|Líu Hóngdù (劉弘度) / Líu Bīn (劉玢)|
|Emperor of Southern Han|
|Emperor of Southern Han|
|Reign||June 10, 942-April 15, 943|
|Predecessor||Liu Yan (Emperor Gaozu)|
|Successor||Liu Sheng (Emperor Zhongzong)|
|Born|| 920 |
|Died|| April 15, 943|
Liu Bin (劉玢) (920 – April 15, 943 ), né Liu Hongdu (劉弘度), may be nicknamed Shou (壽), formally Emperor Shang of (Southern) Han ((南)漢殤帝), was the second emperor of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Southern Han. He reigned only briefly, from 942 to 943, from the time of the death of his father Liu Yan (Emperor Gaozu) to the time he was assassinated in a coup headed by his brother Liu Hongxi (later known as Liu Sheng, Emperor Zhongzong).
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty, during the king Wu Ding's reign, who was mentioned as the twenty-first Shang king by the same. Ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian and the Bamboo Annals describe a Xia dynasty before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period, and Shang writings do not indicate the existence of the Xia. The Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River. These Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations, and is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization.
Southern Han, originally Great Yue, was one of the ten kingdoms that existed during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. It was located on China's southern coast, controlling modern Guangdong and Guangxi. The kingdom greatly expanded its capital Xingwang Fu (Chinese: 興王府; pinyin: Xìngwángfǔ,. It attempted but failed to annex the Tang province of Annam.
Liu Yan, né Liu Yan (劉巖), also known as Liu Zhi (劉陟) and briefly as Liu Gong (劉龔), formally Tianhuang Dadi (天皇大帝) with the temple name Gaozu (高祖), was the first emperor of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Southern Han.
Liu Hongdu was born in 920, as the third son of Liu Yan, who was then already the emperor of Southern Han (as Emperor Gaozu)— and therefore, was likely born at Southern Han's capital Xingwang (興王, in modern Guangzhou, Guangdong). His mother was Liu Yan's concubine Consort Zhao, who would later receive the title of Zhaoyi (昭儀).(The biographies for her and for Liu Hongdu in the Spring and Autumn Annals of the Ten Kingdoms conflictingly state that she was favored by Liu Yan and that she was not favored by Liu Yan. )
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong in southern China. On the Pearl River about 120 km (75 mi) north-northwest of Hong Kong and 145 km (90 mi) north of Macau, Guangzhou has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road, and continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub, as well as one of China's three largest cities.
Guangdong is a province in South China, on the South China Sea coast. Guangdong surpassed Henan and Shandong to become the most populous province in China in January 2005, registering 79.1 million permanent residents and 31 million migrants who lived in the province for at least six months of the year; the total population was 104,303,132 in the 2010 census, accounting for 7.79 percent of Mainland China's population. This also makes it the most populous first-level administrative subdivision of any country outside of South Asia, as its population is surpassed only by those of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the Indian states of Bihar, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. The provincial capital Guangzhou and economic hub Shenzhen are among the most populous and important cities in China. The population increase since the census has been modest, the province registering 108,500,000 people in 2015.
Consort Dowager Zhao was the mother of Liu Bin, the second emperor of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Southern Han. She was a concubine to Liu Bin's father, the founding emperor Liu Yan.
The first historical reference to Liu Hongdu was in 932, when Liu Yan created his sons imperial princes—with Liu Hongdu receiving the title of Prince of Bin, which was shortly later changed to Prince of Qin. As his older brothers Liu Yaoshu (劉耀樞) and Liu Guitu (劉龜圖)—both of whom also received princely titles in 932 and therefore were likely still alive then—died early, Liu Hongdu became the expectant heir as the oldest surviving son of Liu Yan. By 934, Liu Hongdu was the commander of the imperial guard corps, when Liu Yan had him recruiting 1,000 guard soldiers to be loyal to him. Liu Hongdu ended up recruiting many young hoodlums and became close to them. The chancellor Yang Dongqian found this inappropriate and tried to persuade Liu Yan to stop this, but Liu Yan paid no heed to Yang's words, leading to Yang's requesting retirement. (As Yang, in his words to Liu Yan, referred to Liu Hongdu as the heir to the state, it was likely that by this point Liu Yaoshu and Liu Guitu were deceased.)
Yang Dongqian (楊洞潛), courtesy name Zhaoxuan (昭玄), was an official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Southern Han, serving as a chancellor.
In 942, Liu Yan fell seriously ill. As he had become concerned by this point that both Liu Hongdu and a younger son, Liu Hongxi the Prince of Jin, were arrogant and inappropriate in behavior, he considered sending them out of the capital Xingwang to defend Yong (邕州, in modern Nanning, Guangxi) and Rong (容州, in modern Yulin, Guangxi) Prefectures respectively, while diverting succession to a younger son, Liu Hongchang the Prince of Yue, whom he considered filially pious, careful, and intelligent. When he consulted the official Xiao Yi (蕭益), however, Xiao argued that passing the throne to a younger son would create disturbances, and so Liu Yan stopped considering that. He soon died, and Liu Hongdu succeeded him as emperor.
Liu Sheng, born Liu Hongxi (劉弘熙), may be nicknamed Jun (雋), formally Emperor Zhongzong of (Southern) Han ( 漢中宗), was the third emperor of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Southern Han. He succeeded his brother, Liu Bin, whom he had ordered assassinated to allow himself to take the throne.
Nanning is the capital and largest city by population of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China. It is known as the "Green City" because of its abundance of lush subtropical foliage. As of 2014 it had a population of 6,913,800 with 4,037,000 in its urban area.
Guangxi ( ; formerly romanised as Kwangsi; Chinese: 广西; Zhuang: Gvangjsih, officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, located in south China and bordering Vietnam. Formerly a province, Guangxi became an autonomous region in 1958.
After Liu Hongdu took the throne, he changed his name to Liu Bin. Liu Hongxi became the head of his administration. He honored his mother Consort Zhao as consort dowager.
Shortly after Liu Bin took the throne, there was a major agrarian rebellion that rose at Xun Prefecture (循州, in modern Huizhou, Guangdong), under the leadership of the local official Zhang Yuxian, who was said to be appointed by an invisible god who spoke in voices. Zhang's rebellion captured many cities, and when Liu Bin sent his brothers Liu Hongchang and Liu Honggao the Prince of Xun to attack Zhang's army, they were surrounded and nearly captured, only saved due to the efforts of the general Chen Daoxiang (陳道庠). Much of the eastern part of the Southern Han state was captured by Zhang.
Huìzhōu is a city in southeast Guangdong Province, China. It forms part of the Pearl River Delta megalopolis. Huizhou borders the provincial capital of Guangzhou to the west, Shenzhen and Dongguan to the southwest, Shaoguan to the north, Heyuan to the northeast, Shanwei to the east, and Daya Bay of the South China Sea to the south. The city has about 4.6 million inhabitants and is administered as a prefecture-level city.
Zhang Yuxian (張遇賢), with the self-claimed title of "King of the Eight Kingdoms of Middle Heaven" (中天八國王), was an agrarian/religious rebel leader of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, who first rose against Southern Han and whose forces eventually battled and were defeated by the armies of Southern Han's northern neighbor Southern Tang. After his defeat, his general Li Tai (李台) arrested him and delivered him to the Southern Tang army to be executed.
Liu Honggao (劉弘杲) (923–943), formally the Prince of Xun (循王), was an imperial prince and chancellor of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Southern Han. He was falsely accused of treason and killed during the reign of his brother Liu Sheng.
Despite this, it was said that Liu Bin was arrogant and inattentive to the matters of state. Even though he was still within the mourning period for his father Liu Yan, he often drank and played music, and often took prostitutes on night out-of-palace excursions. He also liked watch naked men and women. As those who went against his will were often put to death, few dared to speak to him to correct his behavior, except for Liu Hongchang and the eunuch Wu Huai'en (吳懷恩). It was also said that he was suspicious of his brothers, as well as other members of the clan and the officials, such that before they were to enter the palace to see him, they were first strip-searched before they could enter. Liu Hongxi, who was ambitious and had designs on the throne, decided to encourage his frivolous behavior, and therefore offered much jewelry, decorations, and women to him. As Liu Bin liked arm wrestling, Liu Hongxi also had Chen train a group of five strong men—Liu Sichao (劉思潮), Tan Lingyin (譚令禋), Lin Shaoqiang (林少強), Lin Shaoliang (林少良), and He Changting (何昌廷)—to be arm wrestlers, which Liu Bin was pleased about.
On April 15, 943,Liu Bin held a feast for the imperial princes at Changchun Palace, and there were arm wrestling matches that they watched there. The feast ended when Liu Bin fell extremely drunk. Liu Hongxi had Chen and the arm wrestlers that he trained carry Liu Bin back to his bedchambers, and had him pounded to death there. His attendants were slaughtered. The next morning, initially, the officials and the princes, realizing that something was wrong, did not dare to enter the palace. Eventually, Liu Hongchang led the other brothers in a display of support for Liu Hongxi to take the throne, which Liu Hongxi did.
Liu Yan (Emperor Gaozu)
| Emperor of Southern Han |
Liu Sheng (Emperor Zhongzong)
Wang Shenzhi, courtesy name Xintong (信通) or Xiangqing (詳卿), formally Prince Zhongyi of Min (閩忠懿王) and later further posthumously honored as Emperor Taizu of Min (閩太祖), was the founder of Min Kingdoms on the southeast coastal province of Fujian province in China during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period of Chinese history. He was from Gushi in modern-day Henan.
Ma Yin, courtesy name Batu (霸圖), formally King Wumu of Chu (楚武穆王), was a warlord late in the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty who became the first ruler of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Chu and the only one who carried the title of "king." He initially took control of the Changsha region in 896 after the death of his predecessor Liu Jianfeng, and subsequently increased his territorial hold to roughly modern Hunan and northeastern Guangxi, which became the territory of Chu.
Liu Yin (劉隱), formally Prince Xiang of Nanhai (南海襄王), later further posthumously honored Emperor Xiang (襄皇帝) with the temple name of Liezong (烈宗) by his younger brother Liu Yan, was a warlord late in the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Tang's succeeding dynasty Later Liang of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, who ruled Qinghai Circuit as its military governor (Jiedushi). It was on the basis of his rule that Liu Yan was later able to establish the state of Southern Han.
Liu Zhijun, courtesy name Xixian (希賢), nicknamed Liu Kaidao, was a general under Zhu Wen while Emperor Taizu was a major warlord during the late Tang Dynasty and then during Emperor Taizu's reign in his new Later Liang. Later, fearing that Emperor Taizu was going to act against him, he defected, first to Qi, then to Former Shu. Former Shu's emperor Wang Jian, however, also was apprehensive of his talent and later had him executed.
Xu Wen (徐溫), courtesy name Dunmei (敦美), formally Prince Zhongwu of Qi (齊忠武王), later further posthumously honored Emperor Wu (武皇帝) with the temple name Yizu (義祖) by his adoptive son Xu Zhigao after Xu Zhigao founded the state of Southern Tang, was a major general and regent of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Wu. He took over the reins of the Wu state after assassinating, with his colleague Zhang Hao, Yang Wo, the first Prince of Hongnong, and then killing Zhang. Xu was in essence the decision-maker throughout the reign of Yang Wo's brother and successor Yang Longyan and the first part of the reign of Yang Longyan's brother and successor Yang Pu. After his death, Xu Zhigao inherited his position as regent, eventually seizing the Wu throne and establishing Southern Tang.
Li Yan (李儼), né Zhang Xiu (張休) and later Zhang Bo (張播), was an emissary that Emperor Zhaozong of Tang sent to the warlord Yang Xingmi the military governor (Jiedushi) of Huainan Circuit in 902, who would remain at Huainan Circuit as the Tang emperor's representative even after Tang's eventual destruction in 907. He would be the one who formally bestowed Yang Xingmi's sons and successors Yang Wo and Yang Longyan with their formal titles on behalf of the Tang emperor during the initial years of the Yang family-ruled state of Wu. In 918, after the general Zhu Jin assassinated Xu Zhixun the son of Wu's regent Xu Wen, Xu Wen believed that Li was complicit in Zhu's plot and put him to death.
Liu Xun (劉鄩) was a major general of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Later Liang. He was a key commander of Later Liang forces in its struggle with its archenemy Jin, but, after repeated defeats by the Jin prince Li Cunxu, Liu sought retirement, and was subsequently poisoned to death by the Later Liang emperor Zhu Zhen, who doubted his loyalty.
Empress Zhu was one of the two wives of Liu Shouguang, the only emperor of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Yan.
Empress Ma was the only known empress of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Southern Han. She was the wife of Southern Han's founding emperor Liu Yan, and the daughter of Ma Yin, the prince of Southern Han's northern neighbor Chu.
Dai Siyuan (戴思遠) was a general of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Later Liang, serving for several years as the supreme commander of the Later Liang forces against its archrival Jin. After Later Tang conquered Later Liang, Dai continued to serve Later Tang until his death.
Lin Yanyu (林延遇) was a powerful eunuch of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Southern Han.
Liu Jun (劉濬), courtesy name Boshen (伯深), was an official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Southern Han, at one point serving as a chancellor.
Liu Churang (劉處讓), courtesy name Deqian (德謙), was a general of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period states Later Tang and Later Jin, serving as a chief of staff (Shumishi) during the reign of Later Jin's founding emperor Shi Jingtang.
Liu Hongchang (劉弘昌), formally the Prince of Yue (越王), was an imperial prince and chancellor of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Southern Han. He was a son of Southern Han's founding emperor Liu Yan, and at one point, Liu Yan considered bypassing his older brothers Liu Bin and Liu Sheng and making him the successor to the throne. During the subsequent reign of Liu Sheng, Liu Sheng, fearing his capability, had him assassinated.