Lorenzo Campeggio

Last updated

Lorenzo Campeggio
Cardinal-Bishop of Sabina
Lorenzo Campeggio.jpg
Diocese Diocese of Sabina
Appointed28 November 1537
Term ended19 July 1539
Predecessor Bonifacio Ferrero
Successor Antonio Sanseverino
Consecration6 April 1518
Created cardinal
Personal details
Born7 November 1474
Died19 July 1539 (aged 64)
ParentsGiovanni Zaccaria Campeggio and Dorotea Tebaldini
SpouseFrancesca Guastavillani
Childrenfive children

Lorenzo Campeggio (7 November 1474 19 July 1539) was an Italian cardinal and politician. He was the last cardinal protector of England.



Campeggio was born in Milan, the eldest of five sons. In 1500, he took his doctorate in canon and civil law at Bologna and married Francesca Guastavillani with whom he had five children. When she died in 1509, Campeggio began an ecclesiastical career under Pope Julius II's patronage.

He was soon appointed to two diplomatic missions, both against the Council of Pisa, first to the emperor Maximilian I, who gave him the Bishopric of Feltre in 1512 (held until 1520), and then in 1512–13 to the Duke of Milan. In 1513 he returned to Germany seeking a league against the Turks. Pope Leo X made him a Cardinal on 1 July 1517, and Maximilian made him Cardinal–protector of the Holy Roman Empire. On 3 March 1518 he was sent to England as part of Leo's peace policy. This gave Thomas Wolsey the chance to become legate himself by using permission for Campeggio to enter England as leverage, and then to outmanoeuvre the new legate when he arrived, taking over the process of peace-making which led to the Treaty of London in 1519. He was also a member of Johann Goritz's humanist sodality.

Campeggio was appointed cardinal–protector of England on 22 January 1523. He was not involved in much English business, except for the referring of episcopal provisions in consistory. The election of Pope Adrian VI in 1522 cemented his position in the Roman Curia.

Campeggio wrote his De depravato statu ecclesiae for Adrian, which proposed radical reforms for the papal bureaucracy. On 2 December 1524 he received the bishopric of Salisbury, which he had been promised in 1518. The election of Pope Clement VII in 1523 further exalted Campeggio's power. Clement made him bishop of Bologna on 2 December 1523 (held until 1525) and then on 9 January 1524 legate to the Diet of Nuremberg.

During the sack of Rome in 1527, Campeggio lost everything. Clement, who fled to Orvieto, left him behind as papal legate in the city, just when the English political situation required his attention. Wolsey and Henry VIII expected his support for their proposal that a papal co-legate should decide Henry's divorce from Catherine of Aragon in co-operation with Wolsey. Campeggio had, however, already given a legal opinion to the Pontiff supporting the validity of the marriage.

Nevertheless, he was named legate on 8 June 1528, after a joint commission with Wolsey had been agreed on 13 April. Campeggio arrived in London on 8 October 1528 and held the first of many sessions with Wolsey and Henry, the first English King to sue before a papal judge in person.

Campeggio found himself in a difficult position, since Emperor Charles V, Catherine of Aragon's nephew, was determined to prevent the divorce, and was putting pressure on Clement. The deciding point in law for Campeggio was Julius's dispensation for Henry and Catherine's marriage. In Catherine's possession from early in 1528, she showed it to Campeggio in October, and he took it to invalidate his commission, since the latter failed to cover the document. He tried to make the case disappear on 23 July 1529 by proroguing it until October, but this was forestalled by the Pope sending the matter to Rome a week earlier. On his way back to Rome, Campeggio met Charles and Clement in Bologna, where the pope gave Campeggio the castle of Dozza and the Emperor took Campeggio's family under his patronage. Charles later (2 September 1530) gave Campeggio the Spanish bishopric of Huesca and Jaca, which he held until 17 June 1534 when he became bishop of Candia (Crete) (until 1536); in 1532, moreover, when making Campeggio's son Gianbattista bishop of Majorca, the emperor reserved the administration of the see to the young man's father. Campeggio was legate to the Diet of Augsburg in 1530, where he pursued negotiations with Philip Melanchthon.

By 20 May 1531, Henry had dismissed Campeggio as legate. In August 1533, he lost the revenues of Salisbury, and on 21 March 1534 was deprived of the bishopric by act of Parliament; also deprived was Girolamo Ghinucci, Bishop of Worcester. Campeggio was a member of the commission which excommunicated Henry in 1535. He remained protector of Germany until his death, at the same time devoting much energy to insuring the future of his family; his two sons, two brothers, and one nephew all became bishops. He was named legate to the general council called first at Mantua and then at Vicenza, but he attended only the first session in May 1538. He died on 25 July 1539, aged sixty-four, and was buried in Santa Maria in Trastevere; in 1571 at least some of his bones were transferred to the church of Santi Marta e Bernardino that he had built in Bologna.

Related Research Articles

Pope Clement VII Head of the Catholic Church from 1523 until 1534

Pope Clement VII was spiritual head on earth of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 19 November 1523 to his death on 25 September 1534. Deemed "the most unfortunate of the popes", Clement VII's reign was marked by a rapid succession of political, military, and religious struggles—many long in the making—which had far-reaching consequences for Christianity and world politics.

Thomas Wolsey 16th-century Archbishop of York, Chancellor of England, and cardinal

Thomas Wolsey was an English statesman and Catholic bishop. When Henry VIII became King of England in 1509, Wolsey became the king's almoner. Wolsey's affairs prospered, and by 1514 he had become the controlling figure in virtually all matters of state. He also held important ecclesiastical appointments. These included the Archbishopric of York—the second most important role in the English church—and that of papal legate. His appointment as a cardinal by Pope Leo X in 1515 gave him precedence over all other English clergy.

Stephen Gardiner British clergyman and politician

Stephen Gardiner was an English bishop and politician during the English Reformation period who served as Lord Chancellor during the reign of Queen Mary I and King Philip.

Jean, Cardinal of Lorraine

Jean de Lorraine was the third son of the ruling Duke of Lorraine, and a French cardinal, who was archbishop of Reims (1532–1538), Lyon (1537–1539), and Narbonne (1524–1550), bishop of Metz, and Administrator of the dioceses of Toul, Verdun, Thérouanne, Luçon, Albi, Valence, Nantes and Agen (1538–1550). He was a personal friend, companion, and advisor of King Francis I of France. Jean de Lorraine was the richest prelate in the reign of Francis I, as well as the most flagrant pluralist. He is one of several cardinals known as the Cardinal de Lorraine.

William Knight was the Secretary of State to Henry VIII of England, and Bishop of Bath and Wells.

Ippolito de Medici

Ippolito de' Medici was the only son of Giuliano di Lorenzo de' Medici, born out-of-wedlock to his mistress Pacifica Brandano.

Richard Sampson was an English clergyman and composer of sacred music, who was Anglican bishop of Chichester and subsequently of Coventry and Lichfield.

Girolamo Ghinucci

Girolamo Ghinucci was an Italian papal administrator, diplomat and Cardinal.

Agostino Trivulzio

Agostino Trivulzio was an Italian Cardinal and papal legate. He was from a noble family in Milan, the eighth child of Giovanni Trivulzio di Borgomanero, a Councillor of the Dukes of Milan, and Angela Martinengo of Brescia, and was the nephew of Cardinal Gianantonio Trivulzio (1500-1508). Another uncle, Cardinal Antonio's brother Teodoro, was Governor of La Palice, of Genoa, of Milan, and a Marshal of France. Giovanni and Angela had a daughter named Damigella or Domtilla who was famous for her learning. Cardinal Agostino Trivulzio had a nephew named Giovanni, who married Laura Gonzaga.

1534 papal conclave 1534 gathering of cardinals to choose a new pope

The 1534 papal conclave was convened after the death of Pope Clement VII, and elected as his successor cardinal Alessandro Farnese, who became Pope Paul III.

April 1555 papal conclave

The April 1555 papal conclave was convoked after the death of Pope Julius III. Elected as his successor Cardinal Marcello Cervini, who took the name of Marcellus II, being the last pope who retained his baptismal name.

Cardinal protector of England Roman Catholic Church title for a particular Cardinal representative of England

The Cardinal protector of England was an appointed crown-cardinal of England from 1492 until 1539. A cardinal protector is the representative of a Roman Catholic nation or organisation within the College of Cardinals, appointed by the pope. The role was terminated as a result of the English Reformation.

1523 papal conclave

The 1523 papal conclave elected Giulio de' Medici as Pope Clement VII to succeed Pope Adrian VI. According to conclave historian Baumgartner, the conclave was the "last conclave of the Renaissance".

Giovanni Morone Italian cardinal

Giovanni Morone was an Italian cardinal. He was named Bishop of Modena in 1529 and was created Cardinal in 1542 by Pope Paul III. As a cardinal, he resided in the Vatican's Apostolic Palace and was consulted by Saint Ignatius, founder of the Jesuits.

Peter Vannes was an Italian Catholic churchman who became a royal official in England, and Dean of Salisbury.

Antonio Maria Ciocchi del Monte

Antonio Maria Ciocchi del Monte was an Italian Roman Catholic bishop and cardinal.

Achille Grassi

Achille Grassi was an Italian Roman Catholic bishop and cardinal.

Antonio Sanseverino was an Italian Roman Catholic cardinal and bishop.

Esteban Gabriel Merino was a Spanish Roman Catholic bishop and cardinal.

Uberto Gambara

Uberto Gambara (1489–1549) was an Italian Roman Catholic bishop and cardinal.


Further reading

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by Bishop of Feltre
Succeeded by
New title Cardinal-Priest of San Tommaso in Parione
Succeeded by
Preceded by Cardinal-Priest of Sant'Anastasia
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Achille Grassi (bishop)
Bishop of Bologna
Succeeded by
Andrea della Valle (administrator)
Preceded by
Edmund Audley (bishop)
Administrator of Salisbury
Succeeded by
Nicholas Shaxton
As CofE bishop of Salisbury
(unrecognized by Vatican)
Succeeded by
As RC administrator of Salisbury
(unrecognized by Crown)
Preceded by Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria in Trastevere
Succeeded by
Preceded by Administrator of Huesca
Succeeded by
Jerónimo Doria (bishop)
Preceded by Administrator of Poreč (Parenzo)
Succeeded by
Preceded by
As administrator of Salisbury
(recognized by both Crown and Vatican)
Administrator of Salisbury
(unrecognized by Crown)

Succeeded by
Gasparo Contarini
Preceded by
Giovanni Landi (archbishop)
Administrator of Candia
Succeeded by
Pietro Landi (archbishop)
Preceded by Cardinal-Bishop of Albano
Succeeded by
Preceded by Cardinal-Bishop of Palestrina
Succeeded by
Preceded by Cardinal-Bishop of Sabina
Succeeded by