The suit of Leaves from a German-suited pack
|Card rank (highest first)||A K O U 10 9 8 7|
|Playing time||1½ hours|
|Barbu, Herzeln, Kein Stich, Quodlibet, Rosbiratschka, Rumpel|
|8 deals x 4 rounds = 32 games.|
Lorum or Lórum is an old, Hungarian, compendium card game for 4 players. Although it is the ancestor of the French game, Barbu, it is still played today. It uses a German-suited pack (Hungarian 'William Tell' or German pattern) of 32 cards and comprises 8 individual contracts, each with different rules, each of which is played four times so that a session consists of a total of 32 individual games and lasts about 1½ hours.
Lorum is described by Parlett as a "Hungarian forerunner of Barbu", first recorded in 1916, although there is also a 1904 reference to it being played in the author's youth which suggests it may have been already popular by the end of the 19th century.However, its rules were not published until the 1920s. The game was popular among the Hungarian Germans before the Second World War, along with Ulti, Schnapsen and Mariasch, and is still played in central and eastern Europe today, for example, in the Czech town of Kladno where it is known as Lóra.
A standard, 32-card, Hungarian- or German-pattern, German-suited, pack is used comprising four suits - Acorns, Leaves, Hearts and Bells - each of eight cards ranking in their natural order: Ace, King, Ober, Unter, Ten, Nine, Eight and Seven. There are no trumps.
Points are awarded in different ways for each contract. The overall aim is to win the lowest number of points.
Lorum consists of 8 different individual games or contracts each with its own aim and rules. Each game is played four times making a total of 32 games in a session. A session may thus last about 1½ hours. Dealing and play are in clockwise order. The winner of a trick leads to the next. Suit must be followed; if that is not possible, any card may be discarded. The trick is taken by the highest card of the led suit and there are no trumps.
The composition of the eight contracts varies, but always comprises the following four deals:
In addition, one or more (typically four) of the following contracts are usually inserted between the third deal above (No Tricks) and the final deal (Lorum).
Instead of points, counters, chips, beans or coins may be used. If, for example, beans are used, each player is given 20 beans at the outset and one penny (pfennig) or similar coin. In addition there is a pot which is initially empty. Instead of recording points, beans are paid to the pot or to the winning player. In the contracts of Red King, First and Last Trick and Fifth Trick, beans are paid to the pot. If, in Reds or Obers, there are one or two players with no reds or Obers in their tricks, or in Tricks there are one or two with no tricks, 8 beans are divided between these players are (i.e. either 1 player wins all 8 or 2 players each get 4 beans); otherwise the beans are paid to the pot. In Quart and Lorum the winner is paid; in Lorum they also get the contents of the pot. If a player runs out of beans he can pay a penny to the pot or another player for another 20 beans (the sale cannot be denied if the other player or the pot has enough beans). The winner is the player with the most beans at the end.
If there are only 3 players, the Seven and Eight of Bells are removed and each player is dealt 10 cards. The session is reduced by 3 individual games so that there are 3 x 8=24 games. In Lorum itself (contract 8) the two cards removed may be played or laid off whenever they are able to be.
Hearts is an "evasion-type" trick-taking playing card game for four players, although most variations can accommodate between three and six players. It was first recorded in America in the 1880s and has many variants, some of which are also referred to as "Hearts"; especially the games of Black Lady and Black Maria which are now the most popular games of this family in America and Britain respectively. The game is a member of the Whist group of trick-taking games, but is unusual among Whist variants in that it is a trick-avoidance game; players avoid winning certain penalty cards in tricks, usually by avoiding winning tricks altogether. The original game of Hearts is still current, but has been overtaken in popularity by Black Lady in the United States and Black Maria in Great Britain.
A trick-taking game is a card or tile-based game in which play of a hand centers on a series of finite rounds or units of play, called tricks, which are each evaluated to determine a winner or taker of that trick. The object of such games then may be closely tied to the number of tricks taken, as in plain-trick games such as Whist, Contract bridge, Spades, Napoleon, Euchre, Rowboat, Clubs and Spoil Five, or to the value of the cards contained in taken tricks, as in point-trick games such as Pinochle, the Tarot family, Mariage, Rook, All Fours, Manille, Briscola, and most evasion games like Hearts. The domino game Texas 42 is an example of a trick-taking game that is not a card game. Trick-and-draw games are trick-taking games in which the players can fill up their hands after each trick. In most variants, players are free to play any card into a trick in the first phase of the game, but must follow suit as soon as the stock is depleted. Trick-avoidance games like Reversis or Polignac are those in which the aim is to avoid taking some or all tricks.
All Fours is a traditional English card game, once popular in pubs and taverns as well as among the gentry, that flourished as a gambling game until the end of the 19th century. It is a trick-taking card game that was originally designed for two players, but developed variants for more players. According to Cotton, the game originated in Kent, but spread to the whole of England and eventually abroad. It is the eponymous and earliest recorded game of a family that flourished most in 19th century North America and whose progeny include Pitch, Pedro and Cinch, games that even competed with Poker and Euchre. Nowadays the original game is especially popular in Trinidad and Tobago, but regional variants have also survived in England. The game's "great mark of distinction" is that it gave the name 'Jack' to the card previously known as the Knave.
Jass is a trick taking, Ace-Ten card game and a distinctive branch of the Marriage family. It is popular throughout the Alemannic German-speaking area of Europe (German-speaking Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Alsace part of France, Vorarlberg province of Austria, southwestern Germany, as well as in Romansh-speaking Graubünden and the French-speaking area of Switzerland, German-speaking South Tyrol in Italy, and in a couple of places in Wisconsin, USA.
Schafkopf, Schaffkopf or Schafkopfen, also called Bavarian Schafkopf to distinguish it from German Schafkopf, is a late 18th-century German trick-taking card game of the Ace-Ten family, still very popular in Bavaria, where it is their national card game, but also played in other parts of Germany as well as other German-speaking countries like Austria. It is an official cultural asset and important part of the Old Bavarian and Franconian way of life. Schafkopf is a mentally demanding game that is considered "the supreme discipline of Bavarian card games".
Polignac is a French 18th century trick-taking card game ancestral to Hearts and Black Maria. It is played by 3-6 players with a 32-card deck. It is sometimes played as a party game with the 52-card pack, however, it is better as a serious game for four, playing all against all. Other names for this game include Quatre Valets and Stay Away. Knaves is a variant and it is also similar to the Austrian and German games, Slobberhannes, Eichelobern and Grasobern.
Barbu or Le Barbu, also known as Tafferan, is a trick-taking, compendium, card game similar to hearts where four players take turns leading seven different sub-games over the course of 28 deals. Barbu originated in France in the early 20th century where it was especially popular with university students, and became a prominent game among French Bridge-players in the 1960s. The French version of the game was originally played with a stripped deck of 32 cards ranked seven to ace in each suit. Modern forms are played with a full 52-card pack. Barbu may be descended from earlier compendium games popular with students and originating in the Austro-Hungarian Empire such as Lorum or Quodlibet.
Smear is a North-American trick-taking card game of the All Fours group, and a variant of Pitch (Setback). Several slightly different versions are played in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, Minnesota, Northern and Central Iowa, Wisconsin and also in Ontario, Canada.
The following is a glossary of terms used in card games. Besides the terms listed here, there are thousands of common and uncommon slang terms. Terms in this glossary should not be game-specific, but apply to a wide range of card games. For glossaries that relate primarily to one game or family of similar games, see Game-specific glossaries.
Elfern, also known as Eilfern, Figurenspiel or Elfmandeln, is a very old, German and Austrian 6-card, no-trump, trick-and-draw game for two players using a 32-card, French-suited Piquet pack or German-suited Skat pack. The object is to win the majority of the 20 honours: the Ace, King, Queen, Jack and Ten in a Piquet pack or the Ace, King, Ober, Unter and Ten in a Skat pack. Elfern is at least 250 years old and a possible ancestor to the Marriage family of card games, yet it is still played by German children.
Bohemian Schneider, sometimes Bohemian Tailor, is a card game for two people, which is played with a German-suited Skat pack of 32 cards. Because it is a simple trick-taking game, it is often played by older children and is recommended for age 8 upwards. It was probably developed in Bohemia and spread from there across the south German region and Austria.
German Solo, known locally just as Solo and historically as German Ombre, is a German 8-card plain-trick game for 4 individual players using a 32-card, German- or French-suited Skat pack. It is essentially a simplification of Quadrille, itself a 4-player adaptation of Ombre. As in Quadrille, players bid for the privilege of declaring trumps and deciding whether to play alone or with a partner. Along with Ombre, Tarock and Schafkopf, German Solo influenced the development of Skat.
Gleek is an English card game for three persons. It is played with a 44-card pack and was popular from the 16th century through the 18th century.
Dreierschnapsen, Talonschnapsen or Staperlschnapsen is a three-hand variant of the popular Austrian card game, Bauernschnapsen. The rules are very similar to those for Bauernschnapsen except that, instead of two teams of two players, one player bids to become the soloist against the other two who form a temporary alliance. Another difference is that the game makes use of a talon with which the soloist may exchange cards to improve his hand, hence its alternative name of Talonschnapsen. The game is usually played with William Tell cards.
Binokel is a card game for two to eight players that originated in Switzerland as Binocle, but spread to the German state of Württemberg where it is typically played with a Württemberg pattern pack. It is still popular in Württemberg, where it is usually played in groups of three or four as a family game rather than in the pubs. In three-hand games, each player competes for himself, while in four-hand games, known as Cross Binokel (Kreuzbinokel), two teams are formed with partners sitting opposite one another. The game was introduced to America by German immigrants in the first half of the 20th century, where it developed into the similar game of Pinochle. Binocle was still played in Switzerland in 1994. In south Germany, the game is sometimes called by its Swabian name, Benoggl.
Herzeln is a compendium card game for three or four players in a partie of eight deals. As its name suggests, it is an Austrian game. It should not be confused with other games sometimes called Herzeln, including Barbu and Kein Stich.
Rumpel is a card game, similar to Quodlibet that is native to the Danube region from Regensburg to Linz, but is played especially in the region of Hauzenberg in the German county of Passau. Mala describes a version with 8 or 12 contracts from a menu of 29 called Großer Rumpel.
Rosbiratschka is a trick-taking, compendium, card game for three or four players that is played with a German-suited pack of 32 or 24 cards.
Kein Stich is a card game, which is well known in the German-speaking parts of the world under various regional names such as Herzeln, King Louis, Kunterbunt ("Multicoloured"), Schwarze Sau, Fritz, Brumseln, Fünferspiel ("Fives"), Lieschen, Lizzy or Pensionisteln ("Pensioners").
Cucumber is a north European card game of Swedish origin for two or more players. The goal of the game is to avoid taking the last trick. David Parlett describes it as a "delightful Baltic gambling game".