Llanelli

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Llanelli
Llanelli town centre - geograph.org.uk - 244089.jpg
Skyline of Llanelli town centre
Carmarthenshire UK location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Llanelli
Location within Carmarthenshire
Population26,225 
OS grid reference SN505005
Community
  • Llanelli
Principal area
Ceremonial county
Country Wales
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town LLANELLI
Postcode district SA14, SA15
Dialling code 01554 [1]
Police Dyfed-Powys
Fire Mid and West Wales
Ambulance Welsh
UK Parliament
Senedd Cymru – Welsh Parliament
Website llanellitowncouncil.co.uk
List of places
UK
Wales
Carmarthenshire
51°41′02″N4°09′47″W / 51.684°N 4.163°W / 51.684; -4.163 Coordinates: 51°41′02″N4°09′47″W / 51.684°N 4.163°W / 51.684; -4.163

Llanelli ("St Elli's Parish"; Welsh:  [ɬaˈnɛɬi] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a market town and the largest community in Carmarthenshire and the preserved county of Dyfed, Wales. It is located on the Loughor estuary [2] 10.5 miles (16.9 km) north-west of Swansea and 12 miles (19 km) south-east of the county town, Carmarthen. The town had a population of 25,168 in 2011, estimated in 2019 at 26,225. [3] The local authority was Llanelli Borough Council when the county of Dyfed existed, but it has been under Carmarthenshire County Council since 1996. [4]

Contents

Name

Spelling

The anglicised spelling “Llanelly” was used until 1966, when it was changed to Llanelli after a local public campaign. It remains in the name of a local historic building, Llanelly House. It should not be confused with the village and parish of Llanelly, in south-east Wales near Abergavenny.

Llanelly, Victoria, in Australia was named after this town of Llanelli, using the spelling current at that time. [5] [6]

History

The beginnings of Llanelli can be found on the lands of present-day Parc Howard. An Iron Age hill fort once stood which was called Bryn-Caerau (hill of the forts). Evidence suggests there were five hill forts from Old Road to the Dimpath. During the early medieval period, it is said a saint named Elli, or Ellyw, [2] who in legend is the son or daughter of King Brychan, established a church on the banks of the Afon Lliedi. The original church would have been a wooden or partly stone, thatched structure. It was not until the 1200s that the stone church was built. Its original tower stands to this day. The current church (excluding the tower) was built at the beginning of the 20th century. With the establishment of the church in the early medieval period, a market town grew. However, it remained relatively small compared with Carmarthen and Kidwelly, both in Carmarthenshire, until industrialisation speeded up at the end of the 18th century.

Llanelli then became such a significant regional producer of tin, and even referred to as "Tinopolis" in the latter half of the 19th century. Lying near the Western fringe of the South Wales Coal Field, Llanelli played an important role in industry, with coal exported through three small docks along with the copper and tin produced within the town itself. Although Llanelli is not located within the South Wales valleys, coal from the Gwendraeth and the Loughor Valleys was transported to Llanelli for export. The Stepney Family and other prominent families (including the Raby family, Howard family and Cowell family), played an important role in the development of the town. Aside from industry, Llanelli is also renowned for its pottery, which has a unique cockerel hand-painted on each item. A collection of this pottery can bee seen at the Llanelli Museum in Parc Howard. [7]

Llanelli people are sometimes nicknamed "Turks", for uncertain reasons. One theory is that many Turkish sailors once called at the port on their voyages. [8]

Llanelli was industrialised in the early 19th century as the global centre for tinplate production. [9] Several communities nearby may be included colloquially in Llanelli. [10]

Culture and language

National Eisteddfod

Llanelli hosted the National Eisteddfod six times between 1895 and 2014. [11]

Welsh language

In the mid-20th century, Llanelli was the world's largest town in which more than half the inhabitants spoke a Celtic language. [12] It is ranked as the seventh largest urban area in Wales. According to the 2011 UK Census returns, 23.7 per cent of Llanelli town residents habitually spoke Welsh. However, the area around Llanelli is a Welsh stronghold, in which 56 per cent do so in communities such as Llwynhendy and Burry Port.

During the 1950s, Trefor and Eileen Beasley campaigned to get Llanelli Rural Council to distribute tax papers in Welsh by refusing to pay taxes until their demand was met. The council reacted by sending in the bailiffs and selling their furniture to recover the money owed. The Beasleys' neighbours bought the furniture and returned it to them. The council finally reversed its policy in the 1960s, giving Welsh equal status with English. [13]

Economy

In 1991 Llanelli was a distinct Travel to Work Area, but a 2001-based revision has merged it into a wider one of Swansea Bay. [14]

Manufacture

Several firms, including Tata Steel Europe tinplate at Trostre and Dyfed Steels, are based in the Llanelli area and service the automotive industry. [15] The Technium Performance Engineering Centre was developed at Llanelli Gate as a business incubator for businesses in the automotive, motor sport and aerospace sectors. [16]

The traditional industries of Llanelli have gradually declined in recent decades. Local government has responded by seeking to attract tourism with developments such as the Machynys Golf Course, retail parks at Trostre and Pemberton, and the Millennium Coastal Park. [17] The core shopping area has now moved largely from the town centre to the Trostre/Pemberton area.

Brewing

The longstanding Felinfoel Brewery continues in Felinfoel, just outside the town. [18]

Rev. James Buckley was an ordained Methodist minister, born in Oldham, Lancashire in 1770, who after moving to Llanelli towards the end of the 18th century became involved in establishing a small brewery. After the death of the owner, Buckley gained possession of the brewery and changed its name to Buckley's. In 1998, the brewery was bought by Brains Brewery, which transferred production to its facility in Cardiff. However, Brains continues to produce The Reverend James, a bitter named in Buckley's memory. [19] Since then the Llanelli brewery has been partly demolished.

Leisure and tourism

In the past decade, the longstanding emphasis on heavy industry has shifted towards the tertiary sector employment in leisure and tourism. Ongoing developments include the new Llanelli Scarlets rugby stadium, the Old Castle Works leisure village (see below) and a National Hunt racecourse at Ffos Las near Trimsaran. [20] Machynys Ponds, a Site of Special Scientific Interest notable for its dragonfly population, lies a mile to the south. [21] [22]

Religion

Nonconformism

Tabernacle Chapel Grade II* listed Tabernacle Chapel, Llanelli (geograph 3055142).jpg
Tabernacle Chapel
The interior of the Grade II listed Calfaria Baptist Chapel, which was built in 1881 Calfaria chapel.jpg
The interior of the Grade II listed Calfaria Baptist Chapel, which was built in 1881

From the early 19th to late 20th centuries, Llanelli was a major centre of Welsh nonconformism. At the end of the Second World War there were 22 chapels in the town of Llanelli, and their history was chronicled in a volume by the BBC journalist Huw Edwards. [23] Many of the chapels have now closed and others are in sharp decline, with only two or three likely to survive as functioning chapels in the 2020s. [24]

The most well known of Llanelli's chapels is probably Capel Als, where David Rees was a minister for many years in the 19th century. Llanelli had seven other Independent (Congregationalist) chapels, namely Tabernacle, Lloyd Street, Siloah, Soar, Ebenezer, Dock Chapel, and Park Church (the only chapel where services were conducted in English).

The Tabernacle Chapel built in 1872–1873 by John Humphreys of Morriston overlooks the Town Hall. It is built of brown rubble stone with extensive Bath stone dressings and a slate roof. There is a prominent four-pillared Corinthian arcade at the entrance. The building was Grade II* listed in December 1992. [25] It is used as a venue by the Llanelli Choral Society. [26] [27] Other listed chapels include Bethel Baptist Chapel in Copperworks Road, [28] Park Congregational Chapel, [29] Zion Baptist Chapel at Island Place, [30] and Hall Street Methodist Church. [31]

Situated on Waunlanyrafon, across the road from the police station, is the local Catholic Church, Our Lady Queen of Peace Church.

Church in Wales

St Elli's Parish Church, Church in Wales. Llanelli parish church - geograph.org.uk - 1276654.jpg
St Elli's Parish Church, Church in Wales.

The parish church of St Elli has a medieval tower. The body of the church was rebuilt by G. F. Bodley in 1905–1906. It is a Grade II* listed building. [32] Several other churches in the town are also listed buildings, but made redundant by the Church in Wales and now in private ownership. They include All Saints' [33] and St Alban's. [34]

Sport

Parc y Scarlets Parc y Scarlets.jpg
Parc y Scarlets
Stradey Park Stradey Park.jpg
Stradey Park

Rugby union

The town's rugby union teams – the Scarlets competing in the Pro14, and Llanelli RFC in the Principality Premiership – play at Parc y Scarlets , which opened in November 2008 in Pemberton. Previously they had played at Stradey Park, home to Llanelli RFC for over 130 years and one site used for the 1999 Rugby World Cup, hosting the Argentina v Western Samoa game on 10 October. Stradey Park is being redeveloped.

The Welsh folk song "Sosban Fach" (Little Saucepan) is mostly associated with Llanelli RFC. Many rugby clubs have notable scalps collected from touring international sides, but on 31 October 1972, Llanelli claimed perhaps the greatest by beating the New Zealand All Blacks. The Scarlets side emerged 9–3 [35] winners at Stradey Park.

There is a strong junior rugby core, including club sides such as Felinfoel, New Dock Stars, Llangenech and the Llanelli Wanderers. In 2005, Coedcae School won the Inter-Schools Cup of Wales with an 8–5 victory over Brynteg Comprehensive.

Rugby league

Llanelli's West Wales Raiders play in the Rugby Football League's League 1 competition. The club is based at Stebonheath Park.

Association football

Stebonheath Park is the home of football club Llanelli A.F.C., which plays in the Cymru South. The town has many active local teams and tournaments such as the 2018 Challenge Cup, where West End United beat Trostre Sports AFC.

Bowls

Llanelli hosts the annual Llanelli Open Bowls Tournaments, the oldest and most prestigious of which, the Roberts-Rolfe Open Singles event, has been run since 1926 and has a first prize of £600. The contests are held from July to September in Parc Howard.

Golf

The Llanelli area has two golf courses: the Machynys Peninsula Golf & Country Club which hosted the Wales Ladies Championship of Europe from 2005 until 2008, and Glyn Abbey Golf Club, which was named Welsh Golf Club of the Year 2009.

Snooker

Llanelli is the birthplace and home of Terry Griffiths OBE, snooker world champion in 1979 and runner up in 1988. Now a coach and snooker commentator, he runs The Terry Griffiths Matchroom in the town centre.

Media

Llanelli is home to Tinopolis, one of Britain's largest independent media producers. It has subsidiaries that produce over 2,500 hours of broadcast television, including English language programmes such as Question Time for the BBC and Welsh-language television programs such as Wedi 7 for S4C. [36]

Coverage of local affairs appears in two papers, the Llanelli Star founded in 1909 and Llanelli Herald launched in 2015,. [37] Online coverage is found on Llanelli Online . [38] The main county-wide radio station is Radio Carmarthenshire. Other stations covering the area are 96.4 The Wave, Swansea Sound, Swansea Bay Radio and Radio BGM, which serves the Prince Philip Hospital and the local community online. [39]

Local attractions

Millennium Coastal Path near Llanelli Millennium Coastal Path Lla.jpg
Millennium Coastal Path near Llanelli

Some local attractions include:

Leisure

The Ffwrnes Theatre opened in late 2012, replacing the Theatr Elli, which was part of the Llanelli Entertainment Centre. [42] [43] A multi-screen cinema opened in October 2012. Much is being spent on regenerating the central shopping district. [44]

Llanelli holds festivals, carnivals and events throughout the year. They include:

Transport

Llanelli is linked with the M4 motorway via the A4138 and with Swansea via the Loughor Bridge on the A484. It is served by regular bus services between Swansea and Carmarthen and a National Express service to London.

Services from Llanelli railway station on the Great Western Crescent south of the town centre connect with Fishguard Harbour and Swansea along the West Wales Line. It is the terminus of the Heart of Wales Line for Craven Arms and Shrewsbury. There are daily Great Western Railway services with London Paddington and regular services with Cardiff Central and Manchester Piccadilly. The district is also served by stations at Bynea, Llangennech, Pembrey & Burry Port and Kidwelly.

Llanelli is connected to the National Cycle Network from the north on NCR 43, and along the coast from the east and west on NCR 4. [48] These routes link with a cycle path to the town centre.

The nearest passenger airport is Cardiff Airport, 50 miles (80 km) away, although Pembrey, 2 miles (3.2 km), provides air charter services. [49] October 2016 saw the 20th anniversary of Pembrey Airport, which during that period trained 9,500 military pilots jointly with the MOD range at Pembrey Sands.[ citation needed ]

Education

Primary and secondary

The first Welsh-medium primary school, Ysgol Gymraeg Dewi Sant, was founded in Llanelli in 1947. The English-medium secondary schools are St John Lloyd, Bryngwyn and Coedcae; the only Welsh medium secondary school is Ysgol y Strade. St Michael's School is a private school for ages 3–18. Ysgol Heol Goffa is a special school for pupils with disabilities.

Further and higher education

Coleg Sir Gâr (Carmarthenshire College), with its main campus at Graig near Pwll, provides a college education for most of the town's further education students and some vocational undergraduate degrees through the University of Wales. There are sixth form colleges at Ysgol Gyfun y Strade (Welsh medium) and St Michael's (English medium).

Prince Philip Hospital has a postgraduate centre for medical training run by Cardiff University's School of Postgraduate Medical and Dental Education. [50]

Government

Llanelli (Political)
Mayor Cllr. Roger Price
Carmarthenshire County Council
LeaderCllr. Emlyn Dole
County
Councillors
(Ward)
Cllr. J. Edmunds (Bigyn)
Cllr. E. Morgan (Bigyn)
Cllr. J. P. Jenkins (Elli)
Cllr. J. Prosser (Glanymor)
Cllr. L. Roberts (Glanymor)
Cllr. R. James(Lliedi)
Cllr. S. Najmi (Lliedi)
Cllr. S. Curry (Tyisha)
Cllr. A. McPherson (Tyisha)
United Kingdom Parliament
Nia Griffith Labour
National Assembly for Wales
Lee Waters Labour
Llanelli Town Hall Llanelli Town Hall (geograph 2490850).jpg
Llanelli Town Hall

Llanelli is in the Llanelli parliamentary constituency, currently represented by the Labour party member Nia Griffith Member of Parliament (MP), and by the Senedd constituency of Labour's Lee Waters MS. Llanelli is run on a community level by Llanelli Town Council and Llanelli Rural Council (depending on the area of town) and Carmarthenshire County Council at local government level. Llanelli Rural Council addresses some part of the town, but mainly the Llanelli Rural community. Llanelli's politics has been Labour-dominated for decades. Its geographical location has led to a sense of exceptionalism in relation to the rest of Carmarthenshire, which is dominated by Plaid Cymru. In reaction to this, there have been calls to reinstate the local government district of Llanelli either as a county or as the City of Llanelli.

The community of Llanelli is bordered by those of Llanelli Rural, Llanrhidian Higher and Llanrhidian Lower, the last two being in the City and County of Swansea. Llanelli Borough Council, based at Llanelli Town Hall, was the area local authority until Carmarthenshire County Council became the unitary authority in 1996. [51]

Twinning

Llanelli is twinned with Flag of France.svg Agen, France. [52]

Town areas

Towns and villages near Llanelli

Current developments

Llanelli Waterside

Llanelli Waterside, a joint venture between Carmarthenshire County Council and the Welsh Assembly Government, aims to transform the waterfront into a business, leisure and residential community. There are two seafront housing developments under construction. Pentre Nicklaus Village, located on the Machynys Peninsula has been criticised for being above the price range for local people. Pentre Doc Y Gogledd (North Dock Village) in the historic North Dock area is nearing completion by the firm of David McLean.

Notable people

See Category:People from Llanelli

Notable Llanelli people with a Wikipedia page in alphabetical order by section:

Art, media and entertainment

Government and politics

Sports

Rugby Union

Darts

Association football

Other sports

Other categories

Further reading

See also

Related Research Articles

Carmarthenshire a local government area in Wales

Carmarthenshire is a unitary authority in southwest Wales, and one of the historic counties of Wales. The three largest towns are Llanelli, Carmarthen and Ammanford. Carmarthen is the county town and administrative centre. The county is known as the "Garden of Wales" and is also home to the National Botanic Garden of Wales.

Burry Port Human settlement in Wales

Burry Port is a port town and community in Carmarthenshire, Wales, on the Loughor estuary, to the west of Llanelli and south-east of Kidwelly. Its population was recorded at 5,680 in the 2001 census and 6,156 in the 2011 census, and estimated at 5,998 in 2019. The town has a harbour. It is also where Amelia Earhart landed as the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean. Nearby are the Pembrey Burrows sand dune and wetland system, forming a country park, and the Cefn Sidan sands. Its musical heritage includes Burry Port Opera, Male Choir and Burry Port Town Band.

Kidwelly Town in Wales

Kidwelly is a town and community in Carmarthenshire, southwest Wales, approximately 7 miles (11 km) northwest of the most populous town in the county, Llanelli. In the 2001 census the community of Kidwelly returned a population of 3,289, increasing to 3,523 at the 2011 Census.

Glanamman Human settlement in Wales

Glanamman is a Welsh mining village in the valley of the River Amman in Carmarthenshire. Glanamman has long been a stronghold of the Welsh language; village life is largely conducted in Welsh. Like the neighbouring village of Garnant it experienced a coal-mining boom in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but the last big colliery closed in 1947 and coal has been extracted fitfully since then.

Llanelli (UK Parliament constituency) Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom, 1918 onwards

Llanelli is a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. From 1918 to 1970 the official spelling of the constituency name was Llanelly. It elects one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election. Since 2005, it is currently represented by Nia Griffith of the Labour Party. She is currently the Shadow Secretary of State for Wales.

Felinfoel Human settlement in Wales

Felinfoel is a small village and electoral ward on the River Lliedi on the northern border of Llanelli, Carmarthenshire, West Wales, with a population of about 2,000.

Llanelli RFC Welsh rugby union football club

Llanelli Rugby Football Club is a Welsh rugby union club founded in 1875.

Llanelli Rural

Llanelli Rural Council is a community in the southeast of Carmarthenshire, Wales.

Stradey Park

Stradey Park was a rugby union stadium located near the centre of the town of Llanelli in Carmarthenshire, Wales. It was the home of the Scarlets region and Llanelli RFC rugby teams. The stadium was a combination of seating and standing with a total capacity of 10,800. With the Scarlets having moved to Parc y Scarlets, Stradey Park was demolished in 2010 and has since been replaced with housing.

Garnant Human settlement in Wales

Garnant is a Welsh mining village in the valley of the River Amman in Carmarthenshire, north of Swansea. Like the neighbouring village of Glanamman it experienced a coal-mining boom in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but the last big colliery closed in 1936 and coal has been extracted fitfully since then. The village has the only Commissioners' church built in southwest Wales, traditionally a Methodist region.

Pemberton, Carmarthenshire Human settlement in Wales

Pemberton is an area situated east of Llanelli in Carmarthenshire, Wales. It is part of the Llanelli Rural community bordering Llanelli and the villages of Cwmcarnhywel, Dafen, Cefncaeau and the outskirts of Llanelli town.

Llangennech Human settlement in Wales

Llangennech is a village and community in the area of Llanelli, Carmarthenshire, Wales, which covers an area of 1,222 hectares (4.72 sq mi).

This article is a timeline of Llanelli history. For a full article on the town, see Llanelli.

Machynys Human settlement in Wales

Machynys, or Machynys Peninsula is a coastal area just to the south of Llanelli in Carmarthenshire, Wales. In the nineteenth century an industrial community lived here working at the brickworks and tinplate works that occupied the site. When the industrial activity ceased in the mid-twentieth century, the buildings were demolished and the site lay derelict. It has now been redeveloped as a golf course as part of the Llanelli Waterside regeneration plan.

David Rees (Y Cynhyrfwr) Welsh Congregationalist minister

The Reverend David Rees was a Welsh Congregational minister of Capel Als chapel Llanelli, Carmarthenshire, and an editor of a radical Welsh language Nonconformist periodical titled Y Diwygiwr. Known as 'Y Cynhyrfwr', he held radical political views and opposed the relationship between the Established Church and the state.

Buckley Roderick Rugby player

William Buckley Roderick was a Welsh solicitor, international rugby union forward and later a Vice-Consular for Spain. Roderick played club rugby for Llanelli Rugby Football Club and international rugby for Wales.

Tabernacle Chapel, Llanelli Church in Wales

Tabernacle Chapel is an Independent (Congregational) chapel in the town of Llanelli, Carmarthenshire, Wales. It was built in 1872 and is located at 17 Cowell Street. It is a Grade II* listed building.

Capel Als, Llanelli Church in Wales

Capel Als is an Independent (Congregational) chapel in Llanelli, Carmarthenshire, Wales, It is regarded as one of the most significant religious buildings in Wales. Folk tradition suggested that the name refers to a woman named Als, which along with Alys is the Welsh equivalent of the English name Alice, whose cottage stood where the chapel was built. Another theory contends that the Welsh word als translates as rock, and there is a rock-face behind the chapel. However, there is no word "als" in Welsh meaning rock, and so this latter explanation may be safely disregarded.

The Carmarthenshire League is a football league in Carmarthenshire, West Wales, sitting at the fifth, sixth and seventh levels of the Welsh football league system.

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