London Borough of Brent

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London Borough of Brent
Brent London Borough Council logo.svg
Motto: 
Forward Together
Brent UK locator map.svg
Brent shown within Greater London
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region London
Ceremonial county Greater London
Created1 April 1965
Admin HQEngineers Way, Wembley
Government
  Type London borough council
  Body Brent London Borough Council
  LeaderMuhammed Butt (Labour)
  MayorLia Colacicco [1]
  London Assembly Krupesh Hirani (Lab) AM for Brent and Harrow
   MPs Barry Gardiner (Lab)
Tulip Siddiq (Lab)
Dawn Butler (Lab)
Area
  Total16.70 sq mi (43.24 km2)
  Rank276th (of 309)
Population
 (2021)
  Total339,816
  Rank28th (of 309)
  Density20,000/sq mi (7,900/km2)
  Ethnicity [2]
18% White British
4% White Irish
0.1% White Gypsy or Irish Traveller
14.3% Other White
1.4% White & Black Caribbean
0.9% White & Black African
1.2% White & Asian
1.6% Other Mixed
18.6% Indian
4.6% Pakistani
0.6% Bangladeshi
1% Chinese
9.2% Other Asian
7.8% Black African
7.6% Black Caribbean
3.4% Other Black
3.7% Arab
2.1% Other
Time zone UTC (GMT)
  Summer (DST) UTC+1 (BST)
Postcodes
HA, NW, W
Area code 020
ONS code 00AE
GSS code E09000005
Police Metropolitan Police
Website http://www.brent.gov.uk

The London Borough of Brent ( Loudspeaker.svg pronunciation  ) is a London borough in north-west London. It borders the boroughs of Harrow to the north-west, Barnet to the north-east, Camden to the east, the City of Westminster to the south-east, as well as the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, Hammersmith and Fulham and Ealing to the south. Most of the eastern border is formed by the Roman road Watling Street, which is now the modern A5.

Contents

Brent's population is estimated to be 329,771. Major districts are Kilburn, Willesden, Wembley and Harlesden, with sub-districts Stonebridge, Kingsbury, Kensal Green and Queen's Park. Brent has a mixture of residential, industrial and commercial land. It includes many districts of inner-city character in the east and a more distinct suburban character in the west, part of which formed part of the early 20th century Metroland developments. Today Brent is known for being home to Wembley Stadium, the country's largest stadium by capacity, as well as other landmarks such as the Kiln Theatre, the Swaminarayan Temple and Wembley Arena. Other notable places are the Welsh Harp reservoir and the Park Royal commercial estate. The local authority is Brent London Borough Council.

Local government

Administrative history

The Brent region in the Ordnance Survey's First Series of maps (1805-1869) Historical Brent Map.jpg
The Brent region in the Ordnance Survey's First Series of maps (18051869)

Brent was formed in 1965 from the area of the former Municipal Borough of Wembley and Municipal Borough of Willesden of Middlesex. The Municipal Borough of Wembley was formed by a merger of the parishes of Wembley (originally part of the Ancient Parish of Harrow-on-the-Hill) and Kingsbury in 1934.

Its name derives from the River Brent which runs through the borough and separated the former boroughs of Wembley and Willesden. [3]

Representation

A map showing the wards of Brent since 2002 Brent London UK labelled ward map 2002.svg
A map showing the wards of Brent since 2002

Brent is divided into 21 electoral wards. Some wards share a name with the traditional areas above, others include Mapesbury and Welsh Harp. [4]

The borough includes three parliamentary constituencies: Brent North, Brent Central and Hampstead and Kilburn, which includes part of the London Borough of Camden. Before the 2010 United Kingdom general election it was divided into three constituencies contained wholly within the borough – Brent South, Brent East and Brent North.

Politics

Brent London Borough Council is elected every four years, with currently 63 councillors being elected at each election. While the Labour Party has been the largest single party on the council for about half its history and the Conservatives and the Liberal Democrats have each been the largest party at other times, there have been several periods when no party has had overall control. Labour regained control in 2010 and increased their majority at the 2014 election and 2018 election. As of 2020, the council is composed of the following councillors: [5] [6]

PartyCouncillors
Labour Party 59
Conservative Party 3
Liberal Democrats 1

The Leader of the council is Labour Councillor Muhammed Butt. [7]

Proposals to partition the borough

The merger of Willesden and Wembley (including Kingsbury) in 1965 created the borough of Brent, but this was one of the more unpopular of the mergers occurring during the creation of the modern London boroughs.[ citation needed ] Reasons for this included the limited road links between the two areas (with the A4088 and A404 Harrow Road the only major road links across the Brent valley boundary), the lack of a focal point or ‘heart’ for the borough and the contrasting characteristics; with Willesden more inner-city in nature, and Wembley more suburban. Widening schemes for the North Circular Road, which passed along the Brent valley, close to the boundary between the two, increased this sense of separation.

The unpopularity persisted and in 1989 more than ten thousand people signed a petition calling for Wembley (with Kingsbury) to regain its independence or else join with the London Borough of Harrow with which it had historic administrative links, had better transport integration and had shared common suburban interests. The 1994, the Boundary Commission considered this, and other requests, considering a wide range of options [8] including restoring independence to the districts, or joining them to different neighbouring boroughs – an option the Commission preferred.[ citation needed ]

Wembley and Harrow would represent a pre-20th century remerger. The London Borough of Harrow supported the failed idea and that of the eastern boundary's straightening (with the London Borough of Barnet along the A5 Road (Watling Street, Edgware Road)). Willesden was harder to idealise a match with an existing borough. The Boroughs and Commission, by narrow consensus, saw Ealing as most likely, yet a main bar would remain of the lack of a focal point and the industrial zones of Park Royal, Old Oak Common and North Acton, a busy buffer zone.

The Commission concluded there was insufficient justification for the disruption of the proposals, which should only be considered during a comprehensive review of London's boundaries.

Demographics

Population pyramid of the Borough of Brent in 2020 Brent population pyramid.svg
Population pyramid of the Borough of Brent in 2020
Population
YearPop.±%
1801 2,022    
1811 2,690+33.0%
1821 3,074+14.3%
1831 3,991+29.8%
1841 5,416+35.7%
1851 5,646+4.2%
1861 14,749+161.2%
1871 23,852+61.7%
1881 32,955+38.2%
1891 67,674+105.4%
1901 105,613+56.1%
1911 164,833+56.1%
1921 202,448+22.8%
1931 248,656+22.8%
1941 277,842+11.7%
1951 310,457+11.7%
1961 294,804−5.0%
1971 280,009−5.0%
1981 251,249−10.3%
1991 248,569−1.1%
2001 263,463+6.0%
2011 311,215+18.1%
Source: A Vision of Britain through time

In 1801, the civil parishes that form the modern borough had a total population of 2,022. This rose slowly throughout the nineteenth century, as the district became built up; reaching 5,646 in the middle of the century. When the railways arrived the rate of population growth increased. The population took five decades to rebound to the more muted peak of the 1950s, when much industry relocated from London, further boosting the speed of the wave of new housing then built.

Brent is the most diverse locality in the UK by country of birth. It in 2019 became the only local authority with over 50% of residents, namely 52%, born abroad. [9] Large Asian and Indian, Black African, Black Caribbean, Irish, and Eastern European communities exist. 45 percent of the population was a minority ethnicity in the 1991 census, [10] the most in England at the time. [11] In 1991 17.2% were Indian, 10.2% were Black Caribbean and 9% were Irish. Brent was the only Outer London borough combining high proportions of Indian and Afro-Caribbean ethnicities. [12]

The 2001 UK Census found that the borough had a population of 263,464 residents, of whom 127,806 were male, and 135,658 female. Of those stating a choice, 47.71% described themselves as Christian, 17.71% as Hindu, 12.26% as Muslim and 10% as having no religion. Among residents, 39.96% were in full-time employment and 7.86% in part-time employment compared to a London average of 42.64% and 8.62%, respectively. Narrowly most residents included an owner-occupier in their household, with 23.17% of households owning their house outright, and a further 31.33% owning with a mortgage. 10.59% were in local authority housing, with a further 13.29% renting from a housing association, or other registered social landlord. [13]

The 2021 census found that the borough has England and Wales's lowest proportion of people born in the UK, at 43.9%. [14]

The borough of Brent is extremely ethnically diverse, having changed greatly since 1951. In the 2011 census, those who identified as White British made up 18% of the borough's population. 18% identified as other White, 5% were of mixed heritage, those of South Asian heritage comprised about 33%, those of African and Caribbean heritage about 19%, and other ethnic groups about 7%. White ethnicities were relatively high in the wards of Mapesbury (straddling Willesden Green and Cricklewood), Brondesbury Park, Queen's Park and Kilburn. Black ethnicities in highest proportion were in Stonebridge, Harlesden and Kensal Green wards. Asian ethnicities in highest proportion were in the wards of Alperton, Wembley Central and Kenton. [15] Those who ethnically identify as BAME (Black, Asian and minority Ethnic) was as high as 86% in Wembley Central one of the highest in London and most other Brent wards have a majority BAME population. Queen's Park had the lowest BAME proportion, at 37.0%. [16]

Brent has the highest proportion of Irish residents in Britain, with 4% of the population. [17] It also has the largest Brazilian community in the UK; [18] one of the largest Indian communities; [19] a significant Afro-Caribbean community; [20] and more recent Romanian, Polish and Somali communities. [21]

Religion

As of 2011, 41.5% identified themselves as Christian, 18.6% Muslim, 17.8% Hindu and 10.6% with no religion. [22] Brent is notably home of the Neasden Temple , once the largest Hindu Mandir outside India; and JFS, the largest Jewish school in Europe. [23] There is also an Islamic school called Islamia Primary School founded by Cat Stevens.

The following table shows the religious identity of residents residing in Brent according to the 2001, 2011 and the 2021 censuses.

Religion2001 [24] 2011 [25] 2021 [26]
Number%Number%Number%
Christian 125,70247.7129,08041.5131,91438.8
Muslim 32,29012.358,03618.672,57421.4
Jewish 6,4642.54,3571.43,7231.1
Hindu 45,22817.255,44917.852,87615.6
Sikh 1,7380.71,7090.51,5300.5
Buddhism 2,4970.94,3001.43,1170.9
Other religion2,9771.13,7681.24,4241.3
No religion 26,25210.033,05410.646,15313.6
Religion not stated20,3167.721,4626.923,5066.9
Total263,464100.00%311,215100.00%339,800100.0%

Health

Per the House of Commons survey of female genital mutilation, in the year to 31 March 2016, Brent represented the highest number of attendees, by current residence or visiting location, to medical services, at 1250, 545 more than the next-highest local authority, Bristol. [27]

In 2015, the BBC reported it was some wards of Brent and four other London boroughs that had the highest UK rates of tuberculosis (over 150 per 100000) per a high, but falling, situation from 2011 to 2013. [28]

Ethnicity

This table shows the stated ethnic group of respondents of the 2001 and 2011 censuses in Brent.

Ethnic GroupYear
1991 [29] 2001 [30] 2011 [31] 2021 [32]
Number%Number%Number%Number%
White: Total134,15655.2%119,27845.27%112,88036.27%117,70134.6%
White: British 76,89329.19%55,88717.96%51,61115.2%
White: Irish 18,3136.95%12,3203.96%9,3142.7%
White: Gypsy or Irish Traveller 3200.10%2370.1%
White: Roma2,5200.7%
White: Other 24,0729.14%44,35314.25%54,01915.9%
Asian or Asian British: Total61,07725.1%75,87428.80%105,98634.06%111,51532.8%
Asian or Asian British: Indian 4175348,62418.46%58,01718.64%66,15719.5%
Asian or Asian British: Pakistani 732310,6264.03%14,3814.62%15,2174.5%
Asian or Asian British: Bangladeshi 7501,1840.45%1,7490.56%2,1860.6%
Asian or Asian British: Chinese 25722,8121.07%3,2501.04%3,3931.0%
Asian or Asian British: Other Asian867912,6284.79%28,5899.19%24,5627.2%
Black or Black British: Total40,13516.5%52,33719.86%58,63218.84%59,49517.5%
Black or Black British: African 996720,6407.83%24,3917.84%31,0709.1%
Black or Black British: Caribbean 2484527,57410.47%23,7237.62%21,2586.3%
Black or Black British: Other Black 53234,1231.56%10,5183.38%7,1672.1%
Mixed or British Mixed: Total9,8023.72%15,7755.07%17,2495.1%
Mixed: White and Black Caribbean2,7391.04%4,2911.38%3,7751.1%
Mixed: White and Black African1,7390.66%2,8200.91%3,1840.9%
Mixed: White and Asian2,5290.96%3,6421.17%3,6071.1%
Mixed: Other Mixed2,7951.06%5,0221.61%6,6832.0%
Other: Total76573.1%6,1732.34%17,9425.77%33,86110%
Other: Arab11,4303.67%17,9245.3%
Other: Any other ethnic group76576,5122.09%15,9374.7%
Ethnic minority: Total108,86944.7%144,18654.73%198,33563.73%222,12065.4%
Total243,025100%263,464100.00%311,215100.00%339,821100%

Geography

Major districts of Brent include Kilburn, Willesden and Wembley.

Climate

Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year-round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb". (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate). [33] [ failed verification ]

Climate data for Borough of Brent, UK
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)8
(46)
8
(46)
10
(50)
12
(54)
15
(59)
17
(63)
19
(66)
19
(66)
17
(63)
14
(57)
11
(52)
8
(46)
13
(55)
Average low °C (°F)3
(37)
3
(37)
4
(39)
5
(41)
8
(46)
10
(50)
12
(54)
12
(54)
10
(50)
8
(46)
6
(43)
4
(39)
7
(45)
Average precipitation mm (inches)130
(5.2)
110
(4.3)
79
(3.1)
84
(3.3)
79
(3.1)
64
(2.5)
76
(3)
89
(3.5)
89
(3.5)
140
(5.7)
150
(5.9)
150
(6.1)
1,250
(49.4)
Source: Weatherbase [34]

[ failed verification ]

Economy

Diageo has its head office in Park Royal and in the London Borough of Brent, [35] [36] on a former Guinness brewery property. [37] The brewery was closed in 2004; it had produced beer since 1936. [38] Diageo planned to move its head office to Brent from Central London when the lease on the Central London office expired in 2010. [37]

Brent is the joint fourth-worst Borough in London for levels of child poverty. Save the Children reported in 2011 that 11,000 children are impoverished. [39]

Amenities and culture

The old Brent Town Hall Brent Town Hall (Front), Wembley - geograph.org.uk - 865102.jpg
The old Brent Town Hall
The new Brent Civic Centre Brent Civic Centre and Wembley Library (13830389734).jpg
The new Brent Civic Centre

Education

Compulsory recycling

Recycling has been compulsory in the borough of Brent since 2008. [40] Through a green box collection scheme [40] the borough aims to improve on the 25 per cent recycled waste it already achieves. [ citation needed ]

London Fire Brigade

The London Borough of Brent has three fire stations: Park Royal, Wembley and Willesden. Brent has a mixture of residential, industrial and commercial land. Wembley National Stadium is in the borough; on match days the fire safety of over 90,000 people falls to the London Fire Brigade. The Wembley station covers the largest area in the borough, 19.1 km2 (7.4 sq mi). [41] Two pumping appliances, a fire rescue unit and an aerial ladder platform are based there. Willesden, for its more typical area covered (10.5 km2 (4.1 sq mi)), responded to over a thousand incidents in 2006/2007. [41] Two pumping appliances reside there. Park Royal, with its one pumping appliance and an incident response unit covers 8.1 km2 (3.1 sq mi). Within the borough, 4,105 incidents occurred in 2006/2007. [41]

Transport

Like most of northwest London, Brent is served extensively by the London Underground. A total of 21 tube stations are located in Brent, all served by either the Metropolitan, Jubilee, Bakerloo or Piccadilly Lines. All of them are surface level, with the exception of Kilburn Park tube station in the southeast of the borough. This total is actually the second highest out of all London boroughs, being second only to Westminster, which has 32 stations within its boundaries. The numerous London Underground, London Overground and National Rail stations in the borough are:

Travel to work

In March 2011, the main forms of transport that residents used to travel to work were (of all residents aged 16–74):

  • underground, metro, light rail, tram, 18.3%;
  • driving a car or van, 11.5%;
  • bus, minibus or coach, 11.5%;
  • on foot, 4.6%;
  • train, 4.5%;
  • work mainly at or from home, 2.6%;
  • bicycle, 1.7%. [42]

Landmarks

Parks and open spaces

Sport and leisure

The Borough has three Non-League football clubs:

Town twinning

Brent is twinned with:

Freedom of the Borough

The following people and military units have received the Freedom of the Borough of Brent.

Individuals

Military Units

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Brondesbury</span> Human settlement in England

Brondesbury, which includes Brondesbury Park, is an area in the London Borough of Brent, in London, England. The area is traditionally part of the Ancient Parish and subsequent Municipal Borough of Willesden, one of the areas that merged to form the modern borough of Brent.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Harlesden</span> Human settlement in England

Harlesden is a district in the London Borough of Brent, North West London.

Kensal Green is an area in north-west London. It lies mainly in the London Borough of Brent, with a small part to the south within Kensington and Chelsea. Kensal Green is located on the Harrow Road, about 4.4 miles (7.1 km) miles from Charing Cross.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kilburn, London</span> Area of London, England

Kilburn is an area of north west London, England, which spans the boundary of three London Boroughs: Camden to the east, City of Westminster, Brent to the west. There is also an area in the City of Westminster, known as West Kilburn and sometimes treated as a distinct locality. Kilburn High Road railway station lies 3.5 miles (5.6 km) north-west of Charing Cross.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wembley</span> Suburb of London

Wembley is a large suburb in north-west London, England, 8 miles (13 km) northwest of Charing Cross. It includes the neighbourhoods of Alperton, North Wembley, Preston, Sudbury, Tokyngton and Wembley Park. The population was 102,856 in 2011.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Willesden</span> Area of London, England

Willesden is an area of northwest London, situated 5 miles (8 km) northwest of Charing Cross. It is historically a parish in the county of Middlesex that was incorporated as the Municipal Borough of Willesden in 1933, and has formed part of the London Borough of Brent in Greater London since 1965. Dollis Hill is also sometimes referred to as being part of Willesden.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Brent East (UK Parliament constituency)</span> Former UK Parliament constituency, 1974-2010

Brent East was a parliamentary constituency in north west London; it was replaced by Brent Central for the 2010 general election. It returned one Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, elected by the first past the post system.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Brent North (UK Parliament constituency)</span> UK Parliament constituency in England since 1974

Brent North is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 1997 by Barry Gardiner of the Labour Party.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Brent South (UK Parliament constituency)</span> Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom, 1974–2010

Brent South was a constituency for the House of Commons of the UK Parliament; the areas of the constituency chiefly fell into the new Brent Central for the 2010 general election which was the date of its abolition. It elected one member (MP) by the first past the post system of election.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Queen's Park, London</span> Suburb of London

Queen's Park is an area located partly in the City of Westminster and partly in the London Borough of Brent. Some of the area within Westminster forms a civil parish, the first to be created in London since the right of communities to establish civil parishes was enacted in 2007. The area is located 3.9 miles (6.3 km) north-west of Charing Cross, and centred around a 30 acres (12 ha) park, which opened in 1887 and was named in honour of Queen Victoria. The area gives its name to Queens Park Rangers football club.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Brent London Borough Council elections</span> Local elections in London

Brent London Borough Council in London, England is elected every four years. Since the last boundary changes in 2002, 63 councillors have been elected from 21 wards.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Brent Central (UK Parliament constituency)</span> Parliamentary constituency in the UK since 2010

Brent Central is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament. It is currently represented, since 2015, by Dawn Butler of the Labour Party.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Harrow Road</span> Street in London

The Harrow Road is an ancient route in North West London which runs from Paddington in a northwesterly direction towards Harrow. It is also the name given to the immediate surrounding area of Queens Park and Kensal Green, straddling the NW10, W10, W2 and W9 postcodes. With minor deviations in the 19th and 20th centuries, the route remains otherwise unaltered.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Stonebridge, London</span> Human settlement in England

Stonebridge is a locality in the London Borough of Brent that forms the western part of Harlesden in Northwest London, England. The A404 runs through the district known locally as Brentfield and Hillside, while to the south are railway tracks and to the west is the North Circular Road along with Stonebridge Park station. The area is known for the previously troubled 1960s Stonebridge housing estate, which was completely redeveloped in the 2000s.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Brondesbury Park</span> Suburb of London, England

Brondesbury Park is a suburb and electoral ward of the London Borough of Brent. It is the part of Brondesbury which is not interwoven with Kilburn due to the naming of a major tube station (Kilburn) and is centred on Brondesbury Park railway station and the street, an avenue, which shares its name. The area has a number of open spaces, primarily Queen's Park and Tiverton Green.

The North and West London Light Railway (NWLLR), formerly known as the Brent Cross Railway, was a proposal for a light rail system in North and West London in the UK. It was put forward by the London group of the Campaign for Better Transport and by the Coalition for a Sustainable Brent Cross Cricklewood.

The 1968 Brent Council election took place on 9 May 1968 to elect members of Brent London Borough Council in London, England. The whole council was up for election and the Conservative Party gained overall control of the council.

The 2022 Brent London Borough Council election took place on 5 May 2022. All 57 members of Brent London Borough Council were to be elected. The elections took place alongside local elections in the other London boroughs and elections to local authorities across the United Kingdom.

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  42. "2011 Census: QS701EW Method of travel to work, local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 23 November 2013. Percentages are of all residents aged 16-74 including those not in employment. Respondents could only select one mode.
  43. "Nelson Mandela given freedom of borough of Brent". BBC News. 24 June 2013.

Coordinates: 51°33′58″N0°16′26″W / 51.56611°N 0.27389°W / 51.56611; -0.27389