle rolls around a circle with half its radius so that the smaller circle is inside the larger circle. Thus, they belong to the family of curves called centered trochoids; more specifically, they are epitrochoids. The cardioid is the special case in which the point generating the roulette lies on the rolling circle; the resulting curve has a cusp.
A cardioid is a plane curve traced by a point on the perimeter of a circle that is rolling around a fixed circle of the same radius. It can also be defined as an epicycloid having a single cusp. It is also a type of sinusoidal spiral, and an inverse curve of the parabola with the focus as the center of inversion.
Arc length is the distance between two points along a section of a curve.
In mathematics, Viviani's curve, also known as Viviani's window, is a figure eight shaped space curve named after the Italian mathematician Vincenzo Viviani. It is the intersection of a sphere with a cylinder that is tangent to the sphere and passes through the center of the sphere. Before Viviani this curve was studied by Simon de La Loubère and Gilles de Roberval.
In mathematics, Watt's curve is a tricircular plane algebraic curve of degree six. It is generated by two circles of radius b with centers distance 2a apart (taken to be at. A line segment of length 2c attaches to a point on each of the circles, and the midpoint of the line segment traces out the Watt curve as the circles rotate partially back and forth or completely around. It arose in connection with James Watt's pioneering work on the steam engine.
In mathematics, the sine is a trigonometric function of an angle. The sine of an acute angle is defined in the context of a right triangle: for the specified angle, it is the ratio of the length of the side that is opposite that angle, to the length of the longest side of the triangle. For an angle , the sine function is denoted simply as .
In geometric topology, the Clifford torus is the simplest and most symmetric flat embedding of the cartesian product of two circles S1
a and S1
b. It is named after William Kingdon Clifford. It resides in R4, as opposed to in R3. To see why R4 is necessary, note that if S1
b and S1
b each exists in its own independent embedding space R2
a and R2
b, the resulting product space will be R4 rather than R3. The historically popular view that the cartesian product of two circles is an R3 torus in contrast requires the highly asymmetric application of a rotation operator to the second circle, since that circle will only have one independent axis z available to it after the first circle consumes x and y.
The differentiation of trigonometric functions is the mathematical process of finding the derivative of a trigonometric function, or its rate of change with respect to a variable. For example, the derivative of the sine function is written sin′(a) = cos(a), meaning that the rate of change of sin(x) at a particular angle x = a is given by the cosine of that angle.
In geometry, the sinusoidal spirals are a family of curves defined by the equation in polar coordinates
In physics and in the mathematics of plane curves, Cotes's spiral is a family of spirals named after Roger Cotes.
An Euler spiral is a curve whose curvature changes linearly with its curve length. Euler spirals are also commonly referred to as spiros, clothoids, or Cornu spirals.