London Borough of Havering

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London Borough of Havering
Lb havering logo.svg
Council logo
Motto(s): 
Liberty
Havering in Greater London.svg
Havering shown within Greater London
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region London
Ceremonial county Greater London
Created1 April 1965
Admin HQ Romford
Government
  Type London borough council
  Body Havering London Borough Council
  LeadershipLeader & Cabinet (Conservative (council NOC))
  MayorCllr John Mylod
  London Assembly Keith Prince AM for Havering and Redbridge
   MPs Jon Cruddas L
Andrew Rosindell C
Julia Lopez C
Area
  Total43.35 sq mi (112.27 km2)
Area rank202nd (of 309)
Population
 (mid-2019 est.)
  Total259,552
  Rank65th (of 309)
  Density6,000/sq mi (2,300/km2)
  Ethnicity [1]
83.3% White British
1.3% White Irish
0.1% White Gypsy or Irish Traveller
3% Other White
0.8% White & Black Caribbean
0.3% White & Black African
0.5% White & Asian
0.5% Other Mixed
2.1% Indian
0.6% Pakistani
0.4% Bangladeshi
0.6% Chinese
1.1% Other Asian
3.2% Black African
1.2% Black Caribbean
0.4% Other Black
0.1% Arab
0.4% Other
Time zone UTC (GMT)
  Summer (DST) UTC+1 (BST)
Postcodes
RM
Area code(s) 01708, 020
ONS code 00AR
GSS code E09000016
Police Metropolitan Police
Website www.havering.gov.uk

The London Borough of Havering ( /ˈhvərɪŋ/ ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) in East London, England, forms part of Outer London. It has a population of 259,552 inhabitants; the principal town is Romford, while other communities are Hornchurch, Upminster, Collier Row and Rainham. The borough is mainly suburban, with large areas of protected open space. Romford is a major retail and night time entertainment centre, and to the south the borough extends into the London Riverside redevelopment area of the Thames Gateway. [2] The name Havering is a reference to the Royal Liberty of Havering which occupied the area for several centuries. The local authority is Havering London Borough Council. It is the easternmost London borough.

Contents

Population

In 2011, the borough had a population of 237,232 [3] over 43 square miles (111.4 km2). Havering has a lower population density than other London Boroughs as large areas are parkland and 23 square miles (60 km2) (more than half the borough) is Metropolitan Green Belt protected land. Those areas of development are extensive but rarely intensive. It has, at 4.5%, a below average unemployment rate for Greater London, [4] and one of the lowest crime rates.

Havering has a significantly higher proportion of residents in white ethnic groups than other outer London boroughs (87.7% – 2011 census). The Black African population is the most significant minority ethnic group in Havering (3.2%). The Upminster ward of the borough is the third least ethnically diverse in Greater London, with a Simpson's diversity index of 1.10. [5]

Population census
YearPop.±%
1801 6,370    
1811 7,028+10.3%
1821 8,198+16.6%
1831 9,036+10.2%
1841 10,696+18.4%
1851 11,492+7.4%
1861 12,850+11.8%
1871 14,208+10.6%
1881 15,566+9.6%
1891 19,041+22.3%
1901 24,853+30.5%
1911 32,439+30.5%
1921 49,681+53.2%
1931 76,092+53.2%
1941 119,292+56.8%
1951 187,022+56.8%
1961 215,404+15.2%
1971 248,107+15.2%
1981 239,769−3.4%
1991 232,491−3.0%
2001 224,248−3.5%
2011 237,232+5.8%
Note: [6]

Neighbours

Havering is bordered to the south by the London Borough of Bexley by the River Thames, to the west by the London Borough of Redbridge and the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham and to the north and east by Essex.

Industry and commerce

There are over 7,000 businesses based in Havering. Romford is the main commercial hub of the borough with a small district of mainly office development close to the railway station. There is also some industry to the south between Rainham and the River Thames such as Rainham Steel headquarters on the boundary of Elm Park. Light industry elsewhere in the borough has been in decline, with major employers such as the former Star Brewery now closed down. [7] New industrial development is encouraged in the south of the borough has been encouraged by the London Development Agency (now GLA Land and Property), with the opening of the Centre for Engineering and Manufacturing Excellence.

The main retail district is also located in Romford with several interconnected or neighbouring shopping arcades including the Liberty Shopping Centre, the Mercury Mall, and the Brewery. Romford Market is located to the north of Romford and is the largest market within the borough and in the surrounding area. Hornchurch and Upminster are the other main retail centres with extensive high street shopping areas.

Romford has a developed night-time economy with one of the highest concentrations of bars and nightclubs anywhere in Greater London outside the West End with public transport radiating into all parts of the borough.

Havering London Borough Council applied to the Government to allow a 'super-casino' to be built in the south of the borough, [8] however the application was rejected in May 2006. [9]

History

The London Borough of Havering was created in 1965 by the combined former area of the Municipal Borough of Romford and Hornchurch Urban District which had been transferred to Greater London from Essex by the London Government Act 1963. The name originates from the Royal Liberty of Havering which covered broadly, but not exactly the same area, and had been abolished in 1892. [10]

Early history

Modern settlement originated in Anglo-Saxon times when it consisted of Havering Palace and the surrounding lands that belonged to the king. The palace itself is known to have existed since at least the reign of Edward the Confessor when it was one of his primary residences. The area formed a liberty from 1465 which included the parishes of Havering atte Bower, Hornchurch and Romford.

The name Havering appears in documents from around the 12th century. The origins of this name have been debated by historians since the Middle Ages when it was linked to the legend of Edward the Confessor and a mystical ring returned to him by Saint John the Apostle. The event being commemorated in stained glass (from about 1407) in a chapel at Romford, that was dedicated to the king. [11]

Settlement

London Underground and fast rail services to central London resulted in considerable residential land use mixed with designated parklands and farmland under the planning policy of the predecessor local authorities and current authority during the 20th century and into the early 21st century.

The development of the borough came in two distinct phases. The first middle class suburban developments were built in the late Victorian and Edwardian period. The garden suburbs of Upminster, Emerson Park and Gidea Park (also known as Romford Garden Suburb) were spurred on by the building of the railway lines through Havering from Liverpool Street and Fenchurch Street in the late 19th century.

In the 1930s the District Line was electrified and extended to Upminster with new stations at Elm Park and Upminster Bridge. Also at this time new industries near the area such as the Ford Motor Company plant at Dagenham caused a new wave of mostly working class developments along the route of the new Underground line. In addition to this, to the north of the borough, the large housing estates of Harold Hill and Collier Row were constructed to deal with the chronic housing shortages and early slum clearance programmes in central London.

Districts

Queen's Theatre, Hornchurch Queens theatre hornchurch.jpg
Queen's Theatre, Hornchurch

This pattern of the 'garden suburb' with inter- and post-war private housing developments occurred widely across the borough, with small estates of social housing representing a low percentage of housing in any single council ward; six of the 30 electoral wards with fewer than 2% social housing are in the borough: Hylands, Mawneys, Pettits, Hacton and the two wards forming Upminster, Cranham and Upminster Ward. [12] Plans to extend existing developments in much of the borough are blocked as open land is protected as part of the Metropolitan Green Belt. In contrast, the southern part of Havering adjacent to the Thames is within the London Riverside section of the Thames Gateway redevelopment area. New open spaces and large scale house building to provide an entirely new residential community is planned.

The most built-up areas are the traditional garden suburb districts of Hornchurch, Emerson Park, Gidea Park, Harold Wood, Romford and Upminster. These places have developed over the last hundred years to form a large area of continuous urban sprawl with indistinct boundaries.

A 2017 study found that, when comparing low-end rent to low-end earnings, private rented housing in Havering is the most affordable of any London borough. [13]

Named neighbourhoods are the developments of Ardleigh Green, Chase Cross, Collier Row, Elm Park, Harold Hill, Rainham. The borough's exurbs with green buffers of farmland or parkland are:

Transport

Roads

The M25 motorway forms part of the borough boundary to the east with North Ockendon the only settlement to fall outside. The A12 (near Romford) and the A13 (near Rainham) are the main trunk radial routes from central London and are located to the north and south of the borough respectively. The A127 trunk route to Southend begins at Gallows Corner; which also forms the eastern end of the A118 local artery from Stratford. The A124 local artery from Canning Town terminates at Upminster.

London Underground stations in Havering HaveringLU.svg
London Underground stations in Havering

Public transport

The District line of the London Underground runs roughly east–west through the middle of the borough and there is an extensive network of London Bus routes, linking all districts to Romford and other places beyond the borough. [14] The London, Tilbury and Southend line (operated by c2c) passes through the borough in two places and the Great Eastern Main Line (operated by TfL Rail and Abellio Greater Anglia) passes through the north of the borough serving Romford, Gidea Park and Harold Wood. There is also a branch line from Romford to Upminster which is currently operated by London Overground. There are proposals for transport improvements in the south of the borough where the population is expected to rise.

With the introduction of Crossrail there will be an increased service from Harold Wood, Gidea Park, and Romford to both Central London and Reading.

Travel to work

In March 2011, the main forms of transport that residents used to travel to work were: driving a car or van, 31.8% of all residents aged 16–74; train, 6.3%; underground, metro, light rail, tram, 6.3%; bus, minibus or coach, 5.1%; on foot, 4.1%; work mainly at or from home, 2.4%; passenger in a car or van, 2.1%. [15]

Media

The local newspaper is the Romford Recorder.

Bedrock Radio [16] is a charity run community health & Hospital radio station located within the Queen's Hospital in Romford.

The first Hospital Radio Service In Havering began broadcasting in 1964 as Harold Wood Radio. [17] Today, Bedrock Radio serves the community by broadcasting online and to Queen's, King George & Goodmayes Hospitals and features information about the Hospitals and NHS services, promotes charitable and community organisations and has an extensive local events guide featuring community non-profit events.

Time 107.5 FM is the commercial radio station broadcasting to Havering and surrounding areas and features local news.

Places of interest

Fairkytes Arts Centre in Hornchurch is operated by Havering Council. Fairkytes arts centre london.jpg
Fairkytes Arts Centre in Hornchurch is operated by Havering Council.

Politics

Havering Town Hall Havering town hall london.jpg
Havering Town Hall

London Borough Council

A map showing the wards of Havering since 2002 Havering London UK labelled ward map 2002.svg
A map showing the wards of Havering since 2002

Havering elects 54 councillors from 18 wards:

After the 2006 local elections the Conservative Party had a majority on the council with 34 councillors and the second largest party represented was the Havering Residents Association with 13 councillors. The Rainham Independent Residents Association had three councillors, the Labour Party had two councillors and the Liberal Democrats and the BNP had one councillor each. [18]

Between May 2006 and October 2008 were three by-elections. The Residents' Association in St Andrews Ward and the Conservatives in Squirrels Health Ward each retained one seat, the Residents' Association lost South Hornchurch to an independent candidate. One councillor elected as a Conservative has resigned the whip and now sits as an independent. Following his election, the independent in South Hornchurch joined the leader of the Rainham Independent Residents' Association in forming the Independent Local Residents' Group. The other two Rainham Independent Residents' Association members formed the Rainham Residents' Association as a separate entity. In May 2004 Councillor Michael White was elected Leader of the council. In June 2014 Councillor Roger Ramsey was re-elected Leader of the council.

The 2010 local elections took place on 6 May 2010. The outcome was little change: Conservatives having 33 councillors, Havering Residents Group 12, Labour 5 and Independent Residents 4. The BNP lost its incumbent before the election having turned to an Independent Resident who was later elected as such. Labour increased its membership by three. The Independent Residents, who had split in 2008, regained the seats lost through the split. The Lib Dem Member also lost, to a Residents (ex-Labour) candidate.

In March 2013, UKIP gained its first seat on the authority. UKIP's Lawrence Webb gained his seat from the Conservatives following the death of veteran Conservative, Cllr. Dennis Bull. In July 2013, thirteen Conservative councillors were reported by the local press, the Romford Recorder, as being deselected by the Romford Conservative Association including council cabinet members, formal complaints were made to Conservative Party Headquarters, and later three Conservative councillors defected to UKIP. Councillors Sandra Binion, Ted Eden and Fred Osborne joined UKIP citing local and national disillusionment.

London Assembly

Havering forms part of the Havering and Redbridge London Assembly constituency.

UK Parliament

Until 2010 the borough was split between the parliamentary constituencies of Hornchurch, Romford and Upminster with the three constituencies entirely within the borough. At the 2010 United Kingdom general election, the boundaries of these constituencies changed to a new Hornchurch and Upminster constituency and Rainham became part of the new cross-borough Dagenham and Rainham constituency.

Sport and leisure

The London Borough of Havering has several sporting clubs:

Twinning

Havering is twinned with:

Education

The Borough is the education authority for the district providing education in a mix of foundation, community and voluntary aided schools. There are also a number of academies.

Havering Adult College provides part-time day, evening and weekend adult education (19+) from sites throughout the borough. [21] Havering Sixth Form College provides sixth form education for pupils of borough schools as well as those who are resident in the borough. [22] Havering College of Further and Higher Education provides part-time and full-time education to students aged 14+.

A 2017 study by Trust for London and the New Policy Institute found that 52% of adults in Havering lack Level 3 Qualifications (A Level equivalent) – the worst level of any London borough. 44% of 19 year olds in Havering also lacked these qualifications – the second worst level in the capital. [23]

Related Research Articles

Cranham A residential area of East London, England

Cranham is a residential area of east London, and part of the London Borough of Havering. It is located 17.5 miles (28 km) east-northeast of Charing Cross and comprises an extensive built-up area to the north and a low density conservation area to the south surrounded by open land. It was historically a rural village in the county of Essex and formed an ancient parish. It is peripheral to London, forming the eastern edge of the urban sprawl. The economic history of Cranham is characterised by a shift from agriculture to housing development. As part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century, Cranham significantly increased in population, becoming part of Hornchurch Urban District in 1934 and has formed part of Greater London since 1965. The 2011 Census population of Cranham was included in Upminster.

Harold Wood Suburban neighbourhood in Havering, east London

Harold Wood is a suburban neighbourhood of Romford in the London Borough of Havering. It is situated 16.5 miles (26.6 km) east-northeast of Charing Cross close to the Essex boundary.

Hornchurch Human settlement in England

Hornchurch is a suburban town in East London, England, and part of the London Borough of Havering. It is located 15.2 miles (24.5 km) east-northeast of Charing Cross. It comprises a number of shopping streets and a large residential area. It historically formed a large ancient parish in the county of Essex that became the manor and liberty of Havering. The economic history of Hornchurch is underpinned by a shift away from agriculture to other industries with the growing significance of nearby Romford as a market town and centre of administration. As part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century, Hornchurch significantly expanded and increased in population, becoming an urban district in 1926 and has formed part of Greater London since 1965. It is the location of Queen's Theatre, Havering Sixth Form College and Havering College of Further and Higher Education.

Romford Town in London, England

Romford is a large town in East London and the administrative centre of the London Borough of Havering. It is located 14.1 miles (22.7 km) northeast of Charing Cross and is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Historically, Romford was a market town in the county of Essex, and it formed the administrative centre of the liberty of Havering before that liberty was dissolved in 1892. Good road links to London and the opening of the railway station in 1839 were key to the development of the town. The economic history of Romford is characterised by a shift from agriculture to light industry and then to retail and commerce. Throughout the 20th century, along with other London suburbs, Romford significantly expanded and increased in population, becoming a municipal borough in 1937. Romford was part of Essex until 1965, when it became part of Greater London. Today, it is one of the largest commercial, retail, entertainment and leisure districts in London and has a well-developed night-time economy as well. Its population, as of 2011, was 122,854.

Upminster Town in Havering, Greater London, England

Upminster is a suburban town in East London, England, and part of the London Borough of Havering. Located 16.5 miles (26.6 km) east-northeast of Charing Cross, it is one of the locally important district centres identified in the London Plan, and comprises a number of shopping streets and a large residential area. Historically a rural village, it formed an ancient parish in the county of Essex. The town has good transport links; it was first connected to central London by rail in 1885 and has a terminal station on the London Underground network. The economic history of Upminster is characterised by a shift from farming to garden suburb. As part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century, Upminster significantly expanded and increased in population, becoming part of Hornchurch Urban District in 1934, and has formed part of Greater London since 1965. It is the only section of Greater London to extend more than 200 meters beyond the M25 motorway.

Elm Park Human settlement in England

Elm Park is a suburban planned community in East London within the London Borough of Havering. Located 14.3 miles (23.0 km) east-northeast of Charing Cross, it is identified as a district centre in the London Plan with several streets of shops and a priority for regeneration. Prior to the construction of the extensive Elm Park Garden City development in the 1930s it was a scattered settlement of farms in the south of the parish of Hornchurch. Elm Park has been connected to central London by the electrified District line service since 1935 and the planned development of the area formed part of the interwar private housing boom that was interrupted by World War II. After the war Elm Park expanded with social housing and it has formed part of Greater London since 1965.

Harold Hill Human settlement in England

Harold Hill is a suburban area in the London Borough of Havering, East London. 16.6 miles (26.7 km) northeast of Charing Cross. It is a district centre in the London Plan. The name refers to Harold Godwinson who held the manor of Havering-atte-Bower. It is peripheral to London, forming an eastern edge of the urban sprawl.

Harold Park Human settlement in England

Harold Park is a place in the London Borough of Havering.

Royal Liberty of Havering Medieval jurisdiction in England

Havering, also known as Havering-atte-Bower, was a royal manor and ancient liberty whose area now forms part of, and gives its name to, the London Borough of Havering in Greater London. The manor was in the possession of the Crown from the 11th to the 19th centuries and was the location of Havering Palace from the 13th to the late 17th century. It occupied the same area as the ancient parish of Hornchurch which was divided into the three chapelries of Havering, Hornchurch and Romford.

Hornchurch (UK Parliament constituency)

Hornchurch was a borough constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It elected one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election. At the 2010 general election parts formed the new seats of Hornchurch and Upminster; and Dagenham and Rainham.

Romford (UK Parliament constituency)

Romford is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2001 by Andrew Rosindell, a Conservative. It was created in 1885.

Hornchurch Urban District

Hornchurch was a local government district in southwest Essex from 1926 to 1965, formed as an urban district for the civil parish of Hornchurch. It was greatly expanded in 1934 with the addition of Cranham, Great Warley, Rainham, Upminster and Wennington; and in 1935 by gaining North Ockendon. Hornchurch Urban District Council was based at Langtons House in Hornchurch from 1929. The district formed a suburb of London and with a population peaking at 131,014 in 1961, it was one of the largest districts of its type in England. It now forms the greater part of the London Borough of Havering in Greater London.

South Hornchurch Human settlement in England

South Hornchurch is a locality to the south of Hornchurch in London Borough of Havering, east London. It is a suburban development situated 13.6 miles (21.8 km) east of Charing Cross. The area is a relatively recent addition, compared with the more mature suburbs in Havering. It was built on open farmland and the former site of RAF Hornchurch.

Hornchurch and Upminster (UK Parliament constituency) Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom

Hornchurch and Upminster is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2017 by Julia Lopez of the Conservative Party.

Havering London Borough Council

Havering London Borough Council is the local authority for the London Borough of Havering in Greater London, England. It is a London borough council, one of 32 in the United Kingdom capital of London. Havering is divided into 18 wards, each electing three councillors. Since May 2018, Havering London Borough Council has been in no overall control. It comprises 25 Conservative Party members, 23 Havering Residents Association members, 5 Labour Party members and 1 Independent member. The council was created by the London Government Act 1963 and replaced two local authorities: Hornchurch Urban District Council and Romford Borough Council.

Rainham, London Suburban town on the outskirts of east London, England

Rainham is a suburb of East London, England, in the London Borough of Havering. Historically an ancient parish in the county of Essex, Rainham is 13.6 miles (21.9 km) east of Charing Cross and is surrounded by a residential area, which has grown from the historic village, to the north and a commercial area, fronting the River Thames, to the south. As part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century, Rainham significantly expanded and increased in population, becoming part of Hornchurch Urban District in 1934, and has formed part of Greater London since 1965. The economic history of Rainham is underpinned by a shift from agriculture to industry and manufacture and is now in a period of regeneration, coming within the London Riverside section of the Thames Gateway redevelopment area.

Public transport in the London Borough of Havering, in east London, England, is a mix of National Rail, London Underground, London Overground and Crossrail and London Buses services. Rail services are primarily radial to central London with bus services providing most of the orbital connections. The public transport authority is Transport for London and the local authority is Havering London Borough Council.

St Andrews (ward) Electoral ward in England

St Andrew's is an electoral ward in the London Borough of Havering. The ward has existed since the creation of the borough on 1 April 1965 and was first used in the 1964 elections. It returns three councillors to Havering London Borough Council.

2018 Havering London Borough Council election

The 2018 Havering London Borough Council election was held on 3 May 2018 to elect members of Havering London Borough Council in Greater London. Elections were held for all 54 seats on the council. This was on the same day as other local elections.

References

  1. 2011 Census: Ethnic group, local authorities in England and Wales , Office for National Statistics (2012). See Classification of ethnicity in the United Kingdom for the full descriptions used in the 2011 Census.
  2. "Ideas for London Riverside" (PDF). London Borough of Havering. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 April 2008. Retrieved 20 March 2008.
  3. "Key statistics for Local Authorities in England Wales". Office of National Statistics.
  4. "Key statistics for Local Authorities in England Wales". Office of National Statistics.
  5. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 September 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. "Havering: Total Population". A Vision of Britain Through Time. Great Britain Historical GIS Project. Retrieved 6 September 2011.
  7. "Romford Area Action Plan" (PDF). London Borough of Havering. March 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 June 2007.
  8. "'Super-casino' shortlist set out". BBC News. 24 May 2006.
  9. "Prescott casino influence denied". BBC News. 30 August 2006.
  10. Vision of Britain – Havering London Borough
  11. 'Parishes: Havering-atte-Bower', A History of the County of Essex: Volume 7 (1978), pp. 9–17 accessed: 4 June 2007.
  12. Key Statistics: Population; Quick Statistics: Economic indicators. (2011 census and 2001 census) Retrieved 2015-02-27.
  13. "London's Poverty Profile". Trust for London. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
  14. Transport for London – Bus maps of Havering
  15. "2011 Census: QS701EW Method of travel to work, local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 23 November 2013. Percentages are of all residents aged 16–74 including those not in employment. Respondents could only pick one mode, specified as the journey’s longest part by distance.
  16. "Bedrock (Hospital Radio)". Bedrock (Hospital Radio).
  17. "Celebrating 50 years of Hospital Radio in Havering in 2014". Bedrock Radio. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
  18. Greater London Authority – elections data for the local government (borough) elections Retrieved 2015-02-
  19. Romford Football Club. "History" . Retrieved 14 August 2009.
  20. "Hockey is Back!". Romford Ice Arena. Archived from the original on 6 April 2008. Retrieved 14 August 2009.
  21. "Havering Adult College" . Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  22. "About us" . Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  23. "London's Poverty Profile". Trust for London. Retrieved 25 July 2018.

Coordinates: 51°33′N00°13′E / 51.550°N 0.217°E / 51.550; 0.217