Llano, Texas

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Llano, Texas
Llano courthouse 2010.jpg
The Llano County Courthouse
TXMap-doton-Llano.PNG
Location of Llano, Texas
Llano County Llano.svg
Coordinates: 30°45′3″N98°40′48″W / 30.75083°N 98.68000°W / 30.75083; -98.68000 Coordinates: 30°45′3″N98°40′48″W / 30.75083°N 98.68000°W / 30.75083; -98.68000
Country United States
State Texas
County Llano
Area
  Total4.7 sq mi (12.2 km2)
  Land4.4 sq mi (11.5 km2)
  Water0.3 sq mi (0.7 km2)
Elevation
1,030 ft (314 m)
Population
(2010)
  Total3,232
  Density748.1/sq mi (288.8/km2)
Demonym(s) Llanite
Time zone UTC-6 (Central (CST))
  Summer (DST) UTC-5 (CDT)
ZIP code
78643
Area code(s) 325
FIPS code 48-43144 [1]
GNIS feature ID1361576 [2]
Website http://www.cityofllano.com/

Llano ( /ˈlæn/ LAN-oh) is a city in Llano County, Texas, in the United States. As of 2010, the city population was 3,232. It is the county seat of Llano County. [3]

Llano County, Texas County in the United States

Llano County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 19,301. Its county seat is Llano, and the county is named for the Llano River.

Texas State of the United States of America

Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.

Contents

Geography

Llano is located at 30°45′03″N98°40′48″W / 30.750953°N 98.680038°W / 30.750953; -98.680038 (30.750953, 98.680038). [4] It is on the Llano River, 65 miles (105 km) northwest of Austin and 102 mi (164 km) north of San Antonio.

Llano River watercourse in the United States of America

The Llano River is a tributary of the Colorado River, approximately 105 miles (169 km) long, in central Texas in the United States. It drains part of the Edwards Plateau in Texas Hill Country northwest of Austin.

Austin, Texas Capital of Texas

Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County, with portions extending into Hays and Williamson counties. It is the 11th-most populous city in the United States and the 4th-most populous city in Texas. It is also the fastest growing large city in the United States, the second most populous state capital after Phoenix, Arizona, and the southernmost state capital in the contiguous United States. As of the U.S. Census Bureau's July 1, 2017 estimate, Austin had a population of 950,715 up from 790,491 at the 2010 census. The city is the cultural and economic center of the Austin–Round Rock metropolitan statistical area, which had an estimated population of 2,115,827 as of July 1, 2017. Located in Central Texas within the greater Texas Hill Country, it is home to numerous lakes, rivers, and waterways, including Lady Bird Lake and Lake Travis on the Colorado River, Barton Springs, McKinney Falls, and Lake Walter E. Long.

San Antonio City in Texas, United States

San Antonio, officially the City of San Antonio, is the seventh-most populous city in the United States, and the second-most populous city in both Texas and the Southern United States, with more than 1.5 million residents. Founded as a Spanish mission and colonial outpost in 1718, the city became the first chartered civil settlement in present-day Texas in 1731. The area was still part of the Spanish Empire, and later of the Mexican Republic. Today it is the state's oldest municipality.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.7 sq mi (12 km2), of which, 4.4 sq mi (11 km2) of it is land and 0.3 sq mi (0.78 km2) of it (5.53%) is covered by water.

United States Census Bureau Bureau of the United States responsible for the census and related statistics

The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureau is part of the U.S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States.

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1860 77
1870 188144.2%
1880 21313.3%
1910 1,687
1920 1,645−2.5%
1930 2,12429.1%
1940 2,65825.1%
1950 2,95411.1%
1960 2,656−10.1%
1970 2,608−1.8%
1980 3,07117.8%
1990 2,962−3.5%
2000 3,32512.3%
2010 3,232−2.8%
Est. 20163,422 [5] 5.9%
U.S. Decennial Census [6]

As of the census [1] of 2000, 3,325 people, 1,353 households, and 880 families resided in the city. The population density was 748.1 people per square mile (289.1/km2). The 1,539 housing units averaged 346.3/sq mi (133.8/km2) in density. The racial makeup of the city was 94.35% White, 0.57% African American, 0.66% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 3.40% from other races, and 0.78% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 8.90% of the population.

Census Acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population

A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common censuses include agriculture, business, and traffic censuses. The United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory, simultaneity and defined periodicity", and recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations also cover census topics to be collected, official definitions, classifications and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice.

Population density A measurement of population numbers per unit area or volume

Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and most of the time to humans. It is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square.

Of the 1,353 households, 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.6% were married couples living together, 12.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.9% were not families. About 31.3% of all households were made up of individuals, and 18.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.95.

Marriage social union or legal contract between people called spouses that creates kinship

Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a socially or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but also throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but typically it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity. When defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding.

In the city, the population was distributed as 24.5% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 23.9% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, and 22.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $31,706, and for a family was $38,125. Males had a median income of $29,464 versus $19,958 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,306. About 7.7% of families and 10.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.8% of those under age 18 and 2.6% of those age 65 or over.

Per capita income mean income of the people in an economic unit such as a country or city

Per capita income (PCI) or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population.

Climate

Llano experiences a humid subtropical climate, with hot summers and generally mild winters. Temperatures range from 84 °F (29 °C) in the summer to 46 °F (7.8 °C) during winter.

Climate data for Llano, Texas
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)93
(34)
100
(38)
100
(38)
105
(41)
108
(42)
112
(44)
115
(46)
113
(45)
112
(44)
105
(41)
94
(34)
93
(34)
115
(46)
Average high °F (°C)60
(16)
64
(18)
72
(22)
79
(26)
85
(29)
91
(33)
96
(36)
96
(36)
90
(32)
81
(27)
69
(21)
61
(16)
79
(26)
Daily mean °F (°C)46
(8)
50
(10)
58
(14)
65
(18)
73
(23)
80
(27)
84
(29)
83
(28)
77
(25)
67
(19)
56
(13)
48
(9)
66
(19)
Average low °F (°C)32
(0)
36
(2)
44
(7)
52
(11)
62
(17)
69
(21)
71
(22)
70
(21)
64
(18)
54
(12)
43
(6)
34
(1)
53
(12)
Record low °F (°C)−6
(−21)
−3
(−19)
14
(−10)
25
(−4)
28
(−2)
38
(3)
50
(10)
46
(8)
35
(2)
23
(−5)
15
(−9)
−7
(−22)
−7
(−22)
Average precipitation inches (mm)1.08
(27)
1.80
(46)
1.90
(48)
2.19
(56)
3.94
(100)
3.40
(86)
1.84
(47)
2.03
(52)
2.14
(54)
2.88
(73)
2.23
(57)
1.90
(48)
27.33
(694)
Source: The Weather Channel [7]

History

Llano County was established in compliance with a February 1, 1856, state legislative act. The Llano River location was chosen in an election held on June 14, 1856, under a live oak on the south bank of the river, near the present site of Roy Inks Bridge in Llano. Into the 1870s, the town was little more than a frontier trading center, with a few log buildings housing business establishments, a post office, and a few homes. In 1879, the first bank, Moore, Foster, and Company, was founded, and during the 1880s, Llano acquired a number of new enterprises that served the county's farmers and ranchers. After the county outgrew the one-story stone building that had housed its public offices, in 1885, an ornate brick courthouse was completed on the square on the south side of the river. A fire on January 22, 1892, destroyed this courthouse; the present county courthouse was completed and occupied on August 1, 1893. It is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.

In the 1880s the Llano Rural, the town's first newspaper, was established, followed by the Iron City News, the name of which reflects growing interest in the county's mineral resources. The Rural eventually incorporated several other newspapers, including the Advocate, the Searchlight, and the Gazette, to become the Llano News by the early 1900s. The Llano Times was where J. Marvin Hunter, author and historian of the American West, worked on the staff for a brief time early in the 20th century. [8]

Anticipation of significant economic growth based on the iron deposits discovered at Iron Mountain in northwestern Llano County attracted capital from Dallas and from northern states, and the boom years of Llano-from 1886 to 1893-were launched. The Llano Improvement and Furnace Company undertook plans for an iron furnace and foundry, as well as for the development of commercial real estate, on the hitherto undeveloped north side of the river. Charters were undertaken for a dam, an electric power plant, a streetcar system, and electric street lights, while expectations of growth were high. Steel-town names such as Birmingham, Pittsburgh, and Bessemer were chosen for streets on the north side; Llano was to be the "Pittsburgh of the West", but only a small dam and the street lighting were completed. By one report, the population reached 7,000 in 1890. In 1892, at the peak of the boom period, the town was incorporated, the river was bridged, and the Austin and Northwestern Railroad was extended to a terminal on the north side of Llano. Because of the improved transportation, several granite cutting and finishing businesses moved to town in this period. Many of the new businesses were begun in the boom period, and substantial brick establishments were constructed around the public square on the north side of the river. Among these, the Algona Hotel became a focal point for the town's new social life. It was damaged by a cyclone in 1900 and burned to the ground in 1923. Because the county's mineral resources, with the significant exception of granite, did not exist in commercially exploitable concentrations, the boom period soon faded. Plans to connect Llano with Fredericksburg via an extension of the San Antonio and Aransas Pass Railway were not fulfilled. A series of fires in the early 1890s, probably set to collect insurance on unprofitable properties, destroyed many of the new business establishments. Such fires were so numerous, fire insurance was denied to the town for several years.

Farming, ranching, and the granite industry remained the foundations of the town's economy in the 20th century. In the 1920s, Llano was a major shipping point for cattle; the cotton industry flourished in the county through the 1930s, but declined thereafter into insignificance. Granite quarrying and finishing retained their importance, amounting to a million-dollar-a-year industry by the 1950s. The Roy Inks Bridge, named for a former mayor, was built after a flood crest of 42 feet in 1935 swept away the 1892 structure. By 1964, the town had a new hospital, a post office, school buildings, a community center, a rodeo area, and a golf course, along with a city park and improved water system. Llano was an important link in the Highland Lakes chain of tourist areas, and attracted many hunters during the deer season. A winery, feed processing, and insecticide and commercial talc production represented new industry. Actress Sophia Loren, friend and correspondent of Netherlands native Anthony Goossens, priest of Holy Trinity Catholic Church in Llano, contributed to the church fund-raising campaign in 1975. By 1983, the National Register of Historic Places listed, in addition to the courthouse, the Llano jail, the Southern Hotel, and the Badu Building, former bank and home of French immigrant and mineralogist N. J. Badu, now a bed-and-breakfast establishment. [9]

2018 flood

In October 2018, Llano experienced heavy rainfall and flooding following Hurricane Sergio. [10] Rainfall in Llano exceeded 9.8 inches (250 mm) and the sea level of Llano River rose about 25 feet (7.6 m) in 12 hours. [11] The body of an unidentified woman was found on the banks alongside the Colorado River following the flooding in Llano. [12]

Registered historical places

Badu Building

Llano County Courthouse and Red Top Jail

Southern Hotel

Llano County Museum

The Llano County Museum is located in the former Bruhl's Drugstore owned by German native Louis Herman Bruhl (1849–1931). Bruhl married the former Leonie Julia Hammale, a merchant and pharmacist. They first lived in Waco and Rockport. Bruhl was U.S. consul to Italy from 1894–1899 and then opened the drugstore in Llano. Their son, Lawrence Lee Bruhl (1905–1999), was a Llano attorney. [13]

The museum, located on the north end of the Llano River bridge, has exhibits on local history, including a chuckwagon, drug store artifacts, and an outdoor frontier cabin. Also, it has a collection on 1930s world polo player and Llano native Cecil Smith [13] (February 14, 1904—January 21, 1999), later of Kendall County. [14]

Adjacent to the museum is the Historic Railyard District in which a train depot hosts a railroad museum and visitor's center. [15]

Education

The City of Llano is served by the Llano Independent School District, which includes Packsaddle Elementary, Llano Elementary, Llano Junior High, and Llano High School. Llano's mascot is the Yellow Jacket and the school colors are orange and black. The Llano Independent School District serves about 1,900 students and is currently a part of District-8AAA, also including Burnet, Lampasas, Liberty Hill, Brownwood, and Gatesville.

Events

Llano Crawfish Open - third weekend in April

Recreation

View from the shore of the Llano River Llanoriver.jpg
View from the shore of the Llano River

Hunting

Llano is widely known as the Deer Capital of Texas. The density of deer in the Llano Basin is the highest in the nation. Hunters from all over come to Llano for deer, quail, dove, feral pig, and turkey hunting, using guns as well as bow hunting.

Fishing

The spring-fed Llano River, which runs through the city, offers some of the best fishing in the area, and has become well known to fly anglers throughout Texas. The eastern border of Llano County features three of the Texas Highland Lakes, including Lake Buchanan, Inks Lake, and Lake LBJ. Today, white bass, striped bass, largemouth bass, catfish, spotted bass, crappie, and Guadalupe bass attract fisherman to these lakes year round.[ citation needed ]

Birding

The bald eagle makes its home in Llano County during its annual winter migration. Nine miles (14 km) east of Llano on Highway 29, a family of bald eagles can be viewed from the roadside during the nesting season. [16]

Golf

The Llano River Golf Course is located two miles (3 km) west of the Llano Courthouse on the Ranch Road 152, adjacent to Robinson City Park. The 18-hole golf is located on the banks of the Llano River. A fully equipped pro shop and golf carts are also available. [17]

Geology and archaeology

Llanite, a rare type of brown rhyolite porphyry with sky-blue quartz crystals and rusty-pink microcline feldspar, is found nowhere else in the world except in Llano County. Llanite can be found along a highway cut 9 mi (14 km) north of Llano on Texas 16. The largest piece of polished llanite in the world can be seen at the Badu House.

The centuries-long habitation of various Native American tribes in the area has produced numerous archaeological sites which attract amateur archaeologists year-round.

An extensive exhibit of artifacts, both Native American and early Texan, and a large display of area gems and minerals are on permanent exhibition at the Llano County Museum. [18]

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  2. "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  3. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  4. "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  5. "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" . Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  6. "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  7. "Monthly Averages for Llano, Texas". The Weather Channel. August 2011. Archived from the original on October 23, 2012.
  8. Gard, Wayne. "John Marvin Hunter". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved December 12, 2010.
  9. Heckert-Greene, James B. "Llano, Texas". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved December 12, 2010.
  10. Teo Blašković, Don (October 17, 2018). "Deadly floods hit Texas after extreme rainfall, state of emergency declared". The Watchers. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
  11. Caroline Floyd (October 16, 2018). "Stunning video shows bridge washed away in Texas flood". The Weather Network. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
  12. "Texas Flooding Kills 2; Bus Driver Arrested for Endangering a Child". The Weather Channel. October 17, 2018. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
  13. 1 2 "Llano County Historical Museum" . Retrieved December 12, 2010.
  14. "Social Security Death Index". Rootsweb.ancestry.com. Archived from the original on June 7, 2009. Retrieved July 7, 2009.
  15. "A Treasure Hunter's Paradise in Llano's Historic Railyard District". Hill Country Current. June 2010. Archived from the original on October 30, 2013.
  16. | Attractions | Llano Chamber of Commerce
  17. | Recreation | Llano Chamber of Commerce
  18. | Heritage | Llano Chamber of Commerce