|Lorraine and Barrois|
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Lorraine and Barrois (French : Lorraine et Barrois) was a government of the Kingdom of France, formed in February 1766 from the duchies of Lorraine and Bar upon the death of Stanisław Leszczyński.
King Louis XV of France (r. 1715–1774) had negotiated at the preliminaries of Vienna in 1735 "an arrangement by which Francis [III, Duke of Lorraine] received the duchy of Tuscany [...] in exchange for Lorraine, and Stanislaus Leszczynski, the dethroned king of Poland and father-in-law of Louis XV., obtained Lorraine, which after his death would pass to his daughter—in other words, to France." The following year (1736), "by a secret agreement," Stanisław had "abandoned the financial administration of his estates to Louis XV. for a yearly subsidy." Both treaties, however, guaranteed the legislation of Lorraine and Barrois, "the privileges enjoyed by the three orders, and their common law and customs tariffs, which they retained until the French Revolution."
Meanwhile, the Three Bishoprics formed a little government.
Barrois mouvant (composed of the bailiwicks of Bar and Bassigny) was under the jurisdiction of the Parliament of Paris whereas Barrois non-mouvant (i.e. the Bailiwick of Saint-Mihiel) and Lorraine were subject to the Sovereign Court of Lorraine and Barrois, which became the Parliament of Nancy in 1776. There was also a chambre des comptes at Bar-le-Duc.
The Duchy of Lorraine, originally Upper Lorraine, was a duchy now included in the larger present-day region of Lorraine in northeastern France. Its capital was Nancy.
Nancy is the capital of the northeastern French department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, the former capital of the Duchy of Lorraine, and then the French province of the same name. The metropolitan area of Nancy had a population of 511,257 inhabitants at the 2018 census, making it the 16th largest urban area in France and the Lorraine's largest. The population of the city of Nancy proper is 104,885.
Francis I was the Duke of Lorraine and Bar (1729–1737), and later Grand Duke of Tuscany (1737–1765), who married Maria Theresa of Austria and became Holy Roman Emperor (1745–1765) and Archduke of Austria (1740–1765). His wife effectively ruled Austria and the Holy Roman Empire. They were the founders of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. The oldest surviving son of Leopold, Duke of Lorraine, Francis left the duchy for the deposed Polish king Stanisław Leszczyński in exchange for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany as one of the terms ending the War of the Polish Succession in 1738. The duchy and the ducal title to Lorraine and Bar passed to King Louis XV of France upon Leszczynski's death in 1766, though Francis and his successors retained the right to style themselves as dukes of Lorraine and Bar.
Stanisław I Leszczyński, also Anglicized and Latinized as Stanislaus I, was King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Duke of Lorraine and a count of the Holy Roman Empire.
Prince Charles Alexander Emanuel of Lorraine was a Lorraine-born Austrian general and soldier, field marshal of the Imperial Army, and governor of the Austrian Netherlands.
Lunéville is a commune in the northeastern French department of Meurthe-et-Moselle.
Pont-à-Mousson is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in north-eastern France.
The County of Bar, later Duchy of Bar, was a principality of the Holy Roman Empire encompassing the pays de Barrois and centred on the city of Bar-le-Duc. It was held by the House of Montbéliard from the 11th century. Part of the county, the so-called Barrois mouvant, became a fief of the Kingdom of France in 1301 and was elevated to a duchy in 1354. The Barrois non-mouvant remained a part of the Empire. From 1480, it was united to the imperial Duchy of Lorraine.
Leszczyński was a prominent Polish noble family. They were magnates in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Lorraine is a cultural and historical region in north-eastern France, now located in the administrative region of Grand Est. Lorraine's name stems from the medieval kingdom of Lotharingia, which in turn was named for either Emperor Lothair I or King Lothair II. It later was ruled as the Duchy of Lorraine before the Kingdom of France annexed it in 1766.
The Place Stanislas is a large pedestrianised square in the French city of Nancy, in the Lorraine region. Since 1983, the architectural ensemble comprising the Place Stanislas, the extension of its axis, the Place de la Carrière, and the Place d'Alliance, has been on the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Countess Catherine Opalińska, known as Catherine Opalinska in the French and English languages, was by birth member of House of Opaliński, Queen consort of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth twice and Duchess consort of Lorraine through her marriage with Stanisław I of Poland.
The Jardin Dominique Alexandre Godron is a historic botanical garden located at 3 rue Sainte-Catherine, Nancy, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Lorraine, France. It is open daily without charge.
The Ducal Palace of Nancy is a former princely residence in Nancy, France, which was home to the Dukes of Lorraine. It houses the Musée Lorrain, one of Nancy's principal museums, dedicated to the art, history and popular traditions of Lorraine until the early 20th century. It has been listed since 1840 as a monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture.
The region of German Lorraine was the German-speaking part of Lorraine, now in France, that existed for centuries until into the 20th century. The name is also used more specifically in to refer to Bezirk Lothringen, that part of Lorraine that belonged to the German Empire from 1871 to 1918.
The history of Nancy, France, the capital city of Lorraine, dates back to at least 800 BC with the earliest signs of human settlement in the area. Early settlers were likely attracted by easily mined iron ore and a ford in the Meurthe River. A small fortified town named Nanciacum (Nancy) was built by Gerard, Duke of Lorraine around 1050.
Jean-Baptiste Luton Durival was an 18th-century French historian, diplomat and Encyclopédiste.
Nicolas-Luton Durival was an 18th-century Lorrain civil servant, historian and geographer who became French after 1766.
Sphinx was a two-deck 64 gun ship of the French Navy. She was built at Brest to plans by Ollivier Fils and launched in 1776. She took the name of a recently retired 64-gun ship with the same dimensions. She fought in the American War of Independence, most notably in Suffren's campaign in the Indian Ocean.
Events from the year 1633 in France.