Lord's Prayer

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James Tissot--The Lord's Prayer (Le Pater Noster)--Brooklyn Museum Brooklyn Museum - The Lord's Prayer (Le Pater Noster) - James Tissot.jpg
James TissotThe Lord's Prayer (Le Pater Noster)—Brooklyn Museum

The Lord's Prayer, also called the Our Father (Latin, Pater Noster), is a venerated Christian prayer which, according to the New Testament, Jesus taught as the way to pray:

Latin Indo-European language of the Italic family

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.

Prayer is an important activity in Christianity, and there are several different forms of Christian prayer.

New Testament Second division of the Christian biblical canon

The New Testament is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first being the Old Testament. The New Testament discusses the teachings and person of Jesus, as well as events in first-century Christianity. Christians regard both the Old and New Testaments together as sacred scripture.

Contents

Pray then in this way ... ( Matthew 6:9 NRSV)
When you pray, say ... ( Luke 11:2 NRSV)

Two versions of this prayer are recorded in the gospels: a longer form within the Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel of Matthew, and a shorter form in the Gospel of Luke when "one of his disciples said to him, 'Lord, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples.'" ( Luke 11:1 NRSV). Lutheran theologian Harold Buls suggested that both were original, the Matthean version spoken by Jesus early in his ministry in Galilee, and the Lucan version one year later, "very likely in Judea". [1]

Sermon on the Mount collection of sayings and teachings of Jesus

The Sermon on the Mount is a collection of sayings and teachings of Jesus Christ, which emphasizes his moral teaching found in the Gospel of Matthew. It is the first of the Five Discourses of Matthew and takes place relatively early in the Ministry of Jesus after he has been baptized by John the Baptist, finished his fasting and meditation retreat in the desert, and begun to preach in Galilee. The name and location of the mountain is unstated; the Mount of Beatitudes is the traditional interpretation.

Gospel of Matthew Book of the New Testament

The Gospel According to Matthew is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three synoptic gospels. It tells how the promised Messiah, Jesus, rejected by Israel, is killed, is raised from the dead, and finally sends the disciples to preach the gospel to the whole world. Most scholars believe it was composed between AD 80 and 90, with a range of possibility between AD 70 to 110. The anonymous author was probably a male Jew, standing on the margin between traditional and non-traditional Jewish values, and familiar with technical legal aspects of scripture being debated in his time. Writing in a polished Semitic "synagogue Greek", he drew on the Gospel of Mark as a source, and likely used a hypothetical collection of sayings known as the Q source, although the existence of Q has been questioned by some scholars. He also used material unique to his own community, called the M source or "Special Matthew".

Gospel of Luke Book of the New Testament

The Gospel According to Luke, also called the Gospel of Luke, or simply Luke, is the third of the four canonical Gospels. It tells of the origins, birth, ministry, death, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus Christ.

The first three of the seven petitions in Matthew address God; the other four are related to human needs and concerns. The Matthew account alone includes the "Your will be done" and the "Rescue us from the evil one" (or "Deliver us from evil") petitions. Both original Greek texts contain the adjective epiousios , which does not appear in any other classical or Koine Greek literature; while controversial, "daily" has been the most common English-language translation of this word. Protestants usually conclude the prayer with a doxology, a later addendum appearing in some manuscripts of Matthew.

Greek language Language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

<i>Epiousios</i>

The word epiousios (ἐπιούσιος) is the non-inflected form of epiousion (ἐπιούσιον), a Koine Greek hapax legomenon found only in the Lord's Prayer as reported in the New Testament passages Matthew 6:11 and Luke 11:3. As a hapax, its interpretation relies upon morphological analysis and context. It is an adjective modifying artos (ἄρτος), the word for bread.

Koine Greek, also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the common supra-regional form of Greek spoken and written during the Hellenistic period, the Roman Empire, and the early Byzantine Empire, or late antiquity. It evolved from the spread of Greek following the conquests of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC, and served as the lingua franca of much of the Mediterranean region and the Middle East during the following centuries. It was based mainly on Attic and related Ionic speech forms, with various admixtures brought about through dialect levelling with other varieties.

Matthew 6:9-13 (NRSV) Luke 11:2-4 (NRSV)
Our Father in heaven,Father, [Other ancient authorities read Our father in heaven]
hallowed be your name.hallowed be your name.
Your kingdom come.Your kingdom come.
[A few ancient authorities read Your Holy Spirit come upon us and cleanse us.]
Your will be done, on earth as it is in heaven.[Other ancient authorities add Your will be done, on earth as in heaven]
Give us this day our daily bread. [Or our bread for tomorrow]Give us each day our daily bread. [Or our bread for tomorrow]
And forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors.and forgive us our sins, for we ourselves forgive everyone indebted to us.
And do not bring us to the time of trial, [Or us into temptation] but rescue us from the evil one. [Or from evil]And do not bring us to the time of trial. [Or us into temptation. Other ancient authorities add but rescue us from the evil one (or from evil)]
[Other ancient authorities add, in some form, For the kingdom and the power and the glory are yours forever. Amen.]

Initial words on the topic from the Catechism of the Catholic Church teach that it "is truly the summary of the whole gospel". [2] The prayer is used by most Christian churches in their worship; with few exceptions, the liturgical form is the Matthean. Although theological differences and various modes of worship divide Christians, according to Fuller Seminary professor Clayton Schmit, "there is a sense of solidarity in knowing that Christians around the globe are praying together ... and these words always unite us." [3]

<i>Catechism of the Catholic Church</i> book by Congregatie voor de Geloofsleer

The Catechism of the Catholic Church is a catechism promulgated for the Catholic Church by Pope John Paul II in 1992. It sums up, in book form, the beliefs of the Catholic faithful.

Christian worship act of attributing reverent honor and homage to God

In Christianity, worship is the act of attributing reverent honor and homage to God. In the New Testament, various words are used to refer to the term worship. One is proskuneo which means to bow down to God or kings.

Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group. As a religious phenomenon, liturgy represents a communal response to and participation in the sacred through activity reflecting praise, thanksgiving, supplication or repentance. It forms a basis for establishing a relationship with a divine agency, as well as with other participants in the liturgy.

In biblical criticism, the prayer's absence in the Gospel of Mark together with its occurrence in Matthew and Luke has caused scholars who accept the two-source hypothesis (against other document hypotheses) to conclude that it is probably a logion original to Q. [4]

Biblical criticism scholarly study of biblical writings that seeks to make discerning judgments about these writings

Biblical criticism is an umbrella term for those methods of studying the Bible that embrace two distinctive perspectives: the concern to avoid dogma and bias by applying a non-sectarian, reason-based judgment, and the reconstruction of history according to contemporary understanding. Biblical criticism uses the grammar, structure, development, and relationship of language to identify such characteristics as the Bible's literary structure, its genre, its context, meaning, authorship, and origins.

Gospel of Mark Book of the New Testament

The Gospel According to Mark is one of the four canonical gospels and one of the three synoptic gospels. It tells of the ministry of Jesus from his baptism by John the Baptist to his death and burial and the discovery of the empty tomb – there is no genealogy of Jesus or birth narrative, nor, in the original ending at chapter 16, any post-resurrection appearances of Jesus. It portrays Jesus as a heroic man of action, an exorcist, a healer, and a miracle worker. Jesus is also the Son of God, but he keeps his identity secret, concealing it in parables so that even most of the disciples fail to understand. All this is in keeping with prophecy, which foretold the fate of the messiah as suffering servant. The gospel ends, in its original version, with the discovery of the empty tomb, a promise to meet again in Galilee, and an unheeded instruction to spread the good news of the resurrection.

Two-source hypothesis solution to the synoptic problem, stating that Matthew and Luke were based on Mark and a hypothetical sayings collection (“Q”)

The two-source hypothesis is an explanation for the synoptic problem, the pattern of similarities and differences between the three Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke. It posits that the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke were based on the Gospel of Mark and a hypothetical sayings collection from the Christian oral tradition called Q.

Text

Original Greek text and Syriac and Latin translations

Liturgical texts: Greek, Syriac, Latin

The Lord's Prayer (Latin liturgical text) with Gregorian chant annotation
Pater Noster
The Lord's Prayer sung in Gregorian chant Pater Noster in Cantus Planus.png
The Lord's Prayer (Latin liturgical text) with Gregorian chant annotation

English versions

There are several different English translations of the Lord's Prayer from Greek or Latin, beginning around AD 650 with the Northumbrian translation. Of those in current liturgical use, the three best-known are:

The square brackets in three of the texts below indicate the doxology often added at the end of the prayer by Protestants and, in a slightly different form, by the Byzantine Rite ("For thine is the kingdom and the power and the glory: of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, now and ever, and unto ages of ages. Amen." [19] ), among whom the prayer proper is usually recited by the cantors and congregation in unison, and the doxology by the priest as the conclusion of the prayer. The Anglican Book of Common Prayer adds it in some services but not in all. Older English translations of the Bible, based on late Byzantine Greek manuscripts, included it, but it is excluded in critical editions of the New Testament, such as that of the United Bible Societies. It is absent in the oldest manuscripts and is not considered to be part of the original text of Matthew 6:913. The Catholic Church has never attached it to the Lord's Prayer, but has included it in the Roman Rite Mass as revised in 1969, not as part of the Our Father but separated from it by a prayer called the embolism spoken or sung by the priest (in the official ICEL English translation: "Deliver us, Lord, we pray, from every evil, graciously grant peace in our days, that, by the help of your mercy, we may be always free from sin and safe from all distress, as we await the blessed hope and the coming of our Saviour, Jesus Christ.") that elaborates on the final petition, "Deliver us from evil." For more information on this doxology, see Doxology, below. When Reformers set out to translate the King James Bible, they assumed that a Greek manuscript they possessed was ancient and therefore adopted the phrase "For thine is the kingdom, the power, and the glory forever" into the Lord's Prayer. Later scholarship demonstrated that the manuscript was actually a late addition based on Eastern liturgical tradition.

Other English translations are also used.

Though Matthew 6:12 uses the term debts, the older English versions of the Lord's Prayer uses the term trespasses, while ecumenical versions often use the term sins. The latter choice may be due to Luke 11:4 , which uses the word sins, while the former may be due to Matthew 6:14 (immediately after the text of the prayer), where Jesus speaks of trespasses. As early as the third century, Origen of Alexandria used the word trespasses (παραπτώματα) in the prayer. Although the Latin form that was traditionally used in Western Europe has debita (debts), most English-speaking Christians (except Scottish Presbyterians and some others of the Reformed tradition) use trespasses. The Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), the Established Presbyterian Church of Scotland as well as the Congregational denomination follow the version found in Matthew 6 in the Authorized Version (known also as the King James Version), which in the prayer uses the words "debts" and "debtors".

All these versions are based on the text in Matthew, rather than Luke, of the prayer given by Jesus:

Analysis

The Lord's Prayer in Greek Lord's Prayer - Greek.JPG
The Lord's Prayer in Greek

Subheadings use 1662 Book of Common Prayer (BCP) (see above)

Introduction

Our Father, which art in heaven

"Our" indicates that the prayer is that of a group of people who consider themselves children of God and who call God their "Father". "In heaven" indicates that the Father who is addressed is distinct from human fathers on earth. [25]

Augustine interpreted "heaven" (coelum, sky) in this context as meaning "in the hearts of the righteous, as it were in His holy temple". [26]

First Petition

Hallowed be thy Name;

Former Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams explains this phrase as a petition that people may look upon God's name as holy, as something that inspires awe and reverence, and that they may not trivialize it by making God a tool for their purposes, to "put other people down, or as a sort of magic to make themselves feel safe". He sums up the meaning of the phrase by saying: "Understand what you're talking about when you're talking about God, this is serious, this is the most wonderful and frightening reality that we could imagine, more wonderful and frightening than we can imagine." [27]

Second Petition

Thy kingdom come;

"This petition has its parallel in the Jewish prayer, 'May he establish his Kingdom during your life and during your days.' [28] In the gospels Jesus speaks frequently of God's kingdom, but never defines the concept: "He assumed this was a concept so familiar that it did not require definition." [29] Concerning how Jesus' audience in the gospels would have understood him, G. E. Ladd turns to the concept's Hebrew Biblical background: "The Hebrew word malkuth […] refers first to a reign, dominion, or rule and only secondarily to the realm over which a reign is exercised. […] When malkuth is used of God, it almost always refers to his authority or to his rule as the heavenly King." [30] This petition looks to the perfect establishment of God's rule in the world in the future, an act of God resulting in the eschatological order of the new age. [31]

The request for God's kingdom to come is commonly interpreted at the most literal level: as a reference to the belief, common at the time, that a Messiah figure would bring about a kingdom of God .[ citation needed ] Traditionally, the coming of God's kingdom is seen as a divine gift to be prayed for, not a human achievement.[ citation needed ] This idea is frequently challenged by groups who believe that the Kingdom will come by the hands of those faithful who work for a better world. These believe that Jesus' commands to feed the hungry and clothe the needy are the kingdom to which he was referring.[ citation needed ]

Hilda C. Graef notes that the operative Greek word, basileia, means both kingdom and kingship (i.e., reign, dominion, governing, etc.), but that the English word kingdom loses this double meaning. [32] Kingship adds a psychological meaning to the petition: one is also praying for the condition of soul where one follows God's will.

Third Petition

Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven:

According to William Barclay, this phrase is a couplet with the same meaning as "Thy kingdom come." Barclay argues: "The kingdom is a state of things on earth in which God's will is as perfectly done as it is in heaven... To do the will of God and to be in the Kingdom of God are one and the same thing." [33]

John Ortberg interprets this phrase as follows: "Many people think our job is to get my afterlife destination taken care of, then tread water till we all get ejected and God comes back and torches this place. But Jesus never told anybody—neither his disciples nor us—to pray, 'Get me out of here so I can go up there.' His prayer was, 'Make up there come down here.' Make things down here run the way they do up there." [34] The request that "thy will be done" is God's invitation to "join him in making things down here the way they are up there." [34]

Fourth Petition

Give us this day our daily ( epiousios ) bread;

As mentioned earlier in this article, the original word ἐπιούσιος ( epiousios ), commonly characterized as daily, is unique to the Lord's Prayer in all of ancient Greek literature. The word is almost a hapax legomenon, occurring only in Luke and Matthew's versions of the Lord's Prayer, and nowhere else in any other extant Greek texts. While epiousios is often substituted by the word "daily," all other New Testament translations from the Greek into "daily" otherwise reference hemeran (ἡμέραν, "the day"), which does not appear in this usage. [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45]

Via linguistic parsing, Jerome translated "ἐπιούσιον" (epiousios) as "supersubstantialem" in the Gospel of Matthew, but chose "cotidianum" ("daily") in the Gospel of Luke. This wide-ranging difference with respect to meaning of epiousios is discussed in detail in the current Catechism of the Catholic Church by way of an inclusive approach toward tradition as well as a literal one for meaning: "Taken in a temporal sense, this word is a pedagogical repetition of "this day," to confirm us in trust "without reservation." Taken in the qualitative sense, it signifies what is necessary for life, and more broadly every good thing sufficient for subsistence. Taken literally (epi-ousios: "super-essential"), it refers directly to the Bread of Life, the Body of Christ, the "medicine of immortality," without which we have no life within us." [46]

Epiousios is translated as supersubstantialem in the Vulgate (Matthew 6:11 ) and accordingly as supersubstantial in the Douay-Rheims Bible (Matthew 6:11 ).

Barclay M. Newman's A Concise Greek-English Dictionary of the New Testament, published in a revised edition in 2010 by the United Bible Societies has the following entry:

ἐπι|ούσιος, ον (εἰμί) of doubtful meaning, for today; for the coming day; necessary for existence [47] It thus derives the word from the preposition ἐπί (epi) and the verb εἰμί (eimi), from the latter of which are derived words such as οὐσία ( ousia ), the range of whose meanings is indicated in A Greek–English Lexicon . [48]

Fifth Petition

And forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive them that trespass against us;

The Presbyterian and other Reformed churches tend to use the rendering "forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors". Roman Catholics, Lutherans, Anglicans and Methodists are more likely to say "trespasses… those who trespass against us". [49] The "debts" form appears in the first English translation of the Bible, by John Wycliffe in 1395 (Wycliffe spelling "dettis"). The "trespasses" version appears in the 1526 translation by William Tyndale (Tyndale spelling "treaspases"). In 1549 the first Book of Common Prayer in English used a version of the prayer with "trespasses". This became the "official" version used in Anglican congregations. On the other hand, the 1611 King James Version, the version specifically authorized for the Church of England, has "forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors".

After the request for bread, Matthew and Luke diverge slightly. Matthew continues with a request for debts to be forgiven in the same manner as people have forgiven those who have debts against them. Luke, on the other hand, makes a similar request about sins being forgiven in the manner of debts being forgiven between people. The word "debts" (ὀφειλήματα) does not necessarily mean financial obligations, as shown by the use of the verbal form of the same word (ὀφείλετε) in passages such as Romans 13:8 . The Aramaic word ḥôbâ can mean "debt" or "sin". [50] [51] This difference between Luke's and Matthew's wording could be explained by the original form of the prayer having been in Aramaic. The generally accepted interpretation is thus that the request is for forgiveness of sin, not of supposed loans granted by God. [52] Asking for forgiveness from God was a staple of Jewish prayers.[ citation needed ] It was also considered proper for individuals to be forgiving of others, so the sentiment expressed in the prayer would have been a common one of the time.[ citation needed ]

Anthony C. Deane, Canon of Worcester Cathedral, suggested that the choice of the word "ὀφειλήματα" (debts), rather than "ἁμαρτίας" (sins), indicates a reference to failures to use opportunities of doing good. He linked this with the parable of the sheep and the goats (also in Matthew's Gospel), in which the grounds for condemnation are not wrongdoing in the ordinary sense, but failure to do right, missing opportunities for showing love to others. [Matt. 25:31–46] [53]

"As we forgive ...". Divergence between Matthew's "debts" and Luke's "sins" is relatively trivial compared to the impact of the second half of this statement. The verses immediately following the Lord's Prayer, [Matt. 6:14–15] show Jesus teaching that the forgiveness of our sin/debt (by God) is linked with how we forgive others, as in the Parable of the Unforgiving Servant [Matt. 18:23–35] , which Matthew gives later. R. T. France comments: "The point is not so much that forgiving is a prior condition of being forgiven, but that forgiving cannot be a one-way process. Like all God's gifts it brings responsibility; it must be passed on. To ask for forgiveness on any other basis is hypocrisy. There can be question, of course, of our forgiving being in proportion to what we are forgiven, as 18:23–35 makes clear." [54]

Sixth Petition

And lead us not into temptation,

Interpretations of the penultimate petition of the prayer—not to be led by God into peirasmos—vary considerably. The range of meanings of the Greek word "πειρασμός" (peirasmos) is illustrated in New Testament Greek lexicons. [55] In different contexts it can mean temptation, testing, trial, experiment. Although the traditional English translation uses the word "temptation" and Carl Jung saw God as actually leading people astray, [56] Christians generally interpret the petition as not contradicting James 1:13–14 : "Let no one say when he is tempted, 'I am being tempted by God', for God cannot be tempted with evil, and he himself tempts no one. But each person is tempted when he is lured and enticed by his own desire." Some see the petition as an eschatological appeal against unfavourable Last Judgment, a theory supported by the use of the word "peirasmos" in this sense in Revelation 3:10 . Others see it as a plea against hard tests described elsewhere in scripture, such as those of Job. [57] It is also read as: "Do not let us be led (by ourselves, by others, by Satan) into temptations". Since it follows shortly after a plea for daily bread (i.e., material sustenance), it is also seen as referring to not being caught up in the material pleasures given. A similar phrase appears in Matthew 26:41 and Luke 22:40 in connection with the prayer of Jesus in Gethsemane. [58]

Joseph Smith, the founder of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, in a translation of the Holy Bible which was not completed before his death, used: "And suffer us not to be led into temptation". [59]

In a conversation on the Italian TV channel TV2000 on 6 December 2017, Pope Francis commented that the then Italian wording of this petition (similar to the traditional English) was a poor translation. He said "the French" (i.e., the Bishops' Conference of France) had changed the petition to "Do not let us fall in/into temptation". He was referring to the 2017 change to a new French version, Et ne nous laisse pas entrer en tentation ("Do not let us enter into temptation"), but spoke of it in terms of the Spanish translation, no nos dejes caer en la tentación ("do not let us fall in/into temptation"), that he was accustomed to recite in Argentina before his election as Pope. He explained: "I am the one who falls; it's not him [God] pushing me into temptation to then see how I have fallen". [60] [61] [62] Anglican theologian Ian Paul said that such a proposal was "stepping into a theological debate about the nature of evil". [63]

In January 2018, the German Bishops' Conference rejected any rewording of their translation of the Lord's Prayer. [64] [65]

2019 change in an Italian translation

In November 2018, the Episcopal Conference of Italy adopted a new edition of the Messale Romano, the Italian translation of the Roman Missal, which received, a few months later, the confirmation by the Holy See that was required for publication. One of the changes made from the older (1983) edition was to render this petition as non abbandonarci alla tentazione ("do not abandon us to temptation"). [66] [67]

Some news reports in English gave the false impression that the Holy See's confirmation of the choice made by the Italian bishops was instead a decree by Pope Francis changing the Our Father for the whole of the Catholic Church. [64] The Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales and the Bishops' Conference of Scotland denied this in response to a query from the British tabloid newspaper The Sun , [68]

The Italian-speaking Waldensian Evangelical Church maintains its translation of the petition: non esporci alla tentazione ("do not expose us to temptation"). [69]

Seventh Petition

But deliver [70] us from evil: [71]

Translations and scholars are divided over whether the final word here refers to "evil" in general or "the evil one" (the devil) in particular. In the original Greek, as well as in the Latin translation, the word could be either of neuter (evil in general) or masculine (the evil one) gender. Matthew's version of the prayer appears in the Sermon on the Mount, in earlier parts of which the term is used to refer to general evil. Later parts of Matthew refer to the devil when discussing similar issues. However, the devil is never referred to as the evil one in any known Aramaic sources. While John Calvin accepted the vagueness of the term's meaning, he considered that there is little real difference between the two interpretations, and that therefore the question is of no real consequence. Similar phrases are found in John 17:15 and 2 Thessalonians 3:3 . [72]

Doxology

For thine is the kingdom, the power, and the glory,
For ever and ever. Amen.

The doxology of the prayer is not contained in Luke's version, nor is it present in the earliest manuscripts of Matthew, [73] representative of the Alexandrian text, although it is present in the manuscripts representative of the later Byzantine text. [74] Most scholars do not consider it part of the original text of Matthew. [75] [76] New translations generally omit it. [77]

The first known use of the doxology, in a less lengthy form ("for yours is the power and the glory forever"), [78] as a conclusion for the Lord's Prayer (in a version slightly different from that of Matthew) is in the Didache , 8:2. It has similarities with 1 Chronicles —"Yours, O LORD, is the greatness and the power and the glory and the victory and the majesty, for all that is in the heavens and in the earth is yours. Yours is the kingdom, O LORD, and you are exalted as head above all." In the Byzantine Rite, a similar doxology is sung within the context of the Divine Liturgy. Following the last line of the prayer, the priest sings "For thine is the kingdom and the power and the glory, of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, now and ever and unto ages of ages."

Latin Church Roman Catholics do not use the doxology when reciting the Lord's Prayer, because it is not part of their received liturgical tradition and is not found in the Latin Vulgate of St. Jerome. Since 1970 it is included in the Roman Rite Mass as an independent item, not as part of the Lord's Prayer. The Anglican Book of Common Prayer sometimes gives the Lord's Prayer with the doxology, sometimes without. [79] Most Protestants append it to the Lord's Prayer.

Use as a language comparison tool

Detail of the Europa Polyglotta published with Synopsis Universae Philologiae in 1741; the map gives the first phrase of the Lord's Prayer in 33 different languages of Europe. Lithuanian language in European language map 1741.jpg
Detail of the Europa Polyglotta published with Synopsis Universae Philologiae in 1741; the map gives the first phrase of the Lord's Prayer in 33 different languages of Europe.

In the course of Christianization, one of the first texts to be translated between many languages has historically been the Lord's Prayer, long before the full Bible would be translated into the respective languages. Since the 16th century, collections of translations of the prayer have often been used for a quick comparison of languages.

The first such collection, with 22 versions, was Mithridates, de differentiis linguarum by Conrad Gessner (1555; the title refers to Mithridates VI of Pontus who according to Pliny the Elder was an exceptional polyglot).

Gessner's idea of collecting translations of the prayer was taken up by authors of the 17th century, including Hieronymus Megiserus (1603) and Georg Pistorius (1621). Thomas Lüdeken in 1680 published an enlarged collection of 83 versions of the prayer, [80] of which three were in fictional philosophical languages. Lüdeken quotes as a Barnum Hagius as his source for the exotic scripts used, while their true (anonymous) author was Andreas Müller. In 1700, Lüdeken's collection was re-edited by B. Mottus as Oratio dominica plus centum linguis versionibus aut characteribus reddita et expressa. This edition was comparatively inferior, but a second, revised edition was published in 1715 by John Chamberlain. This 1715 edition was used by Gottfried Hensel in his Synopsis Universae Philologiae (1741) to compile "geographico-polyglot maps" where the beginning of the prayer was shown in the geographical area where the respective languages were spoken. Johann Ulrich Kraus also published a collection with more than 100 entries. [81]

Lord's Prayer in Classical Chinese Lords Prayer in Chinese.jpg
Lord's Prayer in Classical Chinese

These collections continued to be improved and expanded well into the 19th century; Johann Christoph Adelung and Johann Severin Vater in 1806–1817 published the prayer in "well-nigh five hundred languages and dialects". [82]

Samples of scripture, including the Lord's Prayer, were published in 52 oriental languages, most of them not previously found in such collections, translated by the brethren of the Serampore Mission and printed at the mission press there in 1818.

Relation to Jewish prayer

There are similarities between the Lord's Prayer and both biblical and post-biblical material in Jewish prayer especially Kiddushin 81a (Babylonian). [83] "Our Father which art in heaven" (אבינו שבשמים, Avinu shebashamayim) is the beginning of many Hebrew prayers. [84] "Hallowed be thy name" is reflected in the Kaddish. "Lead us not into sin" is echoed in the "morning blessings" of Jewish prayer. A blessing said by some Jewish communities after the evening Shema includes a phrase quite similar to the opening of the Lord's Prayer: "Our God in heaven, hallow thy name, and establish thy kingdom forever, and rule over us for ever and ever. Amen." There are parallels also in 1 Chronicles 29:10–18 . [74] [83]

Rabbi Aron Mendes Chumaceiro has said [85] that nearly all the elements of the prayer have counterparts in the Jewish Bible and Deuterocanonical books: the first part in Isaiah 63:15–16 ("Look down from heaven and see, from your holy and beautiful habitation ... For you are our Father ...") and Ezekiel 36:23 ("I will vindicate the holiness of my great name ...") and Ezekiel 38:23 ("I will show my greatness and my holiness and make myself known in the eyes of many nations ..."), the second part in Obadiah 1:21 ("Saviours shall go up to Mount Zion to rule Mount Esau, and the kingdom shall be the LORD's") and 1 Samuel 3:18 ("... It is the LORD. Let him do what seems good to him."), the third part in Proverbs 30:8 ("... feed me with my apportioned bread..."), the fourth part in Sirach 28:2 ("Forgive your neighbour the wrong he has done, and then your sins will be pardoned when you pray."). "Deliver us from evil" can be compared with Psalm 119:133 ("... let no iniquity get dominion over me."). Chumaceiro says that, because the idea of God leading a human into temptation contradicts the righteousness and love of God, "Lead us not into temptation" has no counterpart in the Jewish Bible/Christian Old Testament.

The word "πειρασμός", which is translated as "temptation", could also be translated as "test" or "trial", making evident the attitude of someone's heart. Well-known examples in the Old Testament are God's test of Abraham ( Genesis 22:1 ); his "moving" (the Hebrew word means basically "to prick, as by weeds, thorns") David to do (numbering Israel) what David later acknowledged as sin ( 2 Samuel 24:1–10 ; see also 1 Chronicles 21:1–7 ); and the testing of Job in the Book of Job .

Musical settings

In modern times, various composers have incorporated The Lord's Prayer into a musical setting for utilization during liturgical services for a variety of religious traditions as well as interfaith ceremonies. Included among them are:

As with other prayers, the Lord's Prayer was used by cooks to time their recipes before the spread of clocks. For example, a step could be "simmer the broth for three Lord's Prayers". [89]

American songwriter and arranger Brian Wilson set the text of the Lord's Prayer to an elaborate close-harmony arrangement loosely based on Malotte's melody. Wilson's group, The Beach Boys, would return to the piece several times throughout their recording career, most notably as the B-side to their 1964 single "Little Saint Nick." [90]

The band Yazoo used the prayer interspersed with the lyrics of "In My Room" on the album Upstairs at Eric's . [91]

The 2005 game Civilization IV uses a Swahili-language version of the prayer as its main theme.

Images

See also

Related Research Articles

A doxology is a short hymn of praises to God in various forms of Christian worship, often added to the end of canticles, psalms, and hymns. The tradition derives from a similar practice in the Jewish synagogue, where some version of the Kaddish serves to terminate each section of the service.

Names and titles of Jesus in the New Testament Designations for Jesus used in the New Testament

Two names and a variety of titles are used to refer to Jesus in the New Testament.

Gloria in excelsis Deo Liturgical Christian hymn

"Gloria in excelsis Deo" is a Christian hymn known also as the Greater Doxology and the Angelic Hymn/Hymn of the Angels. The name is often abbreviated to Gloria in Excelsis or simply Gloria.

Youngs Literal Translation

Young's Literal Translation (YLT) is a translation of the Bible into English, published in 1862. The translation was made by Robert Young, compiler of Young's Analytical Concordance to the Bible and Concise Critical Comments on the New Testament. Young used the Textus Receptus (TR) and the Masoretic Text (MT) as the basis for his translation. He wrote in the preface to the first edition, "It has been no part of the Translator's plan to attempt to form a New Hebrew or Greek Text—he has therefore somewhat rigidly adhered to the received ones." Young produced a “Revised Version” of his translation in 1887, but he stuck with the Received Text. He wrote in the preface to the Revised Edition, "The Greek Text followed is that generally recognized as the 'Received Text,' not because it is thought perfect, but because the department of Translation is quite distinct from that of textual criticism, and few are qualified for both. If the original text be altered by a translator, the reader is left in uncertainty whether the translation given is to be considered as that of the old or of the new reading." A new Revised Edition was released ten years after Robert Young's death on October 14, 1888. The 1898 version was based on the TR, easily confirmed by the word "bathe" in Revelation 1:5 and the word "again" in Revelation 20:5. The "Publishers' Note to the Third Edition" explains, "The work has been subjected to a fresh revision, making no alteration on the principles on which the Translation proceeds, but endeavouring to make it as nearly perfect in point of accuracy on its present lines as possible."

Matthew 4:5

Matthew 4:5 is the fifth verse of the fourth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament. Jesus has just rebuffed Satan's first temptation in this verse the devil transports him to the site of the second temptation.

Matthew 4:11

Matthew 4:11 is the eleventh verse of the fourth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament. Jesus has just rebuffed Satan's third temptation and ordered him away. In this last verse of the temptation scene the devil departs and Jesus is serviced by angels.

Matthew 6:9 verse of the New Testament

Matthew 6:9 is the ninth verse of the sixth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament and is part of the Sermon on the Mount. This verse is the opening of the Lord's Prayer, one of the best known parts of the entire New Testament.

Matthew 6:10 verse of the New Testament, part of the Lords Prayer: “Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven.”

Matthew 6:10 is the tenth verse of the sixth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament and is part of the Sermon on the Mount. This verse is the second one of the Lord's Prayer, one of the best known parts of the entire New Testament. This verse contains the second and third petitions to God.

Matthew 6:11 verse of the New Testament; part of the Lords Prayer

Matthew 6:11 is the eleventh verse of the sixth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament and forms part of the Sermon on the Mount. This verse is the third one of the Lord's Prayer, one of the best known parts of the entire New Testament. This brief verse contains the fourth petition to God.

Matthew 6:12

Matthew 6:12 is the twelfth verse of the sixth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament and is part of the Sermon on the Mount. This verse is the fourth one of the Lord's Prayer, one of the best known parts of the entire New Testament. This verse contains the fifth petition to God.

Matthew 6:13 verse of the Gospel according to Matthew; part of the Lords Prayer: “And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil: For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever. Amen.”

Matthew 6:13 is the thirteenth verse of the sixth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament, and forms part of the Sermon on the Mount. This verse is the fifth and final one of the Lord's Prayer, one of the best known parts of the entire New Testament.

Temptation of Christ Biblical narrative

The temptation of Christ is a biblical narrative detailed in the Gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke. After being baptized by John the Baptist, Jesus fasted for 40 days and nights in the Judaean Desert. During this time, Satan came to Jesus and tried to tempt him. Jesus having refused each temptation, Satan then departed and Jesus returned to Galilee to begin his ministry.

Matthew 6:7 is the seventh verse of the sixth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament and is part of the Sermon on the Mount. This verse continues the discussion on the proper procedure for praying.

Matthew 7:11 is the eleventh verse of the seventh chapter of the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament and is part of the Sermon on the Mount. This verse summarizes the preceding metaphors in favour of prayer.

Luke 22

Luke 22 is the twenty-second chapter of the Gospel of Luke in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. It commences in the days just before the Passover or Feast of Unleavened Bread, and records the plot to kill Jesus Christ, the institution of the Lord's Supper, Jesus' arrest and his trial before the Sanhedrin. The book containing this chapter is anonymous, but early Christian tradition uniformly affirmed that Luke composed this Gospel as well as the Acts of the Apostles.

Devil in Christianity

In mainstream Christianity, the devil is a fallen angel who rebelled against God. Satan was expelled from Heaven and sent to Earth. The devil is often identified as the serpent in the Garden of Eden, whose persuasions led to the two corresponding Christian doctrines: the Original Sin and its cure, the Redemption of Jesus Christ. He is also identified as the accuser of Job, the tempter of the Gospels, Leviathan and the dragon in the Book of Revelation.

John 1:1 Verse of the Bible

John 1:1 is the first verse in the opening chapter of the Gospel of John. In the Douay–Rheims, King James, New International, and other versions of the Bible, the verse reads:

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

Names of God in Christianity

In Christian theology the name of God has always had much deeper meaning and significance than being just a label or designator. Christian belief states that the name of God is not a human invention, but has divine origin and is based on divine revelation. Respect for the name of God is one of the Ten Commandments, which some Christian teachings interpret to be not only a command to avoid the improper use God's name, but a directive to exalt it through both pious deeds and praise. This is reflected in the first petition in the Lord's Prayer addressed to God the Father: "Hallowed be Thy Name".

References

Citations

  1. Buls, H. H., The Sermon Notes of Harold Buls: Easter V, accessed 15 June 2018
  2. "Catechism of the Catholic Church - The summary of the whole Gospel" . Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  3. Kang, K. Connie. "Across the globe, Christians are united by Lord's Prayer." Los Angeles Times, in Houston Chronicle, p. A13, April 8, 2007.
  4. Farmer, William R., The Gospel of Jesus: The Pastoral Relevance of the Synoptic Problem, Westminster John Knox Press (1994), p. 49, ISBN   978-0-664-25514-5
  5. The text given here is that of the latest edition of Greek New Testament of the United Bible Societies and in the Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graece. Most modern translations use a text similar to this one. Most older translations are based on a Byzantine-type text with ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς in line 5 (verse 10) instead of ἐπὶ γῆς, and ἀφίεμεν in line 8 (verse 12) instead of ἀφήκαμεν, and adding at the end (verse 13) the doxology ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.
  6. Three editions of the Vulgate: the Clementine edition of the Vulgate, which varies from the Nova Vulgata only in punctuation and in having "ne nos inducas" in place of "ne inducas nos", and another edition of the Vulgate, which has "qui in caelis es" in place of "qui es in caelis"; "veniat" in place of "adveniat"; "dimisimus" in place of "dimittimus"; "temptationem" in place of "tentationem".
  7. In the Nova Vulgata, the official Latin Bible of the Catholic Church, the last word is capitalized, indicating that it is a reference to Malus (the Evil One), not to malum (abstract or generic evil).
  8. The doxology associated with the Lord's Prayer in Byzantine Greek texts is found in four Vetus Latina manuscripts, only two of which give it in its entirety. The other surviving manuscripts of the Vetus Latina Gospels do not have the doxology. The Vulgate translation also does not include it, thus agreeing with critical editions of the Greek text.
  9. The Greek Orthodox Church uses a slightly different Greek version. which can be found in the Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom ( Greek Orthodox Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom]), as presented in the 1904 text of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople] and various Greek prayer books and liturgies. This is the Greek version of the Lord's Prayer most widely used for prayer and liturgy today, and is similar to other texts of the Byzantine text-type used in older English Bible translations, with ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς instead of ἐπὶ γῆς on line 5 and ἀφίεμεν instead of ἀφήκαμεν (present rather than aorist tense) in line 8. The last part, ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας· ἀμήν, is said by the priest after the prayer.
  10. Matthew 6.11 and Luke 11.3 Curetonian Gospels used ܐܡܝܢܐ "constant bread" like Vulgata Clementina used "quotidianum" "daily bread" in Luke 11.3 see Epiousios
  11. Didache finishes the prayer just with duality of words "for Thine is the Power and the Glory for ages" without any "amen" in the end. Old Syriac text of Curetonian Gospels finishes the prayer also with duality of words "for Thine is the Kingdom and the Glory for age ages. Amen"
  12. Syriac liturgical text adds "and our sins" apparently to sum verses in prayers of Matthew 6.12 and Luke 11.4
  13. Syriac "deliver" relates with "Passover", thus Passover means "deliverance" Exodus 12.13
  14. Isaiah 45.7
  15. "and" are absent between "Kingdom, Power, Glory". Old Syriac Curetonian Gospels text writes different conclusion: "for Thine is the Kingdom and the Glory for age ages. Amen"
  16. 2002 edition; 1962 edition, pp. 312−313
  17. The version of the Lord's Prayer most familiar to Western European Christians until the Protestant Reformation is that in the Roman Missal, which has had cultural and historical importance for most regions where English is spoken. The text is used in the Roman Rite liturgy (Mass, Liturgy of the Hours, etc.). It differs from the Vulgate in having cotidianum in place of supersubstantialem. It does not add the Byzantine doxology: this is never joined immediately to the Lord's Prayer in the Latin liturgy or the Latin Bible, but it appears, in the form quia tuum est regnum, et potestas, et gloria, in saecula, in the Mass of the Roman Rite, as revised in 1969, separated from the Lord's Prayer by the prayer, Libera nos, quaesumus... (the embolism), which elaborates on the final petition, libera nos a malo (deliver us from evil). Others have translated the Byzantine doxology into Latin as quia tuum est regnum; et potentia et gloria; per omnia saecula or in saecula saeculorum.
  18. In editions of the Roman Missal prior to that of 1962 (the edition of Pope John XXIII) the word cotidianum was spelled quotidianum.
  19. In Greek: Ὅτι σοῦ ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα· τοῦ Πατρὸς καὶ τοῦ Υἱοῦ καὶ τοῦ Ἁγίου Πνεύματος· νῦν καὶ ἀεὶ καὶ εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων. Ἀμήν.
  20. "The Communion" . Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  21. A full catechism of the Catholic religion, preceded by a short history of religion from the creation of the world (Burns and Oates 1863, pp. 319−322
  22. Catechism of the Catholic Church
  23. The Order for the Administration of the Lord's Supper or Holy Communion. Note that the Church of England's Book of Common Prayer (1928), which also sometimes adds, sometimes omits, the doxology, keeps the 1662 text (An Alternative Order for the Administration of Holy Communion).
  24. Praying Together
  25. Hahn, Scott (2002). Understanding "Our Father": Biblical Reflections on the Lord's Prayer. Steubenville, OH: Emmaus Road Publishing. ISBN   978-1-93101815-9.
  26. Augustine, On the Sermon on the Mount, Book II, Chapter 5, 17–18; original text
  27. Rowan Williams, The Lord's Prayer
  28. G. Dalman, The Words of Jesus (1909), 99. As cited in G. E. Ladd, The Presence of the Future (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans 1974), 137
  29. George Eldon Ladd, The Presence of the Future: The Eschatology of Biblical Realism, Eerdmans (Grand Rapids: 1974), 45.
  30. George Eldon Ladd, The Presence of the Future: The Eschatology of Biblical Realism, Eerdmans (Grand Rapids: 1974), 46–47.
  31. G. E. Ladd, The Presence of the Future (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans 1974), 136–37
  32. Hilda C. Graef, St. Gregory of Nyssa: The Lord's Prayer and the Beatitudes (Ancient Christin Writers, No. 18), Paulist Press (New York: 1954), n. 68, p. 187.
  33. Barclay, William (1976-01-28). The Mind of Jesus. Harper Collins. ISBN   978-0-06060451-6.
  34. 1 2 Ortberg, John Ortberg. “God is Closer Than You Think”. Zondervan, 2005, p. 176.
  35. "Matthew 6:11". Interlinear. Bible hub. Retrieved 14 October 2016. Our appointed bread give us to-day
  36. The New Greek-English Interlinear New Testament, 1993, The United Bible Societies, (basis: UBS4 Greek text), page x of Introduction
  37. "Matthew 20:2". Interlinear. Bible hub. Retrieved 14 October 2016. and having agreed with the workmen for a denary a day, he sent them into his vineyard.
  38. "Luke 9:23". Interlinear. Bible hub. Retrieved 14 October 2016. And he said unto all, 'If any one doth will to come after me, let him disown himself, and take up his cross daily, and follow me;
  39. "Acts 6:1". Interlinear. Bible hub. Retrieved 14 October 2016. And in these days, the disciples multiplying, there came a murmuring of the Hellenists at the Hebrews, because their widows were being overlooked in the daily ministration,
  40. "Acts 17:11 Interlinear: and these were more noble than those in Thessalonica, they received the word with all readiness of mind, every day examining the Writings whether those things were so;" . Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  41. "Acts 17:17 Interlinear: therefore, indeed, he was reasoning in the synagogue with the Jews, and with the worshipping persons, and in the market-place every day with those who met with him" . Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  42. "Acts 19:9 Interlinear: and when certain were hardened and were disbelieving, speaking evil of the way before the multitude, having departed from them, he did separate the disciples, every day reasoning in the school of a certain Tyrannus" . Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  43. "2 Corinthians 11:28 Interlinear: apart from the things without -- the crowding upon me that is daily -- the care of all the assemblies" . Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  44. "Hebrews 3:13 Interlinear: but exhort ye one another every day, while the To-day is called, that none of you may be hardened by the deceitfulness of the sin," . Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  45. "Hebrews 10:11 Interlinear: and every priest, indeed, hath stood daily serving, and the same sacrifices many times offering, that are never able to take away sins" . Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  46. "Catechism of the Catholic Church - The seven petitions" . Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  47. Cf. Barclay M. Newman, A Concise Greek-English Dictionary of the New Testament, Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, United Bible Societies 2010 ISBN   978-3-438-06019-8. Partial preview]
  48. Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon: οὐσία
  49. Chaignot, Mary Jane. Questions and Answers . Archived 2013-01-22 at the Wayback Machine . Accessed 11 Feb 2013
  50. Nathan Eubank 2013, Wages of Cross-Bearing and Debt of Sin (Walter de Gruyter ISBN   978-31-1030407-7), p. 2
  51. John S. Kloppenborg 2008, Q, the Earliest Gospel (Westminster John Knox Press ISBN   978-1-61164058-8), p. 58.
  52. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, Kittel & Friedrich eds., abridged in one volume by Geoffrey W. Bromiley (Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, Mich; 1985), pp. 746–50, gives use of ὸφείλω opheilo (to owe, be under obligation), ὸφειλή opheile (debt, obligation) and two other word forms used in the New Testament and outside the New Testament, including use in Judaism.
  53. Deane, Anthony C. (1926), "Our Father: A Study of the Lord's Prayer", ABCOG, archived from the original on 3 December 2011, retrieved 27 April 2018Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help); |chapter= ignored (help)
  54. R. T. France, The Gospel According to Matthew: An Introduction and Commentary (Eerdmans 1985), p. 135
  55. "Entry for Strong's #3986: πειρασμός". Study Light.
  56. Jung, Carl, "Answer to Job"
  57. Psalm 26:2 and Psalm 139:23 are respectful challenges for a test to prove the writer's innocence and integrity.
  58. Clontz & Clontz 2008, pp. 451–52.
  59. JST Matthew 6:14
  60. Padre Nostro - Settima puntata: 'Non ci indurre in tentazione' at 1:05.
  61. "Pope Francis suggests translation change to the 'Our Father'". America. 8 December 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  62. Sandro Magister, 'Pater Noster, No Peace. The Battle Begins Among the Translations' (7 March 2018).
  63. Sherwood, Harriet (December 8, 2017). "Lead us not into mistranslation: pope wants Lord's Prayer changed". The Guardian . Retrieved April 30, 2018.
  64. 1 2 Hannah Brockhaus, "Holy See confirms changes to Italian liturgical translation of Our Father, Gloria" (Catholic News Agency, 7 June 2019).
  65. Daly, Greg (26 January 2018). "German hierarchy resists temptation to change Our Father translation". Irish Catholic. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  66. Pope Francis approves changes to the Lord’s prayer .
  67. https://international.la-croix.com/news/francis-approves-revised-translation-of-italian-missal/10234
  68. Britain’s Catholic church refuses to change the Lord’s prayer despite Pope Francis’ dramatic ruling on Satan .
  69. Innario cristiano (Torino: Claudiana), p. 18
  70. Exodus 12.13
  71. Isaiah 45.7
  72. Clontz & Clontz 2008, p. 452.
  73. Nicholas Ayo (1993), The Lord's Prayer: A Survey Theological and Literary, University of Notre Dame Press, p. 7, ISBN   978-0-268-01292-2
  74. 1 2 Clontz & Clontz 2008, p. 8.
  75. David E. Aune 2010, The Blackwell Companion to the New Testament (Blackwell ISBN   978-1-4051-0825-6), p. 299.
  76. Kurt Aland and Barbara Aland 1998, The Text of the New Testament (Eerdmans ISBN   0-8028-4098-1), p. 306.
  77. The doxology is not included in the following modern translations: American Standard Version Contemporary English Version English Standard Version GOD'S WORD Translation Good News Translation New International Reader's Version New International Version New Living Translation Today's New International Version, and the Jerusalem Bible. It is enclosed in square brackets in Holman Christian Standard Bible New American Standard Bible New Century Version. Two publications that are updates of the Authorized King James Version rather than new translations keep it: 21st Century King James Version and New King James Version; but the second of these adds a note: " "NU-Text omits For Yours through Amen."
  78. "Early Christian Fathers". Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  79. For instance, in Morning Prayer the doxology is included in the Lord's Prayer in the Introduction, but not in the Prayers after the Apostles' Creed.
  80. Orationis dominicae versiones praeter authenticam fere centum... , Thomas Lüdeken, Officina Rungiana, 1680.
  81. Augustin Backer, Alois Backer, Bibliothèque des écrivains de la compagnie de Jésus ou notices bibliographiques, vol. 5, 1839, 304f.
  82. Mithridates oder allgemeine Sprachenkunde mit dem Vater Unser als Sprachprobe in bey nahe fünf hundert Sprachen und Mundarten, 1806–1817, Berlin, Vossische Buchlandlung, 4 volumes. Facsimile edition, Hildesheim-Nueva York, Georg Olms Verlag, 1970.
  83. 1 2 Clontz & Clontz 2008, p. 451.
  84. David H. Stern (1992). Jewish New Testament Commentary. p. 32. ISBN   978-9653590113.
  85. Verdediging is geen aanval pp. 121–122
  86. "The Lord's prayer [music] / Music by Arnold Strals". trove.nla.gov.au. National Library of Australia. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
  87. Library of Congress Copyright Office.The Lord's Prayer, Composer: John Serry Sr., September 2, 1992, #PAU 1-665-838
  88. " Lord's Prayer " at Discogs (list of releases).
  89. Consider the Fork: A History of How We Cook and Eat, Bee Wilson, 2012, Penguin Books ISBN   978-0-141-04908-3.
  90. Keith, Badman (2004). The Beach Boys : the definitive diary of America's greatest band, on stage and in the studio. Bacon, Tony, 1954- (1st ed.). San Francisco, Calif.: Backbeat Books. ISBN   0879308184. OCLC   56611695.
  91. Ihnat, Gwen (30 June 2015). "A Yaz song proved that electronic pop could have soul". A.V. Club. Retrieved 11 March 2019.

Sources

  • Clark, D. The Lord's Prayer. Origins and Early Interpretations (Studia Traditionis Theologiae, 21) Turnhout: Brepols Publishers, 2016, ISBN   978-2-503-56537-8
  • Albright, W.F. and C.S. Mann. "Matthew." The Anchor Bible Series. New York: Doubleday & Co., 1971.
  • Augsburger, Myron. Matthew. Waco, Texas: Word Books, 1982.
  • Barclay, William. The Gospel of Matthew: Volume 1 Chapters 1–10. Edinburgh: Saint Andrew Press, 1975.
  • Beare, Francis Wright. The Gospel According to Matthew. Oxford: B. Blackwell, 1981.
  • Brown, Raymond E. The Pater Noster as an Eschatological Prayer, article in Theological Studies (1961) Vol. 22, pp. 175–208: from the website of Marquette University; also reprinted in New Testament Essays (1965)
  • Clontz, T.E.; Clontz, Jerry (2008). The Comprehensive New Testament with complete textual variant mapping and references for the Dead Sea Scrolls, Philo, Josephus, Nag Hammadi Library, Pseudepigrapha, Apocrypha, Plato, Egyptian Book of the Dead, Talmud, Old Testament, Patristic Writings, Dhammapada, Tacitus, Epic of Gilgamesh. Cornerstone. ISBN   978-0-9778737-1-5.
  • Filson, Floyd V. A Commentary on the Gospel According to St. Matthew. London: A. & C. Black, 1960.
  • Fowler, Harold. The Gospel of Matthew: Volume One. Joplin: College Press, 1968
  • France, R.T. The Gospel According to Matthew: an Introduction and Commentary. Leicester: Inter-Varsity, 1985.
  • Hendriksen, William. The Gospel of Matthew. Edinburgh: Banner of Truth Trust, 1976
  • Hill, David. The Gospel of Matthew. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1981
  • "Lilies in the Field." A Dictionary of Biblical Tradition in English Literature. David Lyle Jeffrey, general editor. Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans, 1992.
  • Lewis, Jack P. The Gospel According to Matthew. Austin, Texas: R.B. Sweet, 1976..
  • Luz, Ulrich. Matthew 1–7: A Commentary. trans. Wilhlem C. Linss. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1989.
  • Morris, Leon. The Gospel According to Matthew. Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans, 1992.
  • Schweizer, Eduard. The Good News According to Matthew. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1975
  • Underhill, Evelyn, Abba. A meditation on the Lord's Prayer (1940); reprint 2003.

Text

Comment

Lord's Prayer
Preceded by
Beatitudes
in the Sermon on the Mount
New Testament
Events
Succeeded by
The Birds of Heaven
in the Sermon on the Mount