Lorelei

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Lorelei
Slate rock
Loreley rhine valley wp d schmidt 08 07.jpg
View from the left bank of the Rhine at St. Goar
Coordinates 50°08′22″N7°43′44″E / 50.13944°N 7.72889°E / 50.13944; 7.72889 Coordinates: 50°08′22″N7°43′44″E / 50.13944°N 7.72889°E / 50.13944; 7.72889

The Lorelei ( /ˈlɒrəl/ ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ) LORR-ə-ly; German: [loːʁəˈlaɪ, ˈloːʁəlaɪ] ), also spelled Loreley in German, is a 132 m (433 ft) high, steep slate rock on the right bank of the River Rhine in the Rhine Gorge (or Middle Rhine) at Sankt Goarshausen in Germany, part of the Upper Middle Rhine Valley UNESCO World Heritage Site. [1] The 1930s Loreley Amphitheatre is on top of the rock.

Contents

Etymology

The Lorelei in 1900 Loreley LOC.jpg
The Lorelei in 1900
View of the Rhine as seen from the Lorelei Lorelei View.JPG
View of the Rhine as seen from the Lorelei

The name comes from the old German words lureln, Rhine dialect for 'murmuring', and the Celtic term ley "rock". The translation of the name would therefore be: 'murmur rock' or 'murmuring rock'. The heavy currents, and a small waterfall in the area (still visible in the early 19th century) created a murmuring sound, and this combined with the special echo the rock produces to act as a sort of amplifier, giving the rock its name. [2] The murmuring is hard to hear today owing to the urbanization of the area. Other theories attribute the name to the many boating accidents on the rock, by combining the German verb lauern ('to lurk, lie in wait') with the same "ley" ending, with the translation "lurking rock".

After the German spelling reform of 1901, in almost all German terms, the letter "y" was changed to the letter "i", but some proper nouns have kept their "y", such as Bayern, Speyer, Spay, Tholey, (Rheinberg-)Orsoy and including Loreley, which is thus the correct spelling in German.

Original folklore and modern myth

Lorelei Monument by Ernst Herter, a Heinrich Heine memorial in the Bronx, New York City Heine Bronx 1.jpg
Lorelei Monument by Ernst Herter, a Heinrich Heine memorial in the Bronx, New York City

The rock and the murmur it creates have inspired various tales. An old legend envisioned dwarfs living in caves in the rock.

In 1801, German author Clemens Brentano composed his ballad Zu Bacharach am Rheine as part of a fragmentary continuation of his novel Godwi oder Das steinerne Bild der Mutter. It first told the story of an enchanting female associated with the rock. In the poem, the beautiful Lore Lay, betrayed by her sweetheart, is accused of bewitching men and causing their death. Rather than sentence her to death, the bishop consigns her to a nunnery. On the way thereto, accompanied by three knights, she comes to the Lorelei rock. She asks permission to climb it and view the Rhine once again. She does so and thinking that she sees her love in the Rhine, falls to her death; the rock still retained an echo of her name afterwards. Brentano had taken inspiration from Ovid and the Echo myth.

In 1824, Heinrich Heine seized on and adapted Brentano's theme in one of his most famous poems, "Die Lorelei". It describes the eponymous female as a sort of siren who, sitting on the cliff above the Rhine and combing her golden hair, unwittingly distracted shipmen with her beauty and song, causing them to crash on the rocks. In 1837 Heine's lyrics were set to music by Friedrich Silcher in the art song "Lorelei" [3] that became well known in German-speaking lands. A setting by Franz Liszt was also favored and dozens of other musicians have set the poem to music. [4] During the Nazi regime and World War II, Heinrich Heine (born as a Jew) became discredited as author of the lyrics, in an effort to dismiss and hide Jewish contribution to German art.

The Lorelei character, although originally imagined by Brentano, passed into German popular culture in the form described in the Heine–Silcher song and is commonly but mistakenly believed to have originated in an old folk tale. The French writer Guillaume Apollinaire took up the theme again in his poem "La Loreley", from the collection Alcools which is later cited in Symphony No. 14 (3rd movement) of Dmitri Shostakovich.

Accidents

A barge carrying 2,400 tons of sulphuric acid capsized on 13 January 2011, near the Lorelei rock, blocking traffic on one of Europe's busiest waterways. [5]

Literature

Heine's poem
Other

Music

Opera
Rock
Other

Painting

Other

See also

Related Research Articles

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Guðrið Hansdóttir

Guðrið Hansdóttir is a Faroese singer, songwriter, composer, and musician. She has released three full studio albums and has released an EP called "Taking Ship" on January 24, 2014 in the United States, in February in Europe. Taking Ship has seven songs which are poems by Heinrich Heine in English translation, except for one of Heine's poems which is in Faroese translation by Poul F. Joensen, Tú hevur tær dýrastu perlur.

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Frühlingsfeier

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References

  1. Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Upper Middle Rhine Valley". UNESCO World Heritage Centre.
  2. Loreley - Ein Beitrag zur Namendeutung Archived 2006-06-15 at the Wayback Machine . Accessed June 16, 2006.
  3. Note: A scan of the sheet music and lyrics (printed in 1859; note the spelling "Lorelei") are available on the commons in three images: File:Lorelei1.gif, File:Lorelei2.gif, File:Lorelei3.gif
  4. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Lorelei"  . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  5. Mara, Darren; Illmer, Andreas (January 13, 2011). "Tanker carrying acid capsizes in Germany's Rhine River". Deutsche Welle.
  6. Joyce Kilmer Park Highlights - Heinrich Heine Fountain : NYC Parks "The Heinrich Heine Fountain (also known as the Lorelei Fountain) honors the German poet, writer, and social dissident Heinrich Heine (1797–1856), whose poem 'Die Lorelei' immortalized the mysterious creature of romantic legend."
  7. Random House: Poetry from James Merrill
  8. Holland, Henry Scott; Rockstro, William Smith (October 2011). "La Tempesta". Memoir of Madame Jenny Lind-Goldschmidt: Her Early Art-Life and Dramatic Career, 1820–1851. vol.2. Cambridge University Press. pp. 131–132. ISBN   978-1-108-03869-0.
  9. Schwarz, Steve. "Felix Mendelssohn". Classical Net. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
  10. Barney Zwartz (2019-11-04). "Witty feminist telling of Lorelei legend has satirical light touch". The Sydney Morning Herald . Retrieved 2020-10-15.
  11. Madame Edwarda - Lorelei ・・ Étranger ・・ Héliogabale
  12. "Scorpions - Sting in the Tail". Archived from the original on 2013-10-29. Retrieved 2013-10-23.
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  14. "The Johann Strauss Society of Great Britain — The Strauss Family — Johann Strauss I". www.johann-strauss.org.uk. Retrieved 2016-01-09.
  15. Kapitan Nemo - Twoja Lorelei
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  17. "Loreley by Edgar Ende on artnet". Artnet Worldwide Corporation. Retrieved 2018-05-15.
  18. http://www.davidwightman.net/lorelei.html
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  20. "Loreley Dragon Boat - International Dragon Boat Team in Hong Kong".