|Function||Heavy-lift launch vehicle|
|Country of origin||China|
|Height||56.97 m (186.9 ft)|
|Diameter||5 m (16 ft)|
|Mass||854,500 kg (1,883,900 lb)|
|Payload to LEO|
|Altitude||200 km × 400 km (120 mi × 250 mi)|
|Mass||25,000 kg (55,000 lb)|
|Payload to GTO|
|Mass||14,500 kg (32,000 lb)|
|Payload to TLI|
|Mass||8,800–9,400 kg (19,400–20,700 lb)|
|Payload to GEO|
|Mass||6,000 kg (13,000 lb)|
|Payload to SSO|
|Altitude||700 km (430 mi)|
|Mass||15,000 kg (33,000 lb)|
|Payload to SSO|
|Altitude||2,000 km (1,200 mi)|
|Mass||6,700 kg (14,800 lb)|
|Payload to MEO|
|Mass||13,000 kg (29,000 lb)|
|Payload to TMI|
|Mass||6,000 kg (13,000 lb)|
|Launch sites||Wenchang, LC-1|
|Notable payloads||Next-generation crewed spacecraft, Chang'e 5, Tianwen 1|
|Boosters – CZ-5-300|
|Length||27.6 m (91 ft)|
|Diameter||3.35 m (11.0 ft)|
|Gross mass||156,600 kg (345,200 lb)|
|Propellant mass||142,800 kg (314,800 lb)|
|Engines||2 × YF-100|
|Thrust||Sea level: 2,400 kN (540,000 lbf)|
Vacuum: 2,680 kN (600,000 lbf)
|Total thrust||9,600 kN (2,200,000 lbf)|
|Specific impulse||Sea level: 300 s (2.9 km/s)|
Vacuum: 335 s (3.29 km/s)
|Burn time||173 seconds|
|Fuel||RP-1 / LOX|
|First stage – CZ-5-500|
|Length||33.16 m (108.8 ft)|
|Diameter||5 m (16 ft)|
|Gross mass||186,900 kg (412,000 lb)|
|Propellant mass||165,300 kg (364,400 lb)|
|Engines||2 × YF-77|
|Thrust||Sea level: 1,020 kN (230,000 lbf)|
Vacuum: 1,400 kN (310,000 lbf)
|Specific impulse||Sea level: 320 s (3.1 km/s)|
Vacuum: 430 s (4.2 km/s)
|Burn time||492 seconds|
|Fuel||LH2 / LOX|
|Second stage – CZ-5-HO|
|Length||11.54 m (37.9 ft)|
|Diameter||5 m (16 ft)|
|Gross mass||38,700 kg (85,300 lb)|
|Propellant mass||32,000 kg (71,000 lb)|
|Engines||2 × YF-75D|
|Thrust||176.72 kN (39,730 lbf)|
|Specific impulse||442 s (4.33 km/s)|
|Burn time||700 seconds|
|Fuel||LH2 / LOX|
|Third stage – YZ-2 (Optional)|
|Diameter||3.8 m (12 ft)|
|Engines||2 x YF-50D|
|Thrust||6.5 kN (1,500 lbf)|
|Specific impulse||316 s (3.10 km/s)|
|Burn time||1105 seconds|
|Fuel||N2O4 / UDMH|
Long March 5 (LM-5; Chinese :长征五号; pinyin :Chángzhēng wǔ hào), also known as Chang Zheng 5 (CZ-5), is a Chinese heavy-lift launch vehicle developed by the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT). It is the first Chinese launch vehicle designed to use exclusively non-hypergolic liquid propellants. It is the fifth iteration of the Long March rocket family, named for the Chinese Red Army's 1934–35 Long March, during the Chinese Civil War.
There are currently two CZ-5 variants: CZ-5 and CZ-5B. The maximum payload capacities are approximately 25,000 kg (55,000 lb) to low Earth orbit (for CZ-5B) and approximately 14,000 kg (31,000 lb) to geostationary transfer orbit (for CZ-5). The Long March 5 roughly matches the capabilities of American NSSL heavy-lift launch vehicles such as the Delta IV Heavy. It is currently the most powerful member of the Long March rocket family and the world's third most powerful orbital launch vehicle currently in operation, trailing the Falcon Heavy and Delta IV Heavy.
The first CZ-5 launched from Wenchang Spacecraft Launch Site on 3 November 2016 and placed its payload in a suboptimal but workable initial orbit.The second CZ-5 rocket, launched on 2 July 2017, failed due to an engine problem in the first stage.
After an interval of almost two and a half years, the Long March 5 vehicle's return to flight mission (third launch) successfully occurred on 27 December 2019 with the launch and placement of the experimental Shijian-20 communications satellite into geostationary transfer orbit, thereby opening the way for the successful launch of Tianwen 1 Mars mission, lunar Chang'e 5 sample-return mission, and the modular space station,which require the lifting capabilities of a heavy lift launch vehicle.
Since 2010, Long March launches (all versions) have made up 15–25% of the global launch totals. Growing domestic demand for launch services has also allowed China's state launch provider to maintain a healthy manifest. Additionally, China had been able to secure some international launch contracts by offering package deals that bundle launch vehicles with Chinese satellites, thereby circumventing the effects of U.S. embargo.
China's main objective for initiating the new CZ-5 program in 2007 was in anticipation of its future requirement for larger LEO and GTO payload capacities during the next 20–30 years period. Formal approval of the Long March 5 program occurred in 2007 following two decades of feasibility studies when funding was finally granted by the Chinese government. At the time, the new rocket was expected to be manufactured at a facility in Tianjin, a coastal city near Beijing,while launch was expected to occur at the new Wenchang Spacecraft Launch Site in the southernmost island province of Hainan.
In July 2012, a new 1200 kN thrust LOX/kerosene engine to be used on the Long March 5 boosters was test-fired by China.
The first photos of a CZ-5, undergoing tests, were released in March 2015.
The first production CZ-5 was shipped from the port of Tianjin in North China to Wenchang Spacecraft Launch Site on Hainan Island on 20 September 2015 for launch rehearsals.
The maiden flight of the CZ-5 was initially scheduled for 2014, but this subsequently slipped to 2016.
The final production and testing of the first CZ-5 rocket to be launched into orbit were completed at its Tianjin manufacturing facility on or about 16 August 2016 and the various segments of the rocket were shipped to the launch center on Hainan island shortly thereafter.
The chief designer of CZ-5 is Li Dong (Chinese :李东) of the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT). The CZ-5 family include three primary modular core stages of 5.2-m diameter (maximum). The total length of the vehicle is 60.5 metres and its weight at launch is 643 tons, with a thrust of 833.8 tons. Boosters of various capabilities and diameters ranging from 2.25 metres to 3.35 metres would be assembled from three modular core stages and strap-on stages. The first stage and boosters would have a choice of engines that use different liquid rocket propellants: 1200 kN thrust LOX / kerosene engines or 1550 kN thrust LOX / LH2. The upper stage would use improved versions of the YF-75 engine.
Engine development began in 2000–2001, with testing directed by the China National Space Administration (CNSA) commencing in 2005. Versions of both new engines, the YF-100 and the YF-77, had been successfully tested by mid-2007.[ citation needed ]
The CZ-5 series can deliver ~23 tonnes payload to LEO or ~14 tonnes payload to GTO (geosynchronous transfer orbit). [ clarification needed ] not possessed by the previous Long March rocket family.[ citation needed ] The CZ-5 launch vehicle would consist of a 5.0-m diameter core stage and four 3.35-m diameter strap-on boosters, which would be able to send a ~22 tonne payload to low Earth orbit (LEO).It will replace the CZ-2, CZ-3, and CZ-4 series in service, as well as provide new capabilities
Six CZ-5 variants were originally planned, [ citation needed ]but the light variants were cancelled in favor of CZ-6 and CZ-7 family launch vehicles.
|Boosters||4 × CZ-5-300, 2 × YF-100||4 × CZ-5-300, 2 × YF-100|
|First stage||CZ-5-500, 2 × YF-77||CZ-5-500, 2 × YF-77|
|Second stage||CZ-5-HO, 2 × YF-75D||—|
|Third stage (optional)||Yuanzheng-2||—|
|Thrust (at ground)||10620 KN||10620 KN|
|Launch weight||854,500 kg||837,500 kg|
|Height||56.97 m||53.66 m|
|Payload (LEO 200 km)||—||~25,000 kg|
|Payload (GTO)||14,400 kg||—|
|Boosters||—||2 × CZ-5-200, YF-100||2 × CZ-5-200, YF-100; 2 × CZ-5-300, 2 × YF-100||4 × CZ-5-200, YF-100|
|First stage||CZ-5-200, YF-100||CZ-5-300, 2 × YF-100||CZ-5-500, 2 × YF-77||CZ-5-500, 2 × YF-77|
|Second stage||CZ-YF-73, YF-73||CZ-5-KO,||CZ-5-HO, 2 × YF-75D||CZ-5-HO, 2 × YF-75D|
|Third stage (not used for LEO)||—||CZ-5-HO, YF-75||—||—|
|Thrust (at ground)||1.34 MN||7.2 MN||8.24 MN||5.84 MN|
|Launch weight||82,000 kg||420,000 kg||630,000 kg||470,000 kg|
|Height (maximal)||33 m||55 m||58 m||53 m|
|Payload (LEO 200 km)||1500 kg||10,000 kg||20,000 kg||10,000 kg|
|Payload (GTO)||—||6000 kg||11,000 kg||6000 kg|
The launch was planned to take place at around 10:00 UTC on 3 November 2016, but several issues, involving an oxygen vent and chilling of the engines, were detected during the preparation, causing a delay of nearly three hours. The final countdown was interrupted three times due to problems with the flight control computer and the tracking software.The rocket finally launched at 12:43 UTC.
Its second launch on 2 July 2017 experienced an anomaly shortly after launch and was switched to an alternate, gentler trajectory. However, it was declared a failure 45 minutes into the flight.Investigations revealed the source of the second flight's failure to be located in one of the core stage's YF-77 engines (specifically, in the oxidizer's turbo-pump).
The Y3 mission of the Long March 5 program was launched on 27 December 2019, at about 12:45 UTC from the Wenchang Spacecraft Launch Site in Hainan, China. CASC declared the mission a success within an hour of launch, after the Shijian-20 communications satellite was placed in geostationary transfer orbit, thus marking the Long March 5 program's return to flight.
The fourth flight of the Long March 5 program also marked the debut of the CZ-5B variant. The CZ-5B variant is basically equivalent to the Long March 5 core stage with its four strapped-on liquid-fueled boosters; in place of the usual second stage of the base configuration, it is anticipated that heavier low Earth orbit payloads, such as components of the future modular space station, would be carried by the 5B variant.
The first flight of the 5B variant ("Y1 mission") carried an uncrewed prototype of China's future deep space crewed spacecraft, and, as a secondary payload, the Flexible Inflatable Cargo Re-entry Vehicle. The Y1 mission was launched on 5 May 2020, at 10:00 UTC from the Wenchang Spacecraft Launch Site in Hainan Island. CASC declared the launch a success after the payloads were placed in low Earth orbit.
The flight's secondary payload, the experimental cargo return craft, malfunctioned during its return to Earth on 6 May 2020.Nevertheless, the return capsule of the prototype next-generation crewed spacecraft, the flight's primary payload, successfully landed in north China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region at 05:49 UTC, on 8 May 2020. The prototype spacecraft flew in orbit for two days and 19 hours and carried out a series of successful experiments and technological verifications. The Y1 mission's core stage may have been the most massive object to make an uncontrolled re-entry since the Soviet Union's Salyut 7 space station in 1991 and the United States' Skylab in 1979, excluding the failed controlled reentry of Space Shuttle Columbia over populated areas of the Continental United States in 2003.
|Flight №||Date (UTC)||Variant||Launch site||Upper stage||Payload||Orbit||Result|
|Y1||3 November 2016|
|5||Wenchang, LC-1||YZ-2||Shijian 17||GEO||Success|
|Y2||2 July 2017|
|5||Wenchang, LC-1||None||Shijian 18||GTO||Failure|
|Y3||27 December 2019|
|5||Wenchang, LC-1||None||Shijian 20||GTO||Success|
|5B-Y1||5 May 2020|
|5B||Wenchang, LC-1||None||Next-generation crewed spacecraft||LEO||Success|
|Y4||23 July 2020|
|5||Wenchang, LC-1||None||Tianwen-1 Mars orbiter, lander and rover||TMI||Success|
|Y5||23 November 2020|
|5||Wenchang, LC-1||None||Chang'e 5, lunar sample-return||TLI||Success|
|5B-Y2||29 April 2021|
|5B||Wenchang, LC-1||None||Tianhe, space station core module||LEO||Success|
|Flight №||Date (UTC)||Variant||Launch site||Upper stage||Payload||Orbit||Status|
|5B-Y3||May–June 2022||5B||Wenchang, LC-1||None||Wentian, Chinese space station experiment module 1||LEO||Planned|
|5B-Y4||August–September 2022||5B||Wenchang, LC-1||None||Mengtian, Chinese space station experiment module 2||LEO||Planned|
|2023 or 2024||5||Wenchang, LC-1||None||Chang'e 6, lunar sample-return||TLI||Planned|
|2024||5||Wenchang, LC-1||None||Chang'e 7, Lunar Antarctic Comprehensive Exploration Mission||TLI||Planned|
|2024||5B||Wenchang, LC-1||None||Xuntian, space telescope co-orbiting with the Chinese space station||LEO||Planned|
|2027||5||Wenchang, LC-1||None|| Chang'e 8, Scientific exploration test, lunar surface test |
Verify the construction of lunar scientific research base
|2029||5||Wenchang, LC-1||None||Jupiter orbiter and interplanetary flyby probe||Heliocentric orbit||Planned|
An expendable launch system is a launch vehicle that can be launched only once, after which its components are either destroyed during reentry or discarded in space. ELVs typically consist of several rocket stages that are discarded sequentially as their fuel is exhausted and the vehicle gains altitude and speed. As of October 2019, most satellites and human spacecraft are currently launched on ELVs. ELVs are simpler in design than reusable launch systems and therefore may have a lower production cost. Furthermore, an ELV can use its entire fuel supply to accelerate its payload, offering greater payloads. ELVs are proven technology in widespread use for many decades.
The Long March rockets are a family of expendable launch system rockets operated by the China National Space Administration (CNSA). Development and design falls under the auspices of the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT). In English, the rockets are abbreviated as LM- for export and CZ- within China, as "Chang Zheng" (长征) which means Long March in Chinese pinyin. The rockets are named after the Chinese Red Army's 1934–35 Long March, during the Chinese Civil War.
A reusable launch system is a launch system that allows for the reuse of some or all of the component stages. To date, several fully reusable suborbital systems and partially reusable orbital systems have been flown.
The Long March 2F, also known as the CZ-2F, LM-2F and Shenjian, is a Chinese orbital carrier rocket, part of the Long March 2 rocket family. Designed to launch crewed Shenzhou (spacecraft), the Long March 2F is a human-rated two-stage version of the Long March 2E rocket, which in turn was based on the Long March 2C launch vehicle. It is launched from complex SLS at the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center. The Long March 2F made its maiden flight on 19 November 1999, with the Shenzhou 1 spacecraft. After the flight of Shenzhou 3, CPC General Secretary and President Jiang Zemin named the rocket "Shenjian" meaning "Divine Arrow".
A spaceplane is a vehicle that can fly and glide like an aircraft in Earth's atmosphere and maneuver like a spacecraft in outer space. To do so, spaceplanes must incorporate features of both aircraft and spacecraft. Orbital spaceplanes tend to be more similar to conventional spacecraft, while sub-orbital spaceplanes tend to be more similar to fixed-wing aircraft. All spaceplanes to date have been rocket-powered but then landed as unpowered gliders.
The Boeing X-37, also known as the Orbital Test Vehicle (OTV), is a reusable robotic spacecraft. It is boosted into space by a launch vehicle, then re-enters Earth's atmosphere and lands as a spaceplane. The X-37 is operated by the United States Space Force, and was previously operated by Air Force Space Command until 2019 for orbital spaceflight missions intended to demonstrate reusable space technologies. It is a 120-percent-scaled derivative of the earlier Boeing X-40. The X-37 began as a NASA project in 1999, before being transferred to the United States Department of Defense in 2004.
Falcon 9 is a partially reusable two-stage-to-orbit medium-lift launch vehicle designed and manufactured by SpaceX in the United States. Both the first and second stages are powered by SpaceX Merlin engines, using cryogenic liquid oxygen and rocket-grade kerosene (RP-1) as propellants. Its name is derived from the fictional Star Wars spacecraft, the Millennium Falcon, and the nine Merlin engines of the rocket's first stage. The rocket evolved with versions v1.0 (2010–2013), v1.1 (2013–2016), v1.2 "Full Thrust" (2015–present), including the Block 5 Full Thrust variant, flying since May 2018. Unlike most rockets in service, which are expendable launch systems, since the introduction of the Full Thrust version, Falcon 9 is partially reusable, with the first stage capable of re-entering the atmosphere and landing vertically after separating from the second stage. This feat was achieved for the first time on flight 20 in December 2015.
The Wenchang Spacecraft Launch Site, located in Wenchang, Hainan, China, is a rocket launch site — one of the two spacecraft launch sites of Xichang Satellite Launch Center.
This comparison of orbital launch systems lists the attributes of all individual rocket configurations designed to reach orbit. A first list contains rockets that are currently operational or in development; a second list includes all retired rockets. For the simple list of all conventional launcher families, see: Comparison of orbital launchers families. For the list of predominantly solid-fueled orbital launch systems, see: Comparison of solid-fueled orbital launch systems.
Several Asian national space programs are attempting to achieve the scientific and technological advancements necessary for regular spaceflight, as well as to reap the strategic and economic benefits of space capability. This is sometimes referred to as the Asian space race in popular media, an allusion to the Cold-War-era Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union.
The Long March 3B, also known as the CZ-3B and LM-3B, is a Chinese orbital launch vehicle. Introduced in 1996, it is launched from Launch Area 2 and 3 at the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in Sichuan. A three-stage rocket with four strap-on liquid rocket boosters, it is currently the second most powerful member of the Long March rocket family after the Long March 5 and the heaviest of the Long March 3 rocket family, and is mainly used to place communications satellites into geosynchronous orbits.
The Long March 7, or Chang Zheng 7 in pinyin, abbreviated LM-7 for export or CZ-7 within China, originally Long March 2F/H or Chang Zheng 2F/H, nicknamed Bingjian, is a Chinese liquid-fuelled launch vehicle of the Long March family, developed by the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CAST). It made its inaugural flight on 25 June 2016.
A heavy-lift launch vehicle, HLV or HLLV, is an orbital launch vehicle capable of lifting between 20,000 to 50,000 kg into low Earth orbit (LEO). As of 2019, operational heavy-lift launch vehicles include the Ariane 5, the Long March 5, the Proton-M and the Delta IV Heavy. In addition, the Angara A5, the Falcon 9 Full Thrust, and the Falcon Heavy are designed to provide heavy-lift capabilities in at least some configurations but have not yet been proven to carry a 20-tonne payload into LEO. Several other heavy-lift rockets are in development. An HLV is between medium-lift launch vehicles and super heavy-lift launch vehicles.
This following table is a comparison of orbital launcher families. To see lists of all launch systems, separated by current operational status, see Comparison of orbital launch systems.
The Tianhe, code name TH, or Tianhe Core Module (TCM) is the first module to launch of the Chinese large modular space station. It was launched into orbit on 29 April 2021, as the first launch of the final phase of Tiangong program, part of the Chinese space program.
The Long March 9 is a Chinese super-heavy carrier rocket concept that is currently under developement. It is the ninth iteration of the Long March rocket family, named for the Chinese Red Army's 1934–35 Long March campaign/retreat during the Chinese Civil War.
A super heavy-lift launch vehicle (SHLLV) is a launch vehicle capable of lifting more than 50 tonnes (110,000 lb) of payload into low Earth orbit (LEO).
A small-lift launch vehicle is a rocket orbital launch vehicle that is capable of lifting up to 2,000 kg (4,400 lb) of payload into low Earth orbit (LEO). The next larger category consists of medium-lift launch vehicles.
Next-generation crewed spacecraft, is a type of reusable spacecraft developed and manufactured by China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC). The prototype of the spacecraft underwent its first uncrewed test flight on 5 May 2020.
Chinese Rocket Engine Test a Big Step for Space Station Project