Lollapalooza

Last updated
Lollapalooza
Lollapalooza logo.svg
Lollapalooza 2015.JPG
Bud Light Stage during the 2015 festival in Chicago
Genre
FrequencyAnnually
Location(s)
(2019) Gärdet, Stockholm (2019–present)}}
Years active1991–1997, 2003, 2005–present
InauguratedJuly 18, 1991;27 years ago (1991-07-18)
Founders Perry Farrell
Most recent
  • March 29–31, 2019 (San Isidro)
  • March 29–31, 2019 (Santiago)
  • April 5–7, 2019 (São Paulo)
  • July 20–21, 2019 (Paris)
  • August 1–4, 2019 (Chicago)
  • September 7–8, 2019 (Berlin)
Website www.lollapalooza.com

Lollapalooza /ˌlɒləpəˈlzə/ is an annual 4-day music festival based in Chicago, Illinois at Grant Park. Performances include but are not limited to alternative rock, heavy metal, punk rock, hip hop, and electronic music. Lollapalooza has also provided a platform for non-profit and political groups and various visual artists. The music festival hosts more than 160,000 people each year.

Music festival festival oriented towards music

A music festival is a community event oriented towards live performances of singing and instrument playing that is often presented with a theme such as musical genre, nationality, or locality of musicians, or holiday.

Grant Park (Chicago) urban park in Chicago, Illinois, USA

Grant Park is a large urban park in the Loop community area of Chicago, Illinois. Located within the city's central business district, the park's most notable features are Millennium Park, Buckingham Fountain, the Art Institute of Chicago, and the Museum Campus. Originally known as Lake Park, and dating from the city's founding, it was renamed in 1901 to honor US President Ulysses S. Grant. The park's area has been expanded several times through land reclamation, and was the focus of several disputes in the late 19th century and early 20th century over open space use. It is bordered on the north by Randolph Street, on the south by Roosevelt Road and McFetridge Drive, on the west by Michigan Avenue and on the east by Lake Michigan. The park contains performance venues, gardens, art work, sporting, and harbor facilities. It hosts public gatherings and several large annual events.

Alternative rock is a style of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1970s and became widely popular in the 1980s. In this instance, the word "alternative" refers to the genre's distinction from mainstream rock music. The term's original meaning was broader, referring to a generation of musicians unified by their collective debt to either the musical style or simply the independent, DIY ethos of punk rock, which in the late 1970s laid the groundwork for alternative music. At times, "alternative" has been used as a catch-all description for music from underground rock artists that receives mainstream recognition, or for any music, whether rock or not, that is seen to be descended from punk rock. Although the genre evolved in the late 1970s and 1980s, music anticipating the sound of the genre can be found as early as the 1960s, with bands such as The Velvet Underground.

Contents

Conceived and created in 1991 by Jane's Addiction singer Perry Farrell as a farewell tour for his band, Lollapalooza ran annually until 1997, and was revived in 2003. From its inception through 1997 and its revival in 2003, the festival toured North America. In 2004, the festival organizers decided to expand the dates to two days per city, but poor ticket sales forced the 2004 tour to be cancelled. [1]

Janes Addiction American rock band

Jane's Addiction is an American rock band from Los Angeles, formed in 1985. The band consists of vocalist Perry Farrell, guitarist Dave Navarro, drummer Stephen Perkins and bassist Chris Chaney.

Perry Farrell American musician

Perry Farrell is an American singer-songwriter and musician, best known as the frontman for the alternative rock band Jane's Addiction. Farrell created the touring festival Lollapalooza as a farewell tour for Jane's Addiction in 1991; it has since evolved into an annual destination festival. Farrell continues to produce Lollapalooza with partners William Morris Agency and C3 Presents. Farrell has also led the alternative rock groups Porno for Pyros and Satellite Party. He is the only person who has performed at all twelve Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festivals to date, having appeared under five different names.

In 2005, Farrell and the William Morris Agency partnered with Austin, Texas–based company Capital Sports Entertainment (now C3 Presents) and retooled it into its current format as a weekend destination festival in Chicago at Grant Park. In 2014, Live Nation Entertainment bought a controlling interest in C3 Presents. [2]

William Morris Agency

The William Morris Agency (WMA) was a Hollywood-based talent agency. It represented some of the best known 20th-century entertainers in film, television, and music. During its 109-year tenure it came to be regarded as the "first great talent agency in show business".

Austin, Texas Capital of Texas

Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County, with portions extending into Hays and Williamson counties. It is the 11th-most populous city in the United States and the 4th-most populous city in Texas. It is also the fastest growing large city in the United States, the second most populous state capital after Phoenix, Arizona, and the southernmost state capital in the contiguous United States. As of the U.S. Census Bureau's July 1, 2018 estimate, Austin had a population of 964,254 up from 790,491 at the 2010 census. The city is the cultural and economic center of the Austin–Round Rock metropolitan statistical area, which had an estimated population of 2,168,316 as of July 1, 2018. Located in Central Texas within the greater Texas Hill Country, it is home to numerous lakes, rivers, and waterways, including Lady Bird Lake and Lake Travis on the Colorado River, Barton Springs, McKinney Falls, and Lake Walter E. Long.

C3 Presents is a concert promotion, event production and artist management company based out of Austin, Texas. C3 also produces several iconic multi-day festivals including Austin City Limits Music Festival in Texas, Voodoo Music + Arts Experience in New Orleans, and Lollapalooza in Chicago along with its six international editions.

In 2010 it was announced that Lollapalooza would debut outside the United States, with a branch of the festival staged in Chile's capital Santiago on April 2–3, 2011 where they partnered up with Santiago-based company Lotus. In 2011, the company Geo Events confirmed the Brazilian version of the event, which was held at the Jockey Club in São Paulo on 7 and 8 April 2012. [3] [4] In September 2013, Buenos Aires was selected as the third Lollapalooza in South America, starting on April 2014, and in November 2014, the first European Lollapalooza was announced, which was held at the former Tempelhof Airport in Berlin. [5]

Chile Republic in South America

Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty.

São Paulo Municipality in Brazil

São Paulo is a municipality in the Southeast Region of Brazil. The metropolis is an alpha global city and the most populous city in Brazil, the Western Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, besides being the largest Portuguese-speaking city in the world. The municipality is also the world's 12th largest city proper by population. The city is the capital of the surrounding state of São Paulo, the most populous and wealthiest state in Brazil. It exerts strong international influences in commerce, finance, arts and entertainment. The name of the city honors the Apostle, Saint Paul of Tarsus. The city's metropolitan area, the Greater São Paulo, ranks as the most populous in Brazil and the 12th most populous on Earth. The process of conurbation between the metropolitan areas located around the Greater São Paulo created the São Paulo Macrometropolis, a megalopolis with more than 30 million inhabitants, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world.

Buenos Aires Place in Argentina

Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which also includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 15.6 million.

Etymology

The word—sometimes alternatively spelled and pronounced as lollapalootza or lalapaloosa [6] —or "lallapaloosa" (P.G. Wodehouse, "Heart of a Goof") dates from a late 19th-/early 20th-century American idiomatic phrase meaning "an extraordinary or unusual thing, person, or event; an exceptional example or instance." [7] Its earliest known use was in 1896. [8] In time the term also came to refer to a large lollipop. [9] Farrell, searching for a name for his festival, liked the euphonious quality of the by-then-antiquated term upon hearing it in a Three Stooges short film. [10] Paying homage to the term's double meaning, a character in the festival's original logo holds one of the lollipops. [9]

Phonaesthetics is the study of beauty and pleasantness associated with the sounds of certain words or parts of words. The term was first used, perhaps by J. R. R. Tolkien in this sense, during the mid-twentieth century, deriving from the Greek: φωνή phōnē, "voice-sound" plus Greek: αἰσθητική aisthētikē, "aesthetic". Speech sounds have many aesthetic qualities, some of which are subjectively regarded as euphonious (pleasing) or cacophonous (displeasing).

The word has also caused a slang suffix to appear in event-planning circles as well as in news and opinion shows that is used synonymously with other suffixes like "a-go-go", "o-rama", etc. The suffix "(a)palooza" is often used to imply (often in hyperbolic language) that an entire event or crowd was made over that term, e.g.: "Parks"-apalooza, popular Chicago sushi restaurant "Roll"-apalooza, etc.

History

Creation

Nine Inch Nails frontman Trent Reznor during the 1991 Lollapalooza festival. Trent Reznor Lollapalooza 1991.jpg
Nine Inch Nails frontman Trent Reznor during the 1991 Lollapalooza festival.

Inspired by events such as Britain's Reading Festival – which Lollapalooza cofounder Perry Farrell had been due to play in 1990 [11] – Farrell, Ted Gardner, Don Muller, and Marc Geiger conceived the festival in 1990 as a farewell for Farrell's band Jane's Addiction. [12]

Reading and Leeds Festivals pair of annual music festivals

The Reading and Leeds Festivals are a pair of annual music festivals that take place in Reading and Leeds in England. The events take place simultaneously on the Friday, Saturday and Sunday of the August bank holiday weekend, sharing the same bill. The Reading Festival is held at Little John's Farm on Richfield Avenue in central Reading, near the Caversham Bridge (51°27′52″N0°59′30″W). The Leeds event is held in Bramham Park, near Wetherby, the grounds of a historic house (53°52′04″N1°23′17″W). Campsites are available at both sites and weekend tickets include camping. Day tickets are also sold.

Ted Gardner is an Australian-born artist manager, entrepreneur and company owner. Gardner began his career in Melbourne in 1977, then relocated to Sydney in 1980 and on to United States from 1982. There he managed Jane's Addiction from 1989 and was co-founder of the original Lollapalooza festival in 1991 with its band members and booking agency.

Marc Geiger is an American music executive, talent agent, and entrepreneur. The co-founder of Lollapalooza and ARTISTdirect, he is the head of William Morris Endeavor's music division.

Unlike previous festivals such as Woodstock, A Gathering of the Tribes (also an influence on Lollapalooza) and the US Festival, which were one-time events held at single venues, Lollapalooza toured across the United States and Canada from mid-July until late August 1991. [13] The inaugural lineup was made up of artists from alternative rock (such as Siouxsie and the Banshees), industrial music (such as Nine Inch Nails) and rap (Ice-T rapped and used the platform to launch Body Count, his heavy metal band).

Another key concept was the inclusion of nonmusical features. [14] Performers such as the Jim Rose Circus Side Show, an alternative freak show, and the Shaolin monks stretched the boundaries of rock culture. There was a tent for display of art pieces, virtual reality games, and information tables for political and environmental non-profit groups, promoting counter-culture and political awareness. [15] "Basically, I'm bored," Farrell said at the time. "I just want to see things that are unexpected and slightly bizarre. The way Barnum & Bailey perceived putting on a show ... well, they had a different angle." [16]

Success and decline

It was at Lollapalooza where Farrell coined the term "Alternative Nation". [17] The explosion of alternative rock in the early 1990s propelled Lollapalooza forward; the 1992 and 1993 festivals leaned heavily on grunge and alternative acts, and usually featured an additional rap artist. [18] Punk rock standbys like mosh pits and crowd surfing became part of the canon of the concerts. These years saw great increases in the participatory nature of the event with the inclusion of booths for open-microphone readings and oratory, television-smashing pits and tattooing and piercing parlors. [19] [20] After 1991, the festival included a second stage (and, in 1996, a third stage) for up-and-coming bands or local acts. [21] Attendee complaints of the festival included high ticket prices as well as the high cost for food and water at the shows. [22] The festival played at the Alpine Valley festival in East Troy, Wisconsin on August 29, 1992, and also at World Music Theater in Tinley Park, IL (near Chicago), where concertgoers ripped up chunks of sod and grass and threw them at each other and at the bands, resulting in tens of thousands of dollars in damages to the venue. [10]

Grunge band Nirvana was scheduled to headline at the festival in 1994, but the band officially dropped out of the festival on April 7, 1994. [10] Nirvana frontman Kurt Cobain's body was discovered in Seattle the next day. Cobain's widow, Courtney Love, made guest appearances at several shows, including the Philadelphia show at FDR Park (usually taking time given to her by The Smashing Pumpkins vocalist/guitarist Billy Corgan), speaking to the crowds about the loss, then singing a minimum of two songs. [10] Farrell worked with rock poster artist Jim Evans (T.A.Z.) to create a series of posters and the complete graphic decoration for the 1994 event, including two 70 foot tall Buddha statues that flanked the main stage.

In 1996, Farrell, who had been the soul of the festival, decided to focus his energy to produce his new festival project, ENIT, and did not participate in producing Lollapalooza. [10] Many fans saw the addition of Metallica in 1996 as contrary to the festival's prior practice of featuring "non-mainstream" artists, [10] and described the crowds attracted by Metallica as being singularly focused on the headliner without respect for the other performing artists. [23] Moreover, festival cofounder Farrell felt that Metallica's macho image violated his peaceful vision for the festival, [24] for alternative culture of the early 1990s was generally against macho behavior. [25] Farrell quit the tour in protest. [26]

Responding to the controversial Metallica tour, Lollapalooza made efforts to revive its relevance to audiences. The festival booked eclectic acts such as country superstar Waylon Jennings in 1996, and emphasized heavily electronica groups such as The Orb and The Prodigy in 1997. [10] 1997, however, would prove to be the final tour from the initial series of Lollapalooza tours. The festival failed to find a suitable headliner in 1998, and therefore announced Lollapalooza's cancellation. [27] The cancellation served as a signifier of alternative rock's declining popularity. In light of the festival's troubles that year, Spin said, "Lollapalooza is as comatose as alternative rock right now." [28]

Revival and rebirth

In 2003, Farrell reconvened Jane's Addiction and scheduled a new Lollapalooza tour. The festival schedule included venues in 30 cities through July and August. The 2003 tour achieved only marginal success with many fans staying away, presumably because of high ticket prices. [10] Another tour scheduled for 2004 was to consist of a two-day festival taking place in each city. It was cancelled in June due to weak ticket sales across the country. [1] Farrell partnered with Capital Sports & Entertainment (now C3 Presents), which co-owns and produces the Austin City Limits Music Festival, to produce Lollapalooza. [29] CSE, Farrell and the William Morris Agency—along with Charles Attal Presents—resurrected Lollapalooza as a two-day destination festival in 2005 in Grant Park, Chicago, Illinois, with an even greater variety of performers (70 acts on five stages) than that of the touring festival. [10] The festival was generally successful, attracting over 65,000 attendees, despite a 104 degree Fahrenheit Sunday (40 degrees Celsius) heat wave (two people were hospitalized for heat related illness). [30] [31]

It returned to Chicago on August 4–6, 2006. On October 25, 2006, the Chicago Park District and Capital Sports & Entertainment agreed to a five-year, $5 million deal, keeping Lollapalooza at Grant Park in Chicago until 2011. [32] Lollapalooza ran August 3–5 in 2007, August 1–3 in 2008, August 7–9 in 2009, August 6–8 in 2010, August 5–7 in 2011, August 3–5 in 2012, August 2–4 in 2013 and August 1–3 in 2014. After a successful 2008 festival, another deal was signed to keep Lollapalooza in Chicago through 2018, guaranteeing the city $13 million. [33]

In December 2015, it was announced that Lollapalooza 2016 would be four days long, July 28 to July 31, to celebrate the event's 25th anniversary. [34]

In 2017, the festival kicked off on the 3rd of August celebrating its 26th year of existence. [35]

In 2018, the festival began on August 2 with a line-up of 180 bands. [36]

One March 20, 2019 - The next version of the annual Lollapalooza festival was announced.

Tickets and pricing

Tickets to the biggest Lollapalooza edition, in Chicago, are usually sold out extremely quickly. In the 2016 Lollapalooza, the four-day general passes sold out in about one day after they started the sale. The one-day passes sold even more quickly: they were gone less than three hours after organizers revealed the lineup for the four-day music festival. [37] Because of this phenomenon, people who cannot buy the passes try to get them through alternatives sources such as Craigslist and StubHub. This is a common practice, although the prices tend to be significantly higher on these websites. [38] In 2018, the festival experienced unusually slower sales so they released the lineup about 8 hours earlier.

In its earliest editions, the official passes used to cost $31.50. However, with its growth and prominent relevance on the music scenario, Lollapalooza passes' prices have been increasing substantially over the years. Comparing the weekend passes for Lollapalooza 2016, which cost $335, not including taxes and fees, with the ones for Lollapalooza 2015, which cost $275, the increase was more than 20%. [39] The price from 2015 to 2018 has remained the same without any increases.

International expansion

Chile

In 2010, it was announced that Lollapalooza would debut in South America, with a branch of the festival staged in Chile's capital Santiago on April 2–3, 2011. The Lollapalooza Chile line up included Jane's Addiction, Thirty Seconds to Mars, The National, Manny and Gil The Latin, The Drums, The Killers, Los Bunkers, Ana Tijoux, Javiera Mena, Fatboy Slim, Deftones, Los Plumabits, Cypress Hill, 311, The Flaming Lips and many others. [40] The eighth edition in Chile was held on 16–18 March 2018, with Pearl Jam, Lana Del Rey, The Killers, Red Hot Chili Peppers and LCD Soundsystem as headliners.

Brazil

A Brazilian version of the event was confirmed in 2011, [3] and had its inaugural edition at the Jockey Club in São Paulo on April 7 and 8, 2012. [4] In the following year, Lollapalooza was again held at Jockey Club during Holy Week, this time expanding to three days that filled the whole Paschal Triduum – March 29–31, 2013. [41] The third edition was moved to the Autódromo José Carlos Pace in São Paulo's borough of Interlagos, happening on April 5 and 6, 2014. [42] Interlagos remained the festival's home for the following editions, on March 28–29, 2015, [43] March 12–13, 2016, [44] March 25–26, 2017, March 23–24–25, 2018 and April 05-06-07, 2019 [45] .

Argentina

On September 10, 2013, it was announced that the following year the festival will also be held in Buenos Aires, Argentina; thus expanding the South American branch after the festivals in Santiago and São Paulo. [46]

Germany

On November 4, 2014, it was announced that the very first Lollapalooza Festival will be held in Europe, in the German capital of Berlin. It is scheduled for September 12–13, 2015, the proposed location is the historical airport ground of Berlin-Tempelhof. In true Lollapalooza fashion, this urban location serves to incorporate regional partners in presenting international events. [47] In the official press release, festival founder Perry Farrell stated that, "Berlin's energy, vibrant art, fashion and music scenes are a mirror reflection of what Lollapalooza is all about and I can't wait to share in this cultural exchange". [5] [48] Lollapalooza Germany was produced by the Lollapalooza U.S. team in addition to Melt! Booking and Festival Republic who have helped run both Reading and Leeds festival in England. [49] The 2016 edition of the festival took place in the Treptower Park in Berlin, 10–11 September. It drew 70,000 visitors each day. [50]

At change.org an on-line petition against the festival in the Treptower Park gathered over 6400 supporters. Citizens from the area have created working groups to stop the festival taking place in the Treptower Park. [51] There has been little communication with local inhabitants from either festival organizers or local government. People living directly next to the event location have received an invitation to move to a nearby hotel for the duration of the festival.

Sweden

On May 30, 2018, Live Nation announced that the very first scandinavian edition of Lollapalooza will be held in the capital of Sweden, Stockholm, on the 28-29 of June 2019. [52]

Paris

On October 12, 2016, Lollapalooza announced that they would be hosting a festival in Paris, France. [53] The inaugural edition of this festival will be taking place at the city's Longchamp Racecourse grounds on July 22–23, 2017. The lineup for Lollapalooza Paris 2017 was announced on January 17, 2017 and includes a lineup featuring Red Hot Chili Peppers and The Weeknd as headliners. Following that, the lineup includes the likes of Imagine Dragons, Lana Del Rey, DJ Snake, London Grammar, Alt-J, The Roots, Marshmello, Liam Gallagher, Martin Solveig, Skepta, Glass Animals, Milky Chance, Don Diablo, Oliver Heldens, Crystal Fighters, Jauz, Alan Walker, and many more.

Chicago

Chicago's Grant Park was the venue for the 13th edition of Lollapalooza from August 3–6, 2017. [54] Among the many entertainers performing during the 4-day festival, there was a small theater troupe which presented all of the over 100 poems found in Charles Baudelaire's "Les Fleurs du Mal." Fifty artists from around the world joined Theater Oobleck to create "Baudelaire In A Box." [55]

Other

On August 7, 2012, Perry Farrell announced that Lollapalooza will be debuting in Tel Aviv, Israel. Farrell described Israel as an "international music community that listens to everything we all listen to, but the artists weren't traveling there so it was an opportunity." [56] The event was scheduled for August 20–22, 2013 in Hayarkon Park, the city's largest urban park. [57] However, the event has been postponed to an unknown date. [58] While there was no definitive reasoning for the cancellation of the Israel date, various news sources report there are often financial challenges that attribute to producing a large-scale show with international artists within the political situation in the Mideast. [59]

Criticism

Recording engineer, guitarist, and journalist Steve Albini has criticized Lollapalooza for its corporatization of popularized "alternative" music. In a 1993 interview, Albini commented:

Lollapalooza is the worst example of corporate encroachment into what is supposed to be the underground. It is just a large scale marketing of bands that pretend to be alternative but are in reality just another facet of the mass cultural exploitation scheme. I have no appreciation or affection for those bands and I have no interest in that whole circle. If Lollapalooza had Jesus Lizard and the Melvins and Fugazi and Slint then you could make a case that it was actually people on the vanguard of music. What it really is the most popular bands on MTV that are not heavy metal. [60]

Both The Jesus Lizard and the Melvins have subsequently performed at the event. [61] [62]

In April 2010, it was reported that Illinois Attorney General Lisa Madigan had launched an antitrust investigation into the festival for imposing radius clauses on acts, contractually stipulating that they could not perform in cities within 300 miles of Chicago—including cities as far as Detroit, Indianapolis, and Milwaukee—for up to six months prior, and three months after Lollapalooza. [63] [64]

Lineups by year

See also

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References

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  2. Live Nation Completes Deal for C3 Presents - Billboard, 22 December 2014
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