Lomé

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Lomé
City
Imagelome20.jpg
A view of Lomé
Lome Coat of arms.jpg
Coat of arms
Togo location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Lomé
Location in Togo
Coordinates: 6°7′55″N1°13′22″E / 6.13194°N 1.22278°E / 6.13194; 1.22278 Coordinates: 6°7′55″N1°13′22″E / 6.13194°N 1.22278°E / 6.13194; 1.22278
Country Flag of Togo.svg  Togo
Region Maritime Region
Prefecture Golfe
Government
  Mayor Aouissi Lodé
Area
  City99.14 km2 (38.28 sq mi)
  Metro
280 km2 (110 sq mi)
Elevation
10 m (30 ft)
Population
 (2010 census)
  City837,437
  Density9,305/km2 (24,100/sq mi)
   Metro
1,477,660
  Metro density5,608/km2 (14,520/sq mi)
Time zone UTC
HDI (2017)0.593 [1]
medium · 1st

Lomé is the capital and largest city of Togo. It has an urban population of 837,437 [2] while there were 1,570,283 permanent residents in its metropolitan area as of the 2011 census. [2] Located on the Gulf of Guinea, Lomé is the country's administrative and industrial center, which includes an oil refinery, and its chief port, where it exports coffee, cocoa, copra, and oil palm kernels.

Togo Country in Africa

Togo, officially the Togolese Republic, is a country in West Africa bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north. The sovereign state extends south to the Gulf of Guinea, where its capital Lomé is located. Togo covers 57,000 square kilometres, making it one of the smallest countries in Africa, with a population of approximately 7.6 million.

Metropolitan area region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated but economically-linked surroundings

A metropolitan area is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metro area usually comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships, boroughs, cities, towns, exurbs, suburbs, counties, districts, states, and even nations like the eurodistricts. As social, economic and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions.

Gulf of Guinea The northeasternmost part of the tropical Atlantic Ocean between Cape Lopez in Gabon, north and west to Cape Palmas in Liberia

The Gulf of Guinea is the northeasternmost part of the tropical Atlantic Ocean between Cape Lopez in Gabon, north and west to Cape Palmas in Liberia. The intersection of the Equator and Prime Meridian is in the gulf.

Contents

History

Lome in 1903. Lome 1903 (Togo).jpg
Lomé in 1903.
Alley leading to the Governor's Palace (1904). Lome Togo Weg nach dem Gouverneurspalast 1904.png
Alley leading to the Governor's Palace (1904).

The city was founded by the Ewes and thereafter in the 19th century by German, British and African traders, [3] becoming the capital of Togoland in 1897. [4]

Ewe people West African ethnic group, largest in Togo

The Ewe people are an African ethnic group. The largest population of Ewe people is in Ghana with (3.3m) people, and the second largest population in Togo with (2m) people. They speak the Ewe language which belongs to the Niger-Congo Gbe family of languages. They are related to other speakers of Gbe languages such as the Fon, Gen, Phla Phera, and the Aja people of Togo and Benin.

German colonial empire

The German colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, dependencies and territories of Imperial Germany. Unified in the early 1870's, the chancellor of this time period was Otto von Bismarck. Short-lived attempts of colonization by individual German states had occurred in preceding centuries, but crucial colonial efforts only began in 1884 with the Scramble for Africa. Claiming much of the left-over uncolonized areas in the Scramble for Africa, Germany managed to build the third largest colonial empire at the time, after the British and French.

Togoland former protectorate of the German colonial empire in West Africa (1884–1914), divided between present-day Ghana and Togo

Togoland was a German Empire protectorate in West Africa from 1884 to 1914, encompassing what is now the nation of Togo and most of what is now the Volta Region of Ghana, approximately 77,355 km2 in size. During the period known as the "Scramble for Africa", the colony was established in 1884 and was gradually extended inland.

The city's population grew rapidly in the second half of the 20th century. The city had approximately 30,000 inhabitants in 1950: by 1960 (the year Togo gained its independence from France) the population had reached 80,000, increasing to 200,000 by 1970.[ citation needed ]

Geography

View of the Lome beach in 2016 Plage de Lome au Togo (Afrique de l'Ouest).jpg
View of the Lomé beach in 2016
Aerial view of Lome 2014-06-16 19-07-24 Togo Maritime - Adjogble.JPG
Aerial view of Lomé

Lomé is surrounded by a lagoon to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the south, the village of Bè to the east and the border of Aflao, Ghana to the west.

Atlantic Ocean Ocean between Europe, Africa and the Americas

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers approximately 20 percent of Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the "Old World" from the "New World".

Aflao Town in Volta Region, Ghana

Aflao is a town in Ketu South District in the Volta Region on Ghana's Togolese (eastern) border. Aflao is the twenty-eighth most populous settlement in Ghana, in terms of population, with a population of 96,550people.

Neighborhoods in Lomé include Ablogamé, Adawlato, Amoutivé, , Dékon, Forever, Kodjoviakopé, Noukafou, Nyékonakpoé, Tokoin and Xédranawoe.

Ablogamé is a neighborhood of Lomé, Togo. A downtown area, it forms a district around the Port of Lomé.

is a canton and neighborhood of Lomé, Togo, located on the lagoon, east of the city. It contains a number of hotels and bars.

Dékon is a neighborhood of Lomé, Togo. Although it's one of the business areas of the city, it is also one of the poorest areas, in which child prostitution is common.

Cities and towns in the Greater Lomé Metropolitan Area include: Aflao (Ghana), Agbalépédogan, Akodésséwa, Anfamé, Baguida, Kanyikopé, Kélékougan, Lomé II, Totsigan, Adidogome, Kegue and Totsivi.

Agbalépédogan is a northern suburb of Lomé, Togo. It is one of the educational areas of the city and a number of colleges and schools are located in Agbalépédogan.

Baguida Place in Maritime Region, Togo

Baguida is a canton and city of the suburbs of Lomé, the capital of Togo. It was itself once the capital.

Climate

Lomé has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw) despite its latitude close to the equator. The capital of Togo is relatively dry with an annual average rainfall of 800–900 mm and on average 59 rainy days per year. Despite this, the city experiences heavy fog most of the year and receives a total of 2330 bright sunshine hours annually.

The annual mean temperature is above 27.5 °C (81.5 °F) but heat is constant as monthly mean temperatures range from 24.9 °C (76.8 °F) in July, the least warm month of the year to 29.6 °C (85.3 °F) in February and in April, the hottest months of the year.

Climate data for Lomé (Lomé Airport) 1961–1990, extremes 1892–present
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)35.7
(96.3)
36.4
(97.5)
36.3
(97.3)
35.0
(95.0)
34.8
(94.6)
36.4
(97.5)
32.8
(91.0)
36.5
(97.7)
35.5
(95.9)
33.8
(92.8)
38.1
(100.6)
34.5
(94.1)
38.1
(100.6)
Average high °C (°F)31.7
(89.1)
32.3
(90.1)
32.5
(90.5)
32.1
(89.8)
31.3
(88.3)
29.6
(85.3)
28.2
(82.8)
28.0
(82.4)
29.1
(84.4)
30.4
(86.7)
31.6
(88.9)
31.6
(88.9)
30.7
(87.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)27.1
(80.8)
28.2
(82.8)
28.5
(83.3)
28.2
(82.8)
27.4
(81.3)
26.2
(79.2)
25.3
(77.5)
25.2
(77.4)
25.8
(78.4)
26.6
(79.9)
27.3
(81.1)
27.1
(80.8)
26.9
(80.4)
Average low °C (°F)22.5
(72.5)
24.0
(75.2)
24.5
(76.1)
24.4
(75.9)
23.5
(74.3)
22.8
(73.0)
22.5
(72.5)
22.3
(72.1)
22.5
(72.5)
22.8
(73.0)
22.9
(73.2)
22.5
(72.5)
23.1
(73.6)
Record low °C (°F)15.2
(59.4)
16.7
(62.1)
19.9
(67.8)
20.0
(68.0)
19.2
(66.6)
18.0
(64.4)
16.7
(62.1)
17.1
(62.8)
18.0
(64.4)
16.4
(61.5)
18.6
(65.5)
15.6
(60.1)
15.2
(59.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches)8.9
(0.35)
23.1
(0.91)
53.4
(2.10)
96.1
(3.78)
152.7
(6.01)
251.8
(9.91)
91.0
(3.58)
32.7
(1.29)
64.7
(2.55)
74.6
(2.94)
20.4
(0.80)
7.8
(0.31)
877.2
(34.54)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)023591164662157
Average relative humidity (%)79818282848687868685848284
Mean monthly sunshine hours 222.4214.8228.0218.0217.8141.3135.4147.5168.4218.0240.6227.22,379.4
Source #1: Deutscher Wetterdienst [5]
Source #2: NOAA (sun 1961–1990), [6] Meteo Climat (record highs and lows) [7]


Lomé mean sea temperature
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
28 °C (82 °F)28 °C (82 °F)29 °C (84 °F)29 °C (84 °F)29 °C (84 °F)28 °C (82 °F)26 °C (79 °F)25 °C (77 °F)25 °C (77 °F)27 °C (81 °F)28 °C (82 °F)28 °C (82 °F)

International agreements

Lomé Convention

The Lomé Convention is a trade and aid agreement between the European Union (EU) and 71 African, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) countries. It was first signed on 28 February 1975, in Lomé. [8] The first Lomé Convention (Lomé I), which came into force in April 1976, was designed to provide a new framework of cooperation between the then European Community (EC) and developing ACP countries, in particular former British, Dutch, Belgian and French colonies. It had two main aspects. It provided for most ACP agricultural and mineral exports to enter the EC free of duty. Preferential access based on a quota system was agreed for products, such as sugar and beef, in competition with EC agriculture. Secondly, the EC committed to the ECU for 3 billion in aid and investment in the ACP countries.

The convention was renegotiated and renewed three times. Lomé II (January 1981 to February 1985) increased the aid and investment expenditure for the ECU to 5.5 billion. Lomé III came into force in March 1985 (trade provisions) and May 1986 (aid), and expired in 1990; it increased commitments to ECU by 8.5 billion. Lomé IV was signed in December 1989. Its trade provisions cover ten years, 1990 to 1999. Aid and investment commitments for the first five years amounted to 12 billion. In all, some 70 ACP states are party to Lomé IV, compared with the 46 signatories of Lomé I.

Lomé Peace Accord

The Lomé Peace Accord between the warring parties in the civil war in Sierra Leone was signed in Lomé. With the assistance of the international community, Sierra Leone President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah and Revolutionary United Front leader Foday Sankoh signed the Peace Accord on 7 July 1999. However, the agreement did not last and the Sierra Leone Civil War continued for two more years.

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
18921,500    
18962,000+7.46%
19003,000+10.67%
19044,000+7.46%
19076,000+14.47%
19118,000+7.46%
193015,000+3.36%
193818,000+2.31%
YearPop.±% p.a.
195033,000+5.18%
195543,000+5.44%
196085,000+14.60%
1970186,000+8.15%
1981375 499    
1990450,000    
1997573,000+3.51%
2006737,751+2.85%

Economy

Lome Grand Market Lome Grand Marche with the Cathedrale du Sacre Coeur (33592985581).jpg
Lomé Grand Market

Located 200 kilometres (124 miles) from Accra, Ghana and 150 kilometres (93 miles) from Cotonou, Benin, Lomé is an important port, including a free trade zone opened in 1968. It exports phosphates, coffee, cocoa, cotton and palm oil, much of the transit going to the neighbouring countries of Ghana, Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso. The port also holds an oil refinery.

The city in general has great potential, because tourism is growing in the country. However, political instability that began to surface in the passing years and continues today has seriously affected the country's tourism sector. In 2003, the country received 57,539 visitors, an increase of 1% compared to 2002. 22% of tourists came from France, 10% from Burkina Faso and 9% were from Benin.

Architecture

Former building of the Ministry of Justice Building in Lome (30668258326).jpg
Former building of the Ministry of Justice
Congress Palace Buildings in Lome (6717151255).jpg
Congress Palace
Headquarters of ECOWAS in Lome ECOWAS Bank for Investment and Development headquarters in Lome.jpg
Headquarters of ECOWAS in Lomé
Place of the Dove of Peace Peace dove (3330451514).jpg
Place of the Dove of Peace

The city of Lomé is a typical African city in the sense that many styles, influences, and traditions are mixed. The landscape combines red earth, with grand boulevards and large squares, green gardens and colourful houses.

There are some remnants of colonial architecture from the turn of the century, such as arcades and galleries and the Cathedral of the Sacred Heart designed in the German Gothic style. There are also many modern buildings, like the headquarters of the BCEAO, the BTCI, the magnificent edifice of ECOWAS, Hotel de la Paix, the Hotel Mercure Sarakawa, Palm Beach Hotel and the famous Hotel du 2 Fevrier, rising to 102 metres.

Not far away is the Lomé Grand Market, with a large 3-storey hall. It sells everything from red peppers, green lemons, and dried fish, to combs, travel bags, and traditional medicinal remedies. There are spices like cinnamon sticks, star anise, clove and nutmeg. [9] On the first floor is the Nana Benz, which is noted for its clothing. Nearer the centre of the city, there is the Akodessewa market, which is much more specialized than the general market. There are fetishes, gongons, and gris-gris.

The coast is considerably less frantic than the market, with local fishermen quietly pushing their large boats out to sea. To the west of the city is a residential area that faces the sea. The area has long streets, dotted by official government buildings excluding the Palace of Justice and the various embassies and consulates. East to the port there is fishermen's market (Marché du port de pêche). The market is being used by local fishermen to sell their fish directly to the vendors. The market is the entry point for the canoes used by the fishermen.

Farther north, near the Monument of Independence, is the house of the Rally of the Togolese People (RPT), a major convention center.

Culture

The Togo National Museum is in the Palais de Congrès. The museum contains collections, jewelry, musical instruments, dolls, pottery, weapons and many other objects showing the arts and traditions.

Places of worship

Among the places of worship, they are predominantly Christian churches and temples : Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lomé (Catholic Church), Evangelical Presbyterian Church of Togo (World Communion of Reformed Churches), Togo Baptist Convention (Baptist World Alliance), Living Faith Church Worldwide, Redeemed Christian Church of God, Assemblies of God. [10] There are also Muslim mosques.

Education

Entrance of University of Lome University of Lome entrance - Mapillary (vZJS7Fs0LkiVS7sHBlVdtg).jpg
Entrance of University of Lomé

The University of Lomé (previously called University of Benin), located in Lomé Tokoin, was founded in 1970.

Schools located in the city include American International School of Lomé, British School of Lomé, Ecole Internationale Arc-en-Ciel and Lycée Français de Lomé.

Transportation

Lome-Tokoin International Airport Aeroport de Lome - vue du parking 1.jpg
Lomé–Tokoin International Airport

The city is served by the Lomé–Tokoin International Airport which is the hub for ASKY Airlines and has intercontinental connections to Paris, Brussels, Lisbon and Newark-New York. The former railway line to Blitta runs from the airport to the city. In Lomé, and in many other places in Togo, moto-taxis are a common form of transportation. Motorcycle drivers fill the streets and passengers flag them down for a ride on the back for a small charge.

International relations

Twin towns — sister cities

Lomé is twinned with:

Notable people

Related Research Articles

This article refers to transportation in the country of Togo

Lome may refer to:

The Aja are a ethnic group of native to south-western Benin and south-eastern Togo. According to oral tradition, the Aja migrated to southern Benin in the 12th or 13th centuries from Tado on the Mono River, and c. 1600, three brothers, Kokpon, Do-Aklin, and Te-Agdanlin, split the ruling of the region then occupied by the Aja amongst themselves: Kokpon took the capital city of Great Ardra, reigning over the Allada kingdom; Do-Aklin founded Abomey, which would become capital of the Kingdom of Dahomey; and Te-Agdanlin founded Little Ardra, also known as Ajatche, later called Porto Novo by Portuguese traders and the current capital city of Benin.

The Lomé Convention is a trade and aid agreement between the European Economic Community (EEC) and 71 African, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) countries, first signed in February 1975 in Lomé, Togo.

Cotonou Agreement

The Cotonou Agreement is a treaty between the European Union and the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States. It was signed in June 2000 in Cotonou, Benin's largest city, by 78 ACP countries and the then fifteen Member States of the European Union. It entered into force in 2003 and was subsequently revised in 2005 and 2010.

African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States intergovernmental organization of countries in Africa, the Caribbean, and the Pacific, created by the Georgetown Agreement in 1975, aiming at sustainable development and poverty reduction and greater integration into the worlds economy

The African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (ACP) is a group of countries in Africa, the Caribbean, and the Pacific that was created by the Georgetown Agreement in 1975. The group's main objectives are sustainable development and poverty reduction within its member states, as well as their greater integration into the world's economy. All of the member states, except Cuba, are signatories to the Cotonou Agreement with the European Union.

Guinean forest-savanna mosaic

The Guinean forest-savanna mosaic is an ecoregion of West Africa, a band of interlaced forest, savanna, and grassland running east to west and dividing the tropical moist forests near the coast from the West Sudanian savanna of the interior.

ACP–EU development cooperation

Development cooperation between the European Union (EU) and the countries of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (ACP) celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2007. Although bilateral relations have always been and still remain one of the main features of modern development cooperation, it was the Treaty of Rome in 1957 which first established a collective European development policy. The Treaty of Rome granted associated status to 31 overseas collectivities and territories (OCTs) and provided for the creation of a European Development Fund (EDF) intended to grant technical and financial assistance to the countries which were still under European rule at the time. More significantly, however, by means of the Treaty of Rome the six member states of the European Economic Community were expressing solidarity with the colonies and OCTs and committed themselves to contribute to their prosperity. The EDF has to date been funded outside the EU budget by the EU Member States on the basis of financial payments related to specific contribution shares, or “keys”, which are subject to negotiation. The EDF is currently the only EU policy instrument that is financed through a specific key that is different from the EU budget key, and which reflects the comparative interests of individual Member States.

The Lambas are an ethnic and linguistic group of people living in the Kéran and Doufelgou Districts (Préfecture) of the Kara Region in Northern Togo and in the Atakora and Donga Departments of Bénin, West Africa. The capital of the Kéran District is Kanté and the capital of the Doufelgou District is Niamtougou.

Ghana–Togo relations Diplomatic relations between the Republic of Ghana and the Togolese Republic

The strains in Ghana–Togo relations stretch back to pre-independence days.

Outline of Togo Overview of and topical guide to Togo

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Togo:

Railway stations in Ghana Wikimedia list article

The railway stations in Ghana serve a rail network concentrated in the south of the country.

Railway stations in Togo include:

Rail transport in Togo

Rail transport in Togo consists of 568 km (2008) of 1,000 mm railway. However, no trains have run on them for many years.

Vienne Department of France

Vienne is a department in the French region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine. It takes its name from the river Vienne.

Prostitution in Togo is legal and commonplace. Related activities such as solicitation, living off the earnings of prostitution or procuring are prohibited. Punishment is up to 10 years imprisonment if minors or violence is involved.

Ecobank Kenya is a commercial bank in Kenya. It is one of the commercial banks licensed by the Central Bank of Kenya, the central bank and national banking regulator.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Lomé, Togo.

References

  1. "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  2. 1 2 Résultats définitifs du RGPH4 au Togo Archived 21 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  3. Britannica, Lomé, britannica.com, USA, accessed on 30 June 2019
  4. "Klimatafel von Lomé (Flugh.) / Togo" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  5. "Lomé Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  6. "Station Lome" (in French). Météo Climat. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  7. Roman Adrian Cybriwsky, Capital Cities around the World: An Encyclopedia of Geography, History, and Culture, ABC-CLIO, USA, 2013, p. 162
  8. "Photographs of the city of Lomé, April 2016". Independent Travellers. independent-travellers.com. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
  9. J. Gordon Melton, Martin Baumann, ‘‘Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices’’, ABC-CLIO, USA, 2010, p. 2875-2877
  10. 友好城市 (Friendly cities) Archived 19 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine , 市外办 (Foreign Affairs Office), 22 March 2008. (Translation by Google Translate.)
  11. 国际友好城市一览表 (International Friendship Cities List) Archived 13 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine , 20 January 2011. (Translation by Google Translate.)
  12. 友好交流 (Friendly exchanges) Archived 12 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine , 13 September 2011. (Translation by Google Translate.)

Bibliography