Llívia

Last updated
Llívia
LliviaGeneral.jpg
Escudo de Llivia.svg
Coat of arms
Localizacion de Llivia - Gerona.png
Location of Llívia in the province of Girona
Catalonia location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Llívia
Location in Catalonia
Spain location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Llívia
Llívia (Spain)
Europe EU laea location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Llívia
Llívia (European Union)
Coordinates: 42°27′52″N1°58′51″E / 42.46444°N 1.98083°E / 42.46444; 1.98083 Coordinates: 42°27′52″N1°58′51″E / 42.46444°N 1.98083°E / 42.46444; 1.98083
CountryFlag of Spain.svg  Spain
Autonomous community Flag of Catalonia.svg  Catalonia
Province Girona
Comarca Cerdanya
Judicial district Puigcerdà
Government
  MayorElies Nova Inglés (2015) [1]
Area
[2]
  Total12.9 km2 (5.0 sq mi)
Elevation
1,224 m (4,016 ft)
Population
 (2018) [3]
  Total1,428
  Density110/km2 (290/sq mi)
Demonyms Llivienc, llivienca (ca)
Lliviense (es)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
17527
Website www.llivia.org

Llívia (Catalan pronunciation:  [ˈʎiβiə] ; Spanish : Llivia [ˈʎiβja] ) is a town in the comarca of Cerdanya, province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain. It is a Spanish exclave surrounded by the French département of Pyrénées-Orientales. In 2009, the municipality of Llívia had a total population of 1,589. [4] It is separated from the rest of Spain by a corridor about 1.6 km (1.0 mile) wide, which includes the French communes of Ur and Bourg-Madame.

Contents

History

Boundary marker between Spain and France, for the municipalities of Llivia (Girona) and Angoustrine-Villeneuve-des-Escaldes (Pyrenees-Orientales) Frontera Espana-Francia, por el enclave de Llivia.png
Boundary marker between Spain and France, for the municipalities of Llívia (Girona) and Angoustrine-Villeneuve-des-Escaldes (Pyrénées-Orientales)

Llívia was the site of an Iberian oppidum which commanded the region and was named Julia Lybica [5] by the Romans. It was the ancient capital of Cerdanya in antiquity, before being replaced by Hix (commune of Bourg-Madame, France) in the Middle Ages. During the Visigothic period, its citadel, the castrum Libiae, was held by the rebel Paul of Narbonne against King Wamba in 672. As the "town (or 'city') of Cerdanya," 8th century Llívia may also have been the scene of the siege by which governor Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi of Muslim Spain rid himself of the Moorish (Berber) rebel Uthman ibn Naissa ("Munnuza"), who had allied himself with Duke Eudo of Aquitaine to improve the chances of his rebellion, [6] ahead of the Battle of Tours (732 or 733), also known as the Battle of Poitiers.

In 1659, the Treaty of the Pyrenees ceded the comarques of Roussillon, Conflent, Capcir, Vallespir, and northern Cerdanya ("Cerdagne") to the French Crown. Llívia did not become part of the Kingdom of France as the treaty stipulated that only villages were to be ceded to France, and Llívia was considered a town (vila in Catalan) and not a village because of its status as the ancient capital of Cerdanya. [7]

In 1939, at the end of the Spanish Civil War, the government of France was in a position—due to the enclave being completely surrounded by French territory—to deny access to it to the victorious forces of Franco and let Llívia remain a free territory of the defeated Republican government. However, this was never carried out. [8] In any case, such an arrangement would not have survived the German occupation of France.

During the era of Generalísimo Francisco Franco, residents required special passes to cross France to the rest of Spain. Today, with these countries in the Schengen Area, there are no frontier formalities and the only nuisance are cross-border infrastructure issues. [9] Both countries share a hospital there, as well as other local initiatives. [10]

During the 2017 Catalan declaration of independence, some of the town residents voted for independence in a referendum deemed illegal by the Spanish government. Spanish police did not intervene in the village, presumably due to its location. [11]

Museum

The Esteve Pharmacy, which is now located in Llívia's recently revamped municipal museum, is a complete 18th-century pharmacy donated to the town by the family who owned it, on condition the contents remain in the town. There are records of pharmacists practising in Llívia since medieval times. The pharmacy has a large display of albarelli, a type of ceramic jar used in pharmacies, as well as antique drugs, and one of the most important collections of prescription books in Europe. [12]

Education

Escola Jaume I is located in Llívia. [13] It was built in the 1950s. As of 2016 a new school will be constructed with a 500-square-metre (5,400 sq ft) ground floor and a 250-square-metre (2,700 sq ft) second floor. [14]

Related Research Articles

Cerdanya Natural region

Cerdanya or often La Cerdanya, is a natural comarca and historical region of the eastern Pyrenees divided between France and Spain. Historically it was one of the counties of Catalonia.

Cerdanya (comarca) Comarca in Catalonia, Spain

Cerdanya is a comarca in northern Catalonia, in the Pyrenees, on the border of Catalonia with France and Andorra. Within Catalonia, Cerdanya is divided between Catalan provinces of Lleida and Girona. Cerdanya's neighbouring comarques are Alt Urgell, Berguedà, and Ripollès.

LEscala Municipality in Catalonia, Spain

L'Escala is a municipality in the comarca of the Alt Empordà in Girona, Catalonia, Spain. It is situated on the Costa Brava, located between the southern end of the Gulf of Roses and Cala (bay) Montgó. It is an important fishing port and tourist centre, and has a festival dedicated to its famous anchovies. The GE-513 road runs inland from the town.

Northern Catalonia term coined to refer to the territory ceded to France by Spain through the signing of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659

Northern Catalonia, French Catalonia or Roussillon, which is also known as little Joaquin's Country refers to the Catalan-speaking and Catalan-culture territory ceded to France by Spain through the signing of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659 in exchange of France's effective renunciation on the formal protection given to the recently founded Catalan Republic. The area corresponds exactly to the modern French département of the Pyrénées-Orientales which were historically part of Catalonia since the old County of Barcelona, and lasted during the times of the Crown of Aragon and the Principality of Catalonia until they were given to France by Spain.

Calaf Municipality in Catalonia, Spain

Calaf is the main town in the northern portion of the comarca of the Anoia in Catalonia, Spain, situated on the Calaf Plain. The town holds an important weekly livestock market.

Cassà de la Selva Municipality in Catalonia, Spain

Cassà de la Selva is a municipality in the comarca of the Gironès in Catalonia, It is linked to Girona and to the Baix Empordà by the C-65 road. During the 20th century it was known for the production of cork and derived articles. With an increasing population of 9,200 citizens, this municipality is located 12 km south of Girona and 20 km west of the Mediterranean sea.

Maçanet de la Selva Municipality in Catalonia, Spain

Maçanet de la Selva is a Spanish municipality in the province of Girona, situated in the comarca of the Selva, Catalonia. It is an important communications junction, where the routes from the coast meet those from the Prelittoral Depression to form a single axis north towards Girona and the French border. RENFE railway lines run both south-east towards Blanes and the coasts of the Maresme and south-west towards Granollers: the station is shared with the neighbouring municipality of Massanes.

Massanes, Catalonia Municipality in Catalonia, Spain

Massanes, also called Maçanes, is a municipality of the province of Girona, in the comarca of the Selva in Catalonia, Spain. It is situated on the left bank of the Tordera river. Local roads link the town with the A-7 autopista, the C-251 road and the RENFE railway station shared with Maçanet de la Selva.

Riudellots de la Selva Municipality in Catalonia, Spain

Riudellots de la Selva is a municipality in the comarca of the Selva in Catalonia, Spain. It is situated in the basin of the Onyar river, on the A-7 autopista and the main N-II road, and is served by a RENFE railway station on the line between Barcelona and Girona and the GE-672 road and is close to the aeroport of Girona.

Premià de Mar Municipality in Catalonia, Spain

Premià de Mar is a municipality in the comarca of the Maresme in Catalonia, Spain. It is situated on the coast between El Masnou and Vilassar de Mar, to the north-east of Barcelona. The town is both a tourist centre and a dormitory town for Barcelona.

Organyà Municipality in Catalonia, Spain

Organyà is a municipality in the comarca of the Alt Urgell in Catalonia. It is situated on the right bank of the Segre river below the Trespons gorge, and is served by the C-14 road between Ponts and La Seu d'Urgell. There is a monument to the Homilies d'Organyà, a 12th or 13th century collection of sermons which is the oldest literary text in the Catalan language to survive in its entirety, discovered in the town in 1904.

Castellar de nHug Municipality in Catalonia, Spain

Castellar de n'Hug is a municipality in the comarca of the Berguedà in Catalonia, Spain. It is situated on the southern slopes of the pyrenean range of the Creueta. The Llobregat river has its source on the territory of the municipality. The village is served by the B-403 road, which links it with La Pobla de Lillet and which continues over the Creueta to the comarques of the Ripollès and the Cerdanya.

Sant Jaume de Frontanyà Municipality in Catalonia, Spain

Sant Jaume de Frontanyà is a municipality in the comarca of the Berguedà in Catalonia, Spain. It is situated in the Pyrenees below the peak of Pedró de Tubau (1543 m). The village was the smallest municipality in Catalonia in terms of population but in 2018 lost the title to Gisclareny after the village grew. The monumental Romanesque church of Sant Jaume is a protected historic-artistic monument from the 11th century. The village is served by a local road to Borredà and it is well known for its peace and tranquility.

Fogars de la Selva Municipality in Catalonia, Spain

Fogars de la Selva is a municipality in the comarca of the Selva in Catalonia, Spain. It is situated to the north of the Montnegre range, and is linked to Tordera by a local road. The village used to be called Fogars de Tordera, and is the only municipality in the Selva to be part of the province of Barcelona rather than the province of Girona.

Pardines, Girona Municipality in Catalonia, Spain

Pardines is a municipality in the comarca of Ripollès, province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain.

Oristà Municipality in Catalonia, Spain

Oristà is a municipality in the comarca of Osona in Catalonia, Spain. It includes an exclave within Sant Feliu Sasserra.

Prats i Sansor Municipality in Catalonia, Spain

Prats i Sansor is a municipality in the comarca of Cerdanya, province of Lleida, Catalonia, Spain. It is composed by four villages, Prats, Sansor, Capdevila and El Pla.

Guils de Cerdanya Municipality in Catalonia, Spain

Guils de Cerdanya is a municipality in the comarca of Cerdanya, province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain.

Meranges Municipality in Catalonia, Spain

Meranges is a village in the comarca of Cerdanya, province of Girona, Catalonia, north-eastern Spain.

Lles de Cerdanya Municipality in Catalonia, Spain

Lles de Cerdanya is a Pyrrenean village in the comarca of Cerdanya, province of Lleida, Catalonia, north-eastern Spain. It is located south of the border with Andorra and France and home to two ski resorts, Lles and Aransa.

References

  1. "Ajuntament de Llívia". Generalitat of Catalonia . Retrieved 2015-11-13.
  2. "El municipi en xifres: Llívia". Statistical Institute of Catalonia . Retrieved 2015-11-23.
  3. "Municipal Register of Spain 2018". National Statistics Institute . Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  4. Idescat. Fitxes municipals. Llívia
  5. Merino, Antolin; de la Canal, José (1819). "De la santa iglesia de Gerona" (in Catalan). Google Books. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
  6. Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Auctores Antiquissimi, p. 361, and Roger Collins, The Arab Conquest of Spain, 710–797, Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 1989, p. 89
  7. Capdevila i Subirana, Joan: Historia del deslinde de la frontera Hispano-Francesa. Del tratado de los Pirineos (1659) a los tratados de Bayona (1856–1868), Ed. Ministerio de Fomento, Centro Nacional de Información Geográfica, Madrid, 2009, pp. 146–149. ISBN   978-84-416-1480-2 (Spanish)
  8. Robinson GWS (1959). Exclaves. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 49 (3), 283–295 doi:10.1111/j.1467-8306.1959.tb01614.x
  9. Nogueira Calvar, Andrea (2014-09-04). "The Spanish town that ended up in France". El País .
  10. Wilkinson, Isambard (2003-01-02). "Spanish enclave breaks down the barriers with France". The Daily Telegraph .
  11. Fourquet, Laure (2017-10-24). "This Catalan Town Has Already Broken From Spain, Physically at Least". The New York Times . Retrieved 2017-12-03.Version in Castillian Spanish
  12. Panareda Clopés, Josep Maria; Rios Calvet, Jaume; Rabella Vives, Josep Maria (1989). Guia de Catalunya, Barcelona: Caixa de Catalunya. ISBN   84-87135-01-3 (Spanish). ISBN   84-87135-02-1 (Catalan).
  13. Home. Escola Jaume I. Retrieved on December 3, 2017.
  14. "Llívia es construirà la seva nova escola i després la llogarà a Ensenyament". Diari de Girona. 2016-02-10. Retrieved 2017-12-03. L'actual centre educatiu del municipi, Jaume I, es va construir fa més de 60 anys,[...]El nou centre escolar de Llívia serà un edifici a dues aigües amb una planta de 500 metres quadrats i un segon pis de 250 metres.