Lorum (card game)

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Lorum
Suit of Leaves - William Tell pack.jpg
The suit of Leaves from a German-suited pack
Origin Hungary
Type Compendium game
Players4
Cards32
Deck German
Card rank (highest first)A K O U 10 9 8 7
Playing time1½ hours
Related games
Barbu, Herzeln, Kein Stich, Quodlibet, Rosbiratschka, Rumpel
8 deals x 4 rounds = 32 games.

Lorum or Lórum is an old, Hungarian, compendium card game for 4 players. Although it is the ancestor of the French game, Barbu, it is still played today. It uses a German-suited pack (Hungarian 'William Tell' or German pattern) of 32 cards and comprises 8 individual contracts, each with different rules, each of which is played four times so that a session consists of a total of 32 individual games and lasts about 1½ hours.

Contents

History

Lorum is described by Parlett as a "Hungarian forerunner of Barbu", first recorded in 1916, although there is also a 1904 reference to it being played in the author's youth which suggests it may have been already popular by the end of the 19th century. [1] However, its rules were not published until the 1920s. [2] The game was popular among the Hungarian Germans before the Second World War, along with Ulti, Schnapsen and Mariasch, [3] and is still played in central and eastern Europe today, for example, in the Czech town of Kladno where it is known as Lóra. [4]

Cards

A standard, 32-card, Hungarian- or German-pattern, German-suited, pack is used comprising four suits - Acorns, Leaves, Hearts and Bells - each of eight cards ranking in their natural order: Ace, King, Ober, Unter, Ten, Nine, Eight and Seven. There are no trumps. [2]

Aim

Points are awarded in different ways for each contract. The overall aim is to win the lowest number of points.

Playing

Game of Lorum in progress. Preferans (card game) in Croatia.3.jpg
Game of Lorum in progress.

Lorum consists of 8 different individual games or contracts each with its own aim and rules. Each game is played four times making a total of 32 games in a session. A session may thus last about 1½ hours. Dealing and play are in clockwise order. The winner of a trick leads to the next. Suit must be followed; if that is not possible, any card may be discarded. The trick is taken by the highest card of the led suit and there are no trumps. [2]

Contracts

The composition of the eight contracts varies, but always comprises the following four deals: [2]

  1. No Hearts. In No Hearts (Herzlos [5] ) also called Reds (Rote), the aim is to avoid winning Hearts or "reds". A red may not be led to the first trick unless forehand only has reds. Players may not discard a red to the first trick unless they only have reds. In the succeeding tricks, reds may be discarded if a player has no card of the led suit. Each red card taken in tricks scores 1 point.
  2. Obers. The aim is in Obers (Ober or Damenlos [5] ) to avoid capturing Obers. Each Ober is worth 2 points. An Ober may not be led to the first trick, nor may an Ober be laid to it unless the player only has an Ober in the led suit (i.e. the Ober is a singleton). In the remaining tricks, Obers may be discarded at any stage if a player cannot follow suit.
  3. No Tricks. In No Tricks (Stichlos [5] ), also just Tricks (Stiche), the aim is to avoid taking any tricks. Each trick is worth a point.
  4. Lorum. This contract, also called Kirako ("domino"), is, like the last deal in most compendium games, a Domino-type contract. Forehand leads any card to the table. The next player in turn must play either a card of the same rank in another suit or lay off the next highest card of the same suit next to the first card. An Ace follows a Seven If a player is unable to play a card, he misses a turn. Players may not miss a turn if they are able to play. Every turn missed costs one point. As soon as the first player goes out by laying off his last card, the remaining players score a point for each card still held in the hand. Alternatively the deal can continue until each player in succession goes out. In this variation, the second player to go out scores 1 point per card, the third player, 2 points per card and the last player, 3 points per card.
    • Variation: Unteranlegen . The first card played must be an Unter (a common practice in Domino games). Players then either lay another Unter or the next higher or lower card in suit sequence. The four suit sequences are terminated by the 7 at one end and the Ace at the other.

In addition, one or more (typically four) of the following contracts are usually inserted between the third deal above (No Tricks) and the final deal (Lorum). [6]

  1. First and Last Trick. In First and Last (Erster und letzter Stich) the aim is to avoid taking the first and last tricks; each of which counts as 4 (variation: 5) points. Short variant: The pack is well shuffled and only two cards are dealt to each player, the stock being given to the next dealer. The first player to lead plays one of his two cards. The winner of the trick then leads to the 'last' trick. Suit must be followed if possible. Each trick scores 4 (or 5) points.
  2. Fifth Trick. In Fifth Trick (Fünfter Stich) players must avoid taking the fifth trick, after which the deal is ended. It scores 8 points.
  3. Seventh Trick. As Fifth Trick except players avoid taking the seventh trick.
  4. Red King. The aim in Red King, also called Red King-less (Herz-König-los), [5] is to avoid capturing the 'red king' (Roter König) i.e. the King of Hearts. It scores: 16 points when captured in the first trick, 8 points in the second to seventh tricks, 32 points in the last trick and 64 points if announced before playing the last trick.
    • Variation: Der Blinde. In the 'blind' variation the cards are not turned over but only seen individually on being played. Whoever captures the red king scores 5 points. If a player looks at his cards he is penalised 5 points and the cards are reshuffled and redealt.
  5. Hairy Ape. As Red King, but players hold their cards facing their opponents; then play cards at random. If two or more are of the same suit, the highest wins otherwise each card 'takes itself. The player who take the red King scores 8 points.
  6. Train (Vonat or Suta [5] ). As Hundred in Rosbiratschka. Using the Ace-Ten scoring system, card points are added cumulatively as they are played. The first to exceed 25 wins 1 point, 50 wins 2 points, 75 wins 3 points and 100 wins 4 points.
  7. Quart(el) or Kvart. In Quartel [5] the idea is that, to the first card played, the 3 next higher cards of the same suit must be added in sequence by whoever has them until and unless no-one has the next higher card. Player do not need to play in clockwise order. The trick is won by the player who placed the last card in the sequence and he then leads to the next trick. If an eligible player has a highest card of its suit at that stage of the game in his hand (usually an Ace, but also a Seven if the Eight of the same suit has already been played), he can put it away as "high" ("clear"). The game ends when the first player goes out by discarding his last card. This may not necessarily be the current player. The cards remaining in the other players' hands score 1 point each.
  8. All Bad (Mindenrossz). A combination of several contracts e.g. No Tricks, No Hearts, No Obers and No Red King.

Scoring

Instead of points, counters, chips, beans or coins may be used. If, for example, beans are used, each player is given 20 beans at the outset and one penny (pfennig) or similar coin. In addition there is a pot which is initially empty. Instead of recording points, beans are paid to the pot or to the winning player. In the contracts of Red King, First and Last Trick and Fifth Trick, beans are paid to the pot. If, in Reds or Obers, there are one or two players with no reds or Obers in their tricks, or in Tricks there are one or two with no tricks, 8 beans are divided between these players are (i.e. either 1 player wins all 8 or 2 players each get 4 beans); otherwise the beans are paid to the pot. In Quart and Lorum the winner is paid; in Lorum they also get the contents of the pot. If a player runs out of beans he can pay a penny to the pot or another player for another 20 beans (the sale cannot be denied if the other player or the pot has enough beans). The winner is the player with the most beans at the end.

Three-hand variant

If there are only 3 players, the Seven and Eight of Bells are removed and each player is dealt 10 cards. The session is reduced by 3 individual games so that there are 3 x 8=24 games. In Lorum itself (contract 8) the two cards removed may be played or laid off whenever they are able to be.

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Glossary of card game terms List of definitions of terms and jargon used in card games

The following is a glossary of terms used in card games. Besides the terms listed here, there are thousands of common and uncommon slang terms. Terms in this glossary should not be game-specific, but apply to a wide range of card games. For glossaries that relate primarily to one game or family of similar games, see Game-specific glossaries.

Elfern, also known as Eilfern, Figurenspiel or Elfmandeln, is a very old, German and Austrian 6-card, no-trump, trick-and-draw game for two players using a 32-card, French-suited Piquet pack or German-suited Skat pack. The object is to win the majority of the 20 honours: the Ace, King, Queen, Jack and Ten in a Piquet pack or the Ace, King, Ober, Unter and Ten in a Skat pack. Elfern is at least 250 years old and a possible ancestor to the Marriage family of card games, yet it is still played by German children.

Bohemian Schneider, sometimes Bohemian Tailor, is a card game for two people, which is played with a German-suited Skat pack of 32 cards. Because it is a simple trick-taking game, it is often played by older children and is recommended for age 8 upwards. It was probably developed in Bohemia and spread from there across the south German region and Austria.

German Solo, known locally just as Solo and historically as German Ombre, is a German 8-card plain-trick game for 4 individual players using a 32-card, German- or French-suited Skat pack. It is essentially a simplification of Quadrille, itself a 4-player adaptation of Ombre. As in Quadrille, players bid for the privilege of declaring trumps and deciding whether to play alone or with a partner. Along with Ombre, Tarock and Schafkopf, German Solo influenced the development of Skat.

Gleek is an English card game for three persons. It is played with a 44-card pack and was popular from the 16th century through the 18th century.

Dreierschnapsen

Dreierschnapsen, Talonschnapsen or Staperlschnapsen is a three-hand variant of the popular Austrian card game, Bauernschnapsen. The rules are very similar to those for Bauernschnapsen except that, instead of two teams of two players, one player bids to become the soloist against the other two who form a temporary alliance. Another difference is that the game makes use of a talon with which the soloist may exchange cards to improve his hand, hence its alternative name of Talonschnapsen. The game is usually played with William Tell cards.

Binokel

Binokel is a card game for two to eight players that originated in Switzerland as Binocle, but spread to the German state of Württemberg where it is typically played with a Württemberg pattern pack. It is still popular in Württemberg, where it is usually played in groups of three or four as a family game rather than in the pubs. In three-hand games, each player competes for himself, while in four-hand games, known as Cross Binokel (Kreuzbinokel), two teams are formed with partners sitting opposite one another. The game was introduced to America by German immigrants in the first half of the 20th century, where it developed into the similar game of Pinochle. Binocle was still played in Switzerland in 1994. In south Germany, the game is sometimes called by its Swabian name, Benoggl.

Herzeln

Herzeln is a compendium card game for three or four players in a partie of eight deals. As its name suggests, it is an Austrian game. It should not be confused with other games sometimes called Herzeln, including Barbu and Kein Stich.

Rumpel

Rumpel is a card game, similar to Quodlibet that is native to the Danube region from Regensburg to Linz, but is played especially in the region of Hauzenberg in the German county of Passau. Mala describes a version with 8 or 12 contracts from a menu of 29 called Großer Rumpel.

Rosbiratschka

Rosbiratschka is a trick-taking, compendium, card game for three or four players that is played with a German-suited pack of 32 or 24 cards.

Kein Stich

Kein Stich is a card game, which is well known in the German-speaking parts of the world under various regional names such as Herzeln, King Louis, Kunterbunt ("Multicoloured"), Schwarze Sau, Fritz, Brumseln, Fünferspiel ("Fives"), Lieschen, Lizzy or Pensionisteln ("Pensioners").

Cucumber is a north European card game of Swedish origin for two or more players. The goal of the game is to avoid taking the last trick. David Parlett describes it as a "delightful Baltic gambling game".

References

  1. _ 1904, p. 319.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Parlett 2008, p. 147.
  3. Riedl & Steiner 1962, p. 79.
  4. Akohry.cz: Lóra
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Lorum - Das Spiel at www.paridons.de. Retrieved 27 Mar 2019.
  6. Parlett 2008, p. 147/148.

Literature