Longs Peak

Last updated
Longs Peak
Fall05-LongsPeakCU JPG RSZ md.jpg
Longs Peak seen from the east at sunrise.
Highest point
Elevation 14,259 ft (4346 m) [1]
NAVD88
Prominence 2940 ft (896 m) [2]
Isolation 43.6 mi (70.2 km) [2]
Listing
Coordinates 40°15′18″N105°36′54″W / 40.2550135°N 105.6151153°W / 40.2550135; -105.6151153 Coordinates: 40°15′18″N105°36′54″W / 40.2550135°N 105.6151153°W / 40.2550135; -105.6151153 [1]
Naming
Native nameNeníisótoyóú’u  (Arapaho)
Geography
USA Colorado relief location map.svg
Red triangle with thick white border.svg
Longs Peak
Location High point of
Rocky Mountain National Park and Boulder County, Colorado, U.S. [2]
Parent range Front Range, Highest summit
of the Twin Peaks Massif [2]
Topo map USGS 7.5' topographic map
Longs Peak, Colorado [3]
Climbing
First ascent 1868 by John Wesley Powell and party
Easiest route Keyhole (scramble) Class 3+

Longs Peak (Arapaho: Neníisótoyóú’u) is a high and prominent mountain in the northern Front Range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The 14,259-foot (4346 m) fourteener is located in the Rocky Mountain National Park Wilderness, 9.6 miles (15.5 km) southwest by south (bearing 209°) of the Town of Estes Park, Colorado, United States. Longs Peak is the northernmost fourteener in the Rocky Mountains and the highest point in Boulder County and Rocky Mountain National Park. The mountain was named in honor of explorer Stephen Harriman Long and is featured on the Colorado state quarter. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

Contents

Description

Longs Peak (left of center), Pagoda Peak (center, in sun), Chief's Head (right of center, in shadow), and Mount Terra Tomah (at far right edge, in shadow), from 12,000 feet (3,700 m) above sea level in Rocky Mountain National Park Trail Ridge Road and Longs Peak by RO.jpg
Longs Peak (left of center), Pagoda Peak (center, in sun), Chief's Head (right of center, in shadow), and Mount Terra Tomah (at far right edge, in shadow), from 12,000 feet (3,700 m) above sea level in Rocky Mountain National Park

Longs Peak can be prominently seen from Longmont, Colorado, as well as from most of the northern Front Range Urban Corridor. It is one of the most prominent mountains in Colorado, rising 9,000 feet (2,700 m) above the western edge of the Great Plains.

The peak is named for Major Stephen Harriman Long, [6] [7] who is said to have been the first to spot the Front Range on June 30, 1820, during an expedition on behalf of the U.S. government.

Together with nearby Mount Meeker, with an elevation of 13,911 feet, the two mountains are sometimes referred to as the Twin Peaks (not to be confused with a nearby lower mountain called Twin Sisters).

History of ascents

As the only fourteener in Rocky Mountain National Park, the peak has long been of interest to climbers. The easiest route is not "technical" during the summer season. It was probably first used by pre-Columbian indigenous people collecting eagle feathers.

The first recorded ascent was on August 23, 1868 by the surveying party of John Wesley Powell via the south side. [7] Addie Alexander was the first woman to summit Longs Peak in 1871. [8] The East Face of the mountain is 1,675 feet steep and is surmounted by a 1,000 feet steep sheer cliff known as "The Diamond" [7] (so-named because of its shape, approximately that of a cut diamond seen from the side and inverted). Another famous profile belongs to Longs Peak: to the southeast of the summit is a series of rises which, when viewed from the northeast, resembles a beaver. Lumena Wortman Buhl was the first woman to summit the east face of the mountain.(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Blaurock)

In 1954 the first proposal made to the National Park Service to climb The Diamond was met with an official closure, a stance not changed until 1960. The Diamond was first ascended by Dave Rearick and Bob Kamps that year, by a route that would come to be known simply as D1. This route would later be listed in Allen Steck and Steve Roper's influential book Fifty Classic Climbs of North America . [9] [10] The easiest route on the face is the Casual Route (5.10a), [11] first climbed in 1977. It has since become the most popular route up the wall.

Clark's Arrow (4th-class) is a climb to the summit of Longs named after John Michael Clark, who was a park ranger in Rocky Mountain National Park in the 1950s. [12] The oldest person to summit Longs Peak was Rev. William "Col. Billy" Butler, who climbed it on September 2, 1926, his 85th birthday. In 1932, Clerin "Zumie" Zumwalt summited Longs Peak 53 times. [13]

The record number of ascents to the summit of Longs Peak is 428, by Jim Detterline. Jim was a rescue Ranger in Rocky Mountain National Park. On October 23, 2016, he died in an accident while solo climbing. Jim rescued over 1,000 people in the mountains of Rocky Mountain National Park and he received the U.S. Interior Department's Valor Award. He also, earned the title,"Mr. Longs Peak". http://www.alpinist.com/doc/web16f/newswire-detterline-obit

On June 6, 2016, a group of US Special Forces were rescued after members of the team suffered from altitude sickness. [14]

Mills Glacier

Longs Peak has one remaining glacier named Mills Glacier. The glacier is located around 12,800 feet (3,900 m) [15] at the base of the Eastern Face, just above Chasm Lake. A permanent snowfield, called The Dove, is located north of Longs Peak. Longs Peak is one of fewer than 50 mountains in Colorado that have a glacier. [16]

Climbing Longs Peak

The Keyhole as seen from the Boulder Field. A small stone shelter (Agnes Vaille Memorial) approximately 10 feet (3 m) high that sits on the left side of the Keyhole gives a sense of scale. Keyhole.jpg
The Keyhole as seen from the Boulder Field. A small stone shelter (Agnes Vaille Memorial) approximately 10 feet (3 m) high that sits on the left side of the Keyhole gives a sense of scale.

Trails that ascend Longs Peak include the East Longs Peak Trail, the Longs Peak Trail, the Keyhole Route, Clark's Arrow and the Shelf Trail. Only some technical climbing is required to reach the summit of Longs Peak during the summer season, which typically runs from mid July through early September. Outside of this window the popular "Keyhole" route is still open; however, its rating is upgraded to all "technical" as treacherous ice formation and snow fall necessitates the use of specialized climbing equipment including, at a minimum, crampons and an ice axe. It is one of the most difficult Class 3 fourteener scrambles in Colorado. [17] The hike from the trailhead to the summit is 8.4 miles (13.5 km) each way, with a total elevation gain of 4,875 feet. Most hikers begin before dawn in order to reach the summit and return below the tree line before frequent afternoon thunderstorms bring a risk of lightning strikes. The most difficult portion of the hike begins at the Boulder Field, 6.4 miles (10 km) into the hike. After scrambling over the boulders, hikers reach the Keyhole at 6.7 miles (10.5 km).

The following quarter of a mile involves a scramble along narrow ledges, many of which may have nearly sheer cliffs of 1,000 feet (305 m) or more just off the edge. The next portion of the hike includes climbing over 600 vertical feet (183 m) up the Trough before reaching the most exposed section of the hike, the Narrows. Just beyond the Narrows, the Notch signifies the beginning of the Homestretch, a steep climb to the football field-sized, flat summit. It is possible to camp out overnight in the Boulder Field (permit required) which makes for a less arduous two-day hike, although this is fairly exposed to the elements. Fifty-eight people have died climbing or hiking Longs Peak. According to the National Park Service, two people, on average, die every year attempting to climb the mountain. Less experienced mountaineers are encouraged to use a guide for this summit to mitigate risk and increase the probability of a summit.

For hikers who do not wish to climb to the summit, there are less-involved hikes on the peak as well. Peacock Pool and Chasm Lake are popular hiking destinations and follow well-maintained trails. It is also rewarding to hike just to the Boulder Field, the Keyhole, or the seldom-visited Chasm View—the ridge between Mount Lady Washington and the east face of Longs Peak. Camping is available at the Boulder Field and also on the lower portions of the mountain, such as Goblin's Forest next to the stream at the bottom. Technical climbers, with the correct permit, are allowed to use sites at the base of the East Face and at Chasm View. It is also possible to camp to the south of the mountain at Sand Beach Lake.

Snowpack accumulation on Longs Peak Longs Peak.jpg
Snowpack accumulation on Longs Peak

In addition to the standard "Keyhole" route, there are more serious and more technical climbs on Longs Peak. Climbers should seek qualified instruction; deaths on Longs Peak are an annual occurrence. Some of the more common routes are, in approximate order of popularity,

Historical names

In literature

Longs Peak is described in Jules Verne's "From the Earth to the Moon" as the location of a 16 feet (192-inch) reflecting telescope called "the Telescope of the Rocky Mountains", built for the purpose of tracking the Columbiad projectile on her flight to the Moon.

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 3 "LONGS PEAK". NGS data sheet. U.S. National Geodetic Survey . Retrieved January 2, 2016.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 "Longs Peak, Colorado". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
  3. 1 2 3 "Longs Peak". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved November 14, 2014.
  4. The elevation of Longs Peak includes an adjustment of +1.652 m (+5.42 ft) from NGVD 29 to NAVD 88.
  5. Dziezynski, James (1 August 2012). Best Summit Hikes in Colorado: An Opinionated Guide to 50+ Ascents of Classic and Little-Known Peaks from 8,144 to 14,433 Feet. Wilderness Press. p. 98. ISBN   978-0-89997-713-3.
  6. Jessen, Kenneth. "Colorado History: William Byers among first white men to climb Longs Peak". Reporter Herald. Loveland Reporter Herald.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 Walter R. Borneman; Lyndon J. Lampert (1989). A Climbing Guide To Colorado's Fourteeners (2 ed.). p.  24. ISBN   0871087510.
  8. Robertson, Janet, 1935- (1990). The magnificent mountain women : adventures in the Colorado Rockies . Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN   0803238924. OCLC   19847483.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. Roper, Steve; Steck, Allen (1979). Fifty Classic Climbs of North America . San Francisco: Sierra Club Books. ISBN   0-87156-292-8.
  10. Jeff Achey; Dudley Chelton; Bob Godfrey (2002). Climb!: The History of Rock Climbing in Colorado. The Mountaineers Books. ISBN   0-89886-876-9.
  11. "Casual Route". Mountain Project.
  12. http://boulderdailycamera.co.newsmemory.com/?selDate=20201218&goTo=B02&artid=1
  13. "Rocky Mountain National Park - Hiking Essentials".
  14. NBC News
  15. TopoQuest - Mills Glacier, USGS Longs Peak (CO) Topo Map
  16. "Glaciers of Colorado". Glaciers of the American West. Portland State University.
  17. "Home of Colorado's Fourteeners and High Peaks". 14ers.com.
  18. A Climber's Guide to the Rocky Mountain National Park Area, Walt Fricke, 1971
  19. "Center for the Study of Indigenous Languages of the West". University of Colorado Boulder. University of Colorado Boulder. Retrieved 21 Oct 2020.
  20. "Longs Peak". Colorado Encyclopedia. Colorado Encyclopedia. Retrieved 21 Oct 2020. For generations, Longs Peak played a part in the seasonal migrations, hunting practices, and cosmology of Ute and Arapaho Indians. The Arapaho called Longs Peak and Mount Meeker the “Two Guides,” or nesótaieux, because of their physical prominence and role as landmarks for the entire region.

Further reading