Los Baños, Laguna

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Los Baños
Municipality of Los Baños
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Panoramic view of the Los Baños Municipal Hall
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Special Science and Nature City [1]
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Map of Laguna with Los Baños highlighted
Los Banos, Laguna
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Los Baños
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 14°10′N121°13′E / 14.17°N 121.22°E / 14.17; 121.22 Coordinates: 14°10′N121°13′E / 14.17°N 121.22°E / 14.17; 121.22
Country Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines
Region Calabarzon (Region IV-A)
Province Laguna
District 2nd District
Founded 17 September 1615
Barangays 14 (see Barangays)
  Type Sangguniang Bayan
   Mayor Antonio L. Kalaw
   Vice Mayor Josephine Sumangil-Evangelista
   Representative Ruth M. Hernandez
   Electorate 65,754 voters (2019)
  Total54.22 km2 (20.93 sq mi)
118 m (387 ft)
 (2015 census) [4]
  Density2,100/km2 (5,400/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Los Bañense
   Income class 1st municipal income class
   Poverty incidence 2.14% (2015) [5]
   Revenue ₱256,986,279.76 (2016)
Time zone UTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
4030, 4031
IDD : area code +63(0)49
Climate type tropical monsoon climate
Native languages Tagalog
Website www.losbanos.gov.ph

Los Baños, officially the Municipality of Los Baños (Tagalog : Bayan ng Los Baños), is a 1st class municipality in the province of Laguna, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 112,008 people. [4]


It has a total land area of 56.5 square kilometers and is bordered on the south and south-west by Mount Makiling, on the north by Laguna de Bay., on the north-west by Calamba and on the east by the town of Bay. The town is located 63 kilometres (39 mi) southeast of Manila and is accessible via the South Luzon Expressway.

The municipality lies on the northern slopes of the long dormant volcano Mount Makiling and is known among tourists for its hot spring resorts. Los Baños also hosts two constituent universities of the University of the Philippines System: the University of the Philippines Los Baños and University of the Philippines Open University, along with other foreign and local and international research centers, such as the International Rice Research Institute, the ASEAN Center for Biodiversity, the Philippine Rice Research Institute, Philippine Carabao Center at UPLB, and SEAMEO-SEARCA, making the town a temporary home for tens of thousands of both local and foreign undergraduate and graduate students, researchers and support staff.

Los Baños was declared as the Special Science and Nature City of the Philippines through Presidential Proclamation No. 349. [6] The proclamation, however, does not convert the municipality to a city or give it corporate powers that are accorded to other cities.

Aside from its importance in academics, science and research, Los Baños is a well-known tourist destination. Because of the town's proximity to Metro Manila, Los Baños' hot spring resorts are frequent weekend or summer getaways for residents of the vast metropolis and tourists from other places in the Philippines and abroad. Tourists who visit Los Baños also come to the several native delicacies stores in the town to buy the town's famous buko pie (coconut meat pie) as well as a home-grown brand of chocolate cake. [7] [8] Currently, it is Laguna's richest municipality in terms of assets amounting to Php 652.95 M. [9]


Precolonial and Spanish colonial period

Los Baños started as a settlement, a barrio of Bay, called Mainit, the Tagalog term for "hot", alluding to the thermal springs at the foot of Mount Makiling. By 1589, through a Franciscan friar, it became popularly called by its present name, "Los Baños," which is Spanish for "bathing place". [10]

In 1595, a temporary building made of bamboo and cogon was built to serve as shelter for the patients who journeyed to Mainit to seek cures for their ailments. It was on 17 September 1615 when the friars administered Los Baños as a separate town from Bay. [10]

In 1671, more permanent structures like churches and hospitals were built only to be destroyed by a fire in 1727. The structures were re-erected at a slow rate. The church which now stands in the municipal center of Los Baños dates back to 1851. The Spanish Governor's palace was built in 1879 but was only completed in 1892. [11]

American colonial period (1900–1946)

In 1909, the University of the Philippines College of Agriculture (UPCA) was established.

The UPCA became a Japanese prisoner of war camp for nationals of the Allied countries, a target of Kempetai punitive measures, and the headquarters of a secret organization of guerrillas. On 23 February 1945, US forces of the First Battalion, 511th Parachute Infantry Regiment of the Eleventh Airborne Division led a combined amphibious and airborne raid against the prison camp, rescuing over 2,000 Allied nationals. They killed the 250-man Japanese garrison. In order to force the prisoners to leave behind their belongings and speed up the evacuation before the Japanese could send reinforcements, US forces and Filipino guerrillas burned the camp. Only Baker Hall, the university gymnasium until 2010, remained intact. [12]

Modern era (1946–present)

In 1959, the 10th World Scout Jamboree was held in Los Baños, with the theme "Building Tomorrow Today" with an attendance of 12,203 Scouts.

In 1962, the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) began its operation.

In 1979, the evolution and development of academic excellence in Los Baños moved the people of Los Baños to request then president Ferdinand Marcos to declare the municipality as "A Special University Zone", granted on 15 June 1982 by virtue of letter of instruction No. 883.

Los Baños was further declared as an "Agriculture, Forestry, and Life Sciences Community" on 17 March 1982 by virtue of Executive Order No. 784 (Section 23).

On 7 August 2000, Los Baños was declared a Special Science and Nature City of the Philippines by virtue of Presidential Proclamation 349. It was signed by then President Joseph Estrada. The Proclamation is in recognition of the town's important contribution in country. The municipality has remained as the country's hub of science and nature with the presence of national and international research institutions collaborating towards the advancement of science research. [13]

The 6th Flora Malesiana, a triennial gathering of people with botanical expertise regarding "Malesia," was held from 20 to 24 September 2004. It provided a forum for Flora Malesiana members and encouraged publications on Malesian plants.

During the 2005 Southeast Asian Games, Los Baños played host to the aquatics events, with the newly built Trace Aquatic Center at Trace College serving as the venue.

The headquarters of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Center for Biodiversity was opened on 8 August 2006 at the DENR-Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, located at the College of Forestry, University of the Philippines Los Baños. It coincided with the foundation day celebrations of the organization. The Philippines assumed the Chairmanship of ASEAN in 2006 and played host to the 12th ASEAN and East Asia Summits (held in Metro Cebu, January 2007).

In January 2007, the 5th ASEAN Inter-Club Age-Group Swimming Championships was held in the Trace Aqua Sports Center.

Los Baños also plays host to the UAAP, as the Trace Aquatics Center has served as the venue for the league's swimming competitions since UAAP Season 70 until UAAP Season 76.

Currently, Los Baños is probably the densest habitat of academicians in South East Asia. [14] Although it is a small town, it has contributed widely through scientific achievements and contributions locally and worldwide particularly on agriculture.[ citation needed ]

On December 3, 2020, its incumbent mayor, Caesar P. Perez was assassinated by an armed assailant. [15]


Tadlac Lake LakeTadlacjf8660 13.JPG
Tadlac Lake

Los Baños is nestled between two of Southern Luzon's most dominant geographical features – Mount Makiling to the south and south-west and Laguna de Bay to the north. [16] In fact, Laguna de Bay's southernmost tip is at Barangay Bambang, and Barangay Bagong Silang is already halfway up Mount Makiling. Both the mountain and the lake are volcanic features – Makiling being a potentially active volcano whose geothermal activities gave birth to the hot springs after which the town was named, and Laguna de Bay being the filled-in caldera of a massive prehistoric volcano.

Another notable geological feature is Tadlac Lake, a maar lake whose almost perfectly round shape and uncharted waters have led some locals to call it "the enchanted lake." Others call it "alligator lake", a reminder that it served as the last bastion of Laguna de Bay's once-plentiful cayman population, which has since been wiped out and is now just another legendary part of Philippine history.


The town of Los Baños is crossed by five rivers or creeks: [16]


Los Baños has a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification Am).


Climate data for Los Baños, Laguna
Average high °C (°F)26
Average low °C (°F)22
Average precipitation mm (inches)58
Average rainy days13.
Source: Meteoblue [17]


Los Baños is politically subdivided into 14 barangays.

Political map of Los Banos Los Banos.png
Political map of Los Baños
BarangayCaptainPopulation (2010) [18]
AnosCelerino L. Balasoto7,446
Bagong SilangRufino A. Maloles577
BambangJoselito C. Manzanares7,021
Batong MalakeJanos S. Lapis11,884
Baybayin (poblacion)Conrado V. Lanuzo1,307
BayogCesar L. Moldez9,671
LalakayLeticia Concepcion4,253
MaahasFerdinand P. Vargas6,800
MalintaRolando L. Erroba6,258
MayondonVictorio A. Reyes16,181
Tuntungin-PuthoRonaldo N. Oñate8,692
San AntonioCecilio Magsino13,173
TadlacJuan Marvin S. Bautista3,342
Timugan (poblacion)Francisco A.Dumangas5,279


Population census of Los Baños
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 3,352    
1918 6,337+4.34%
1939 9,612+2.00%
1948 10,954+1.46%
1960 21,519+5.79%
1970 32,167+4.10%
1975 38,351+3.59%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1980 49,555+5.26%
1990 66,211+2.94%
1995 71,683+1.50%
2000 82,027+2.93%
2007 98,631+2.58%
2010 101,884+1.19%
2015 112,008+1.82%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority [4] [19] [20] [21]
Los Banos Town Hall LosBanosHalljf8797 13.JPG
Los Baños Town Hall

In the 2015 census, the population of Los Baños was 112,008 people, [4] with a density of 2,100 inhabitants per square kilometre or 5,400 inhabitants per square mile.

Places of interest

Gate of University of the Philippines at Los Banos University of the Philippines at Los Banos-Gate.jpg
Gate of University of the Philippines at Los Baños
Lake Tadlac LakeTadlacjf8660 08.JPG
Lake Tadlac
The National Arts Center Tanghalang Maria Makiling Los Banos.JPG
The National Arts Center


There are 16 daycare schools in Los Baños, managed by DSWD and local government.

Related Research Articles

Laguna (province) Province in Calabarzon, Philippines

Laguna, is a province in the Philippines located in the Calabarzon region in Luzon. Its capital is Santa Cruz and the province is situated southeast of Metro Manila, south of the province of Rizal, west of Quezon, north of Batangas and east of Cavite. Laguna hugs the southern shores of Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the country. As of the 2015 census, the province's total population is 3,035,081 . It is also currently the seventh richest province in the country.

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University of the Philippines Los Baños

The University of the Philippines Los Baños, also referred to as UP Los Baños or colloquially as Elbi, is a public research university located in the towns of Los Baños and Bay in the province of Laguna, some 64 kilometers southeast of Manila. It traces its roots to the UP College of Agriculture (UPCA), which was founded in 1909 by the American colonial government to promote agricultural education and research in the Philippines. American botanist Edwin Copeland served as its first dean. UPLB was formally established in 1972 following the union of UPCA with four other Los Baños and Diliman-based University of the Philippines (UP) units.

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Mount Makiling

Mount Makiling, or Mount Maquiling, is a dormant stratovolcano located in the provinces of Laguna and Batangas on the island of Luzon, Philippines. The mountain rises to an elevation of 1,090 m (3,580 ft) above mean sea level and is the highest feature of the Laguna Volcanic Field. The volcano has no recorded historic eruption but volcanism is still evident through geothermal features like mud spring and hot springs. South of the mountain is the Makiling-Banahaw Geothermal Plant. The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) classifies the volcano as "potentially active".

Maria Makiling Spirit in Philippine mythology

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University of the Philippines Los Baños College of Forestry and Natural Resources

The University of the Philippines Los Baños College of Forestry and Natural Resources is one of the 11 degree-granting units of the University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB). It started as the Forest School under the UP College of Agriculture in 1910, making it the oldest forestry school in the Philippines. It is one of the five founding units of UPLB upon its establishment in 1972.

Molawin River

The Molawin River, also referred to as the Molawin Creek, is one of the many low volume flowing rocky streams crisscrossing the campus of the University of the Philippines Los Baños and some areas of the town of Los Baños. Molawin Creek crosses the whole of the UPLB campus and essentially cuts it in half making it necessary to construct several bridges throughout the University's history to improve the campus' integrity and general accessibility. Volume of flow depends on the average rainfall of the season and develops into a raging river during typhoons or heavy rainfall. It is a minor tributary of Laguna Lake, one among many small creeks that empty into Laguna de Bay. The origins of Molawin Creek and the other creeks in Los Baños have not been pinpointed but are generally accepted to have their origins high up in Mount Makiling. The name Molawin is a local variation of the name of the Molave tree.

Campus of University of the Philippines Los Baños University campus in Laguna, Philippines

The main campus of University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB) is located in the towns of Los Baños and Bay in the province of Laguna, 64 km (40 mi) southeast of Manila. The complex covers 5,445 ha of land encompassing the entire Makiling Forest Reserve (MFR) and surrounding areas. Its land grants in the provinces of Laguna, Negros Occidental, and Quezon have a combined area of 9,760 ha. The Total Campus Area (Rural) 15,205 ha.

University of the Philippines Los Baños College of Agriculture and Food Science

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University of the Philippines Los Baños Limnological Research Station

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Tadlac Lake

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  10. 1 2 [ dead link ]
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