Long ton

Last updated
Long ton
Unit system Imperial units, U.S. customary units
Unit ofMass
In base units2,240 lb
Conversions
1 in ...... is equal to ...
   SI base units   1,016.047 kg
   Metric tons   1.016047 t
   Short tons   1.12 short tons (exactly)

The long ton, [1] also known as the imperial ton or displacement ton, [1] [2] is the name for the unit called the "ton" in the avoirdupois system of weights or Imperial system of measurements. It was standardised in the 13th century. It is used in the United Kingdom and several other Commonwealth of Nations countries alongside the mass-based metric tonne defined in 1799, as well as in the United States for bulk commodities.[ citation needed ]

Contents

It is not to be confused with the short ton, a unit of weight equal to 2,000 pounds (907.18474  kg ) used in the United States, and in Canada before metrication, also referred to simply as a "ton".

Unit definition

A long ton is defined as exactly 2,240 pounds. The long ton arises from the traditional British measurement system: A long ton is 20 long hundredweight (cwt), each of which is 8 stone (1 stone = 14 pounds). Thus a long ton is 20 × 8 × 14 lb = 2,240 lb.

Unit equivalences

A long ton, also called the weight ton (W/T), [1] imperial ton, or displacement ton, is equal to:

United Kingdom

To comply with the practices of the European Union, the British Imperial ton was explicitly excluded from use for trade by the United Kingdom's Weights and Measures Act of 1985. [3] [4] The measure used since then is metric ton, identified through the word "tonne".

If still used for measurement then the word "ton", is taken to refer to an imperial or long ton. [5]

North America

In the United States, the long ton is commonly used in measuring the displacement of ships, the volume-to-carrying-weight of fuels, and in trade of baled commodities [1] and bulk goods like iron ore and elemental sulfur. The long ton was the unit prescribed for warships by the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 – for example battleships were limited to a displacement of 35,000 long tons (36,000 t; 39,000 short tons).

International Trade

The long ton is traditionally used as the unit of weight in international contracts for many bulk goods and commodities.

See also

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Avoirdupois system</span> System of weights based on a pound of 16 ounces

The avoirdupois system is a measurement system of weights that uses pounds and ounces as units. It was first commonly used in the 13th century AD and was updated in 1959.

Tonnage is a measure of the cargo-carrying capacity of a ship, and is commonly used to assess fees on commercial shipping. The term derives from the taxation paid on tuns or casks of wine. In modern maritime usage, "tonnage" specifically refers to a calculation of the volume or cargo volume of a ship. Although tonnage (volume) should not be confused with displacement, the long ton of 2240 lb is derived from the fact that a "tun" of wine typically weighed that much.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of measurement</span> Aspect of history

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Comparison of the imperial and US customary measurement systems</span>

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The last was a Dutch unit of mass, volume, and number, and a large English unit of weight, mass, volume, and number. It referred to standardized amounts of ships' lading and varied by commodity and over time.

Ship measurements consist of a multitude of terms and definitions specifically related to ships and measuring or defining their characteristics.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Imperial and US customary measurement systems</span> English (pre 1824), Imperial (post 1824) and US Customary (post 1776) units of measure

The imperial and US customary measurement systems are both derived from an earlier English system of measurement which in turn can be traced back to Ancient Roman units of measurement, and Carolingian and Saxon units of measure.

The quarter was used as the name of several distinct English units based on ¼ sizes of some base unit.

The sack was an English unit of weight or mass used for coal and wool. It has also been used for other commodities by weight, commodities by volume, and for both weight and volume in the United States.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 "Definitions, Tonnages and Equivalents". Military Sealift Fleet Support Command Ships. Archived from the original on 24 July 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
  2. 1 2 Dictionary.com - "a unit for measuring the displacement of a vessel, equal to a long ton of 2240 pounds (1016 kg) or 35 cu. ft. (1 cu. m) of seawater."
  3. legislation.gov.uk: Weights and Measures Act 1985 Retrieved 17 January 2013.
  4. A Dictionary of Weights, Measures, and Units, edited by Donald Fenna, Oxford University Press
  5. "Weights and Measures Act 1985". legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 13 September 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)