Los Zetas

Last updated

Los Zetas
Los Zetas presence.png
   Los Zetas
Founded by Osiel Cárdenas Guillén, [1]
Arturo Guzmán Decena
Years active1997–present
Territory Mexico:
Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon, Coahuila, Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatán, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosí, Chiapas, Puebla, Tlaxcala, Hidalgo, Querétaro, Chihuahua, Guerrero, Oaxaca, Guanajuato, Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, Michoacán, State of México
United States
Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Colombia, Peru, Panama,Venezuela [2]
Ethnicity Mexican
Criminal activitiesDrug trafficking, human trafficking, weapons trafficking, murder, torture, rape, kidnapping, racketeering, extortion, ransom, animal cruelty, video piracy, prostitution, theft [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]
Allies Tijuana Cartel
Juárez Cartel
Los Mazatlecos
Barrio Azteca
MS-13 [9]
Texas Syndicate
Gangster Disciples
Triad [10]
The Office of Envigado
La Linea
Hezbollah [11] [12] [13] [14]
Sicilian Mafia [15]
Quds Force [16]
Rivals Sinaloa Cartel
Knights Templar Cartel
Cartel de Jalisco Nueva Generacion logo 3.png Jalisco New Generation Cartel
Cartel del Golfo logo.png Gulf Cartel
Los Zetas Group Bravo (Grupo Bravo)
Old School Zetas (Zetas Vieja Escuela)

Los Zetas (pronounced  [los ˈsetas] , Spanish for "The Zs") is a Mexican criminal syndicate, [17] [18] [19] regarded as one of the most dangerous of Mexico's drug cartels. [20] [21] They are known for engaging in brutally violent "shock and awe" tactics such as beheadings, torture, and indiscriminate murder. [22] While primarily concerned with drug trafficking, the organization also runs profitable sex trafficking and gun running rackets. [23] (See: Sex trafficking in Mexico) Los Zetas also operate through protection rackets, assassinations, extortion, kidnappings and other activities. [24] The organization is based in Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, directly across the border from Laredo, Texas. [25] The origins of Los Zetas date back to the late 1990s, when commandos of the Mexican Army deserted their ranks and began working as the enforcement arm of the Gulf Cartel. [22] [26] In February 2010, Los Zetas broke away and formed their own criminal organization, rivalling the Gulf Cartel. [27] [28]


They were at one point Mexico's largest and most expansive drug cartel in terms of geographical presence, overtaking their rivals, the Sinaloa Cartel in physical territory. [29] However, in recent times Los Zetas has become fragmented and seen its influence diminish. [30] As of March 2016, Grupo Bravo (Bravo Group) and Zetas Vieja Escuela (Old School Zetas) had formed an alliance with the Gulf Cartel against Cartel Del Noreste (Cartel of the Northeast). [31] In March 2019, Texas Republican congressman Chip Roy introduced a bill that would list the Cartel Del Noreste faction of Los Zetas, Jalisco New Generation Cartel and Gulf Cartel as foreign terrorist organizations. Former United States President Donald Trump had also expressed interest in designating cartels as terrorist organizations. [32] However such plans were halted at the request of Mexican President Andrés Manuel López Obrador. [33]



Los Zetas was named after its first commander, Arturo Guzmán Decena, whose Federal Judicial Police radio code was "Z1", [34] a code given to high-ranking officers. [35] [36] [37] The radio code for commanding Federal Judicial Police officers in Mexico was "Y" and those officers are nicknamed "Yankees", while Federal Judicial Police in charge of a city was codenamed "Z"; thus they were nicknamed as "Zetas", the Spanish word for the letter.[ citation needed ]


After Osiel Cárdenas Guillén took control of the Gulf Cartel in 1997, he found himself in a violent turf war. To keep his organization and leadership from rival drug cartels and from the Mexican Army, Cárdenas sought out Decena, a retired army lieutenant. [38] [39] [40] Decena lured more than thirty deserters from the elite Grupo Aeromóvil de Fuerzas Especiales (GAFE) to become his personal bodyguards, and later, as his mercenary wing. [41] These deserters were enticed with salaries much higher than what they were paid by the military. [42] Some of these former GAFE members reportedly received training in commando and urban warfare from the Israeli and U.S. Special Forces. [43]

Once Guillen consolidated his power, he expanded the responsibilities of Los Zetas, which began to organize kidnappings, [44] protection rackets, [45] extortion, [46] securing cocaine supply and trafficking routes known as plazas (zones) and executing its foes, often with extreme violence. [35] [47] However, in November 2002, Decena was killed in a military action at a restaurant in Matamoros, Tamaulipas, [48] allowing Heriberto Lazcano ("Z3") to take control of the group. [49] In response to the rising power of the Gulf Cartel, the rival Sinaloa Cartel [50] established Los Negros, an enforcer group similar to Los Zetas but not as complex or successful. [51] Upon the arrest of Guillen in March 2003 and his extradition in 2007, the Zetas took a more active leadership role within the Gulf Cartel and their influence grew within the organization. [35] [52]

The Zetas' membership ranges from corrupt federal, state, and local police officers, and former U.S. Army personnel, [53] [54] [55] to ex-Kaibiles, the special forces of the Guatemalan military. [56] Over time, many of the Zetas' original thirty-one members have been killed or arrested; a number of younger men have filled the vacuum, but the group as currently extant remains far from the efficiency of their paramilitary origins. [57]

Los Zetas was partially responsible for a qualitative increase in the brutality of the violence seen during the Modern Mexican Drug Wars. Unlike other cartels, the Zetas did not buy alliances so much as terrorize their enemies. Because the cartel was quite new at the time, it competed with more established cartels by using extreme violence and cruelty as a form of psychological warfare. They tortured victims, strung up bodies, and slaughtered indiscriminately. They preferred to take military-style control of territory, holding it through sheer force and exploiting its criminal opportunities. Although their military training was diluted over time, their brutality was not. Rival cartels struggling against the Zetas began to adopt some of their tactics, further ramping up violence in the country. [58] As other organized crime groups subsequently copied the Zetas' brutal and superfluous methods to ensure they could survive, this resulted in the violence in Mexico escalating to much higher levels and to new forms. Some of these newer tortures and hyper-violent execution styles included practices such as flaying and castration as well as public displays of the victims. [59] [60]

Split from the Gulf Cartel and Civil War between Los Zetas and Gulf Cartel

Los Zetas gunmen interrogating a member of the Gulf Cartel. Los Zeta gunmen.jpg
Los Zetas gunmen interrogating a member of the Gulf Cartel.

Following the capture and extradition of Cárdenas, Los Zetas became so powerful that they outnumbered and outclassed the Gulf Cartel in revenue, membership, and influence by 2010. [61] As a result of this imbalance, the Cartel tried to curtail their own enforcers' influence and ended up instigating a civil war. [62] In addition, the Cartel, through its narco-banners in Matamoros and Reynosa, accused Los Zetas of expanding their operations to murder, theft, extortion, kidnapping – actions that the Cartel allegedly disagreed with. [63] Los Zetas countered by posting their own banners throughout Tamaulipas, noting that they had carried out executions and kidnappings under orders of the Cartel and they were originally created for that sole purpose. [64] In addition, Los Zetas charged that the Cartel was scapegoating them for the murders of innocent civilians. [64]

Reports vary as to who triggered the formal split and why. Some sources claim that Guillén, brother of Cárdenas and one of the successors of the Gulf Cartel, was addicted to gambling, sex, and drugs, leading Los Zetas to perceive his leadership as a threat to the organization. [65] Other reports mention, however, that the divide occurred due to a disagreement on who would take on the leadership of the cartel after the extradition of Cárdenas. The candidates from the Cartel were Guillén and Jorge Eduardo Costilla Sánchez, while Los Zetas wanted to hand the leadership to their own head, Lazcano. [66] The Cartel also reportedly began looking to form a truce with the rival Sinaloa Cartel, which Los Zetas did not want to recognize, allegedly preferring an alliance with the Beltrán-Leyva Cartel. [67] [68] Samuel Flores Borrego, a lieutenant of the Cartel, killed Zetas lieutenant Sergio Peña Mendoza, alias "El Concorde 3", due to a disagreement over the drug corridor of Reynosa, whom both protected. [69] Los Zetas demanded that the Cartel hand over the killer, but they refused. [70]

When the hostilities began, the Cartel joined forces with its former rivals, the Sinaloa Cartel and La Familia Michoacana, aiming to take out Los Zetas. [71] [72] Consequently, Los Zetas allied with the Beltrán-Leyva Cartel, the Juárez Cartel, and the Tijuana Cartel. [73] [74]

Los Zetas infighting

In early 2010, Miguel Treviño Morales, the former second-in-command of Los Zetas, had reportedly taken the leadership of the Zetas and displaced Lazcano. [75] [76] Lazcano was initially content to have Morales in his ranks, but reportedly gave Morales too much power and underestimated his violent nature. [77] Morales' active leadership gained him the loyalty and respect of many in Los Zetas, leading many to eventually stop paying their tributes to Lazcano. [78] Los Zetas are inherently an unstable organized crime group with a long history of brutal violence, and with the possibility of more if the infighting continues and if they fight off without a central command. [79]


Los Zetas have also carried out multiple massacres and attacks on civilians and rival cartels, such as:

In addition, sources reveal that Los Zetas may also be responsible for:

Current status

By 2011, only 10 of the original 34 zetas remained fugitives, [93] and to this day most of them have either been killed or captured by the Mexican law enforcement and military forces. [94] [95] [96]

As of 2012, Los Zetas had control over 11 states in Mexico, making it the drug cartel with the largest territory in the country. [97] Their rivals, the Sinaloa Cartel, had lost some territories to Los Zetas, and went down from 23 states in dominion to 16. [98]

By the beginning of 2012, Mexico's government escalated its offensive against the Zetas with the announcement that five new military bases will be installed in the group's primary areas of operation. [99]

On 9 October 2012, the Mexican Navy confirmed that Los Zetas leader Heriberto Lazcano had been killed in a firefight with Mexican marines in a state on the border with Texas. [100]

In a May 2013 interview with the International Crisis Group, researcher Daniel Haering stated, "The old networks were disrupted by the Zetas, and now the Zetas have disintegrated into Zetillas. They are splinter groups ('grupúsculos'), not big operators." [101]

On 14 July 2013, it was reported that the Mexican Marine Corps captured the Zetas leader Miguel Ángel Treviño Morales, also known as "Z-40" in Anáhuac, Nuevo León, near the border of Tamaulipas state. [102] The authorities allege that he was succeeded by Omar Treviño Morales (alias Z-42), his brother. [103]

On 12 October 2013, Mexican authorities captured alleged top Zetas operative Gerardo Jaramillo, alias "El Yanqui". [104] His arrest ultimately resulted in the discovery and seizure of a large Zetas weapons cache and supply stash, including "assault rifles, several grenade launchers, magazines, 2,000 rounds of ammunition of various calibres, bullet-proof vests and balaclavas". [101]

On 9 May 2014, one of the founding members, Galindo Mellado Cruz, and four other armed men were killed in a shootout after Mexican security forces raided Cruz's hideout in the city of Reynosa. [105]

On 3 March 2015, Mexican security forces arrested the last known leader of the remaining Zetas structure, Omar Treviño Morales (alias "Z-42") in a suburb in Monterrey, Nuevo León. [106]

On 23 March 2015, Ramiro Pérez Moreno (alias "El Rana"), a potential successor of "Z-42" was captured, along with 4 other men, carrying 6 kilos of cocaine and marijuana, rifles and one hand grenade. [107]

On 9 February 2018, Mexican authorities arrested the new leader José María Guízar Valencia alias "Z-43" in Mexico City in Roma neighbourhood. US offered $5m reward for his capture, he is responsible for importing thousands of kilograms of cocaine and methamphetamine to the US every year and murdered an untold number of Guatemalan civilians during the systematic takeover of the Guatemalan border region. [108]

On 9 April 2019, [109] José Roberto Stolberg Becerra, also known as "La Barbie," was arrested in Jalisco. [110] He was reported to have been the leader of the cartel's Los Zetas la Vieja Escuela (Old School Zetas) faction. [109] [110]

On 26 May 2019, an operative for Los Zetas in the Veracruz municipalities of Las Choapas and Agua Dulce was arrested by the Mexican Navy. [111]

In early July 2019, Los Zetas leaders Jorge Antonio "El Yorch" Gloria Palacios, the second-in-command of the Cartel Del Noreste (CDN) faction of Los Zetas, and Hugo "El Ganso" Sanchez Garcia, who served as head of Los Zetas in San Fernando, were detained by Mexican authorities. [112] [113]

In January 2020, Los Zetas regional leader José Carmen N., also known as "El Comandante Reyes," was arrested in Oaxaca. [114] He was believed to be in charge of the gang's operations in 12 municipalities in Veracruz, including Acayucan, Minatitlán and Coatzacoalcos, known as the state's most violent towns. [114] The same month, Verónica Hernández Giadáns, the Attorney General of Veracruz, admitted that her cousin Guadalupe “La Jefa” Hernández Hervis was in fact chief of operations for Los Zetas and also a close association of former Los Zetas leader Hernán “El Comandante H” Martínez Zavaleta, who was arrested in 2017. [115]

In March 2020, senior Los Zetas operative Hugo Alejandro Salcido Cisneros, also known as “El Porras” or “Comandante Pinpon,” was killed in a gun battle with police in Nuevo Laredo. [116] Salcido Cisneros was the leader of the “Tropa del Infierno,” a group of hitmen under the direction of the Cartel Del Noreste (CDN) fraction of Los Zetas. [116] Several other Tropa del Infierno gunmen was injured in the clashes as well. [116]

In May 2020, Moisés Escamilla, a leader of the "Old School Zetas" died in prison after contracting COVID-19. [117]

Tamaulipas state corruption

Political corruption

Drug violence and political corruption are plaguing the Mexican state of Tamaulipas, home of the Gulf Cartel and Los Zetas. Tamaulipas en Mexico.svg
Drug violence and political corruption are plaguing the Mexican state of Tamaulipas, home of the Gulf Cartel and Los Zetas.

The drug violence and political corruption that has plagued Tamaulipas, the home state of the Gulf Cartel and Los Zetas, has fueled fears of it becoming a "failed state" and a haven for drug traffickers and criminals. [118] The massacre of 72 migrants and the discovery of mass graves in San Fernando, [119] [120] the assassination of the gubernatorial candidate Rodolfo Torre Cantú, [121] the increasing violence between cartels, and the state's inability to ensure safety have led some analysts to conclude that "neither the regional nor federal government have control over the territory of Tamaulipas." [122]

Although drug-related violence had existed long before the Mexican Drug War, it often happened in low-profile levels, with the government "looking the other way" in exchange for bribes while drug traffickers went about their business – as long as there was no violence. [123] During the 71-year rule of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), the Mexican government would conduct customary arrests and allow cartel business to continue. [124]

After the PRI lost power to the National Action Party (PAN) in the 2000 presidential election, all the "agreements" between the previous government and the cartels were lost along with the pax mafiosa. [125] [126] Tamaulipas was no exception; according to PAN politician Santiago Creel, the PRI in Tamaulipas had been protecting the Gulf-Zeta organization for years. [127] [128] The PAN has claimed that government elections in Tamaulipas are likely to encounter an "organized crime influence." [129]

In addition, there are formal charges that three former governors of Tamaulipas – Manuel Cavazos Lerma (1993–1999), Tomás Yarrington (1999–2005), and Eugenio Hernández Flores (2005–2010) – have had close ties with the Gulf-Zeta organization. [130] On 30 January 2012, the Attorney General of Mexico issued a communiqué ordering the governors and their families to remain in the country as they are being investigated for possible collaboration with cartels. [131] [132] In 2012, Yarrington was further accused of money laundering for Los Zetas and the Gulf Cartel. [133] [134]

In Tampico, Mayor Óscar Pérez Inguanzo was arrested on 12 November 2011 due to his "improper exercise of public functions and forgery" of certain documents. [135] In mid-2010, both Flores and the mayor of Reynosa, Óscar Luebbert Gutiérrez – both members of the PRI – were criticized for claiming that there were no armed confrontations in Tamaulipas and that the widespread violence was "only a rumor." [136] Months later, Flores finally acknowledged that several parts of Tamaulipas were "being overrun by organized crime violence." [137] Gutiérrez later recognized the work of the federal troops and acknowledged that his city was experiencing "an escalation in violence." [138]

Prison breaks

On 25 March 2010, forty inmates escaped from a federal prison in the city of Matamoros. [139] [140] [141] On 5 April 2010, at a prison in Reynosa, a convoy of ten trucks packed with gunmen entered the prison grounds without resistance, broke into the cells, and liberated thirteen "extremely dangerous" inmates. [142] Eighty-five inmates escaped from the same Reynosa prison six months later. [143] [144] In Nuevo Laredo, on 17 December 2010, 141 inmates escaped from a federal prison. [145] The federal government condemned the mass prison break and stated that the work by the state and municipal authorities of Tamaulipas lack effective control measures, and urged them to strengthen their institutions. [146]

A confrontation inside a maximum security prison in Nuevo Laredo on 15 July 2011 left 7 inmates dead and 59 escaped. [147] Five on-duty guards have not been found. [148] The governor of Tamaulipas then acknowledged his inability to secure federal prisoners and prisons. [149] Consequently, the federal government assigned the Mexican Army and the Federal Police to guard some prisons until further notice; they were also left in charge of searching for the fugitives. [150] It has been reported that more than 400 prison inmates escaped from several Tamaulipas prisons from January 2010 to March 2011 due to corruption. [151]

On 17 September 2012 in Piedras Negras, Coahuila, more than 130 inmates from Los Zetas organized a massive prison break in broad daylight by walking directly from the front gate to several trucks outside the prison. [152] [153]

Police corruption

Tamaulipas police forces are the worst paid in Mexico despite being one of the states hardest hit by drug violence; [154] in Aguascalientes, a state where violence levels are much lower, policemen are paid five times more than in Tamaulipas. [155] As a result, most police forces in Tamaulipas are believed to be susceptible to corruption due to their low wages, and accept bribes from organized crime groups. [156] The National Public Security System (SNSP) has condemned the low police salaries, and demanded that state and municipal authorities create better payment programs for policemen so they can have a fair wage for themselves and their families. [157]

Although the Joint Operation Nuevo León-Tamaulipas issued in 2007, along with several other military-led operations by the federal government, brought thousands of troops to restore order in Tamaulipas, [158] on 9 May 2011, the Federal Police and the Mexican Army disarmed all police forces in Tamaulipas, beginning with the cities of Matamoros and Reynosa. [159] The following month, the federal government was asked to send in troops to combat the drug cartels in the area, to "consolidate actions on public safety" and "strengthen the capacity of their institutions." [160] However, the troops could only replace half of the policemen in the state. [161] Consequently, the government is currently building military bases in Ciudad Mier, San Fernando and Ciudad Mante. [162] On 7 November 2011, 650 policemen were released from their duties because they had either failed or refused "corruption control tests." [163]

Organizational structure

Los Zetas have set up camps to train recruits as well as corrupt ex-federal, state, and local police officers. [164] In September 2005 testimony to the Mexican Congress from the then-Defense Secretary Clemente Vega, indicated that the Zetas had also hired at least 30 former Kaibiles from Guatemala to train new recruits because the number of former Mexican special forces men in their ranks had shrunk. [164] Los Zetas' training locations have been identified as having a similar setup as military GAFE training facilities.

Los Zetas members may also possess a "Los Zetas Commando Medallion" for their service to the organization. [165]

List of initial members

Arturo Guzman was initially tasked by Cardenas to recruit 20 men to murder his rival Rolando Lopez Salinas. Guzman and Lazcano were eventually able to convince 34 GAFE operators to leave the Mexican Army and form the core of Los Zetas. The first 14 members became known as the "Group of 14" (Grupo de los Catorce) or simply "The 14" (Los 14). [166]


United States Border Patrol patrolling the Rio Grande in an airboat in Laredo, Texas. Patrolling Rio Grande @ Laredo.jpg
United States Border Patrol patrolling the Rio Grande in an airboat in Laredo, Texas.

In the early 2010s, analysts indicated that Los Zetas were the largest organized crime group in Mexico in terms of geographical presence. [167] They are primarily based in the border region of Nuevo Laredo and Coahuila with hundreds more throughout the country. They have placed lookouts at arrival destinations such as airports, bus stations and main roads. [36] In addition to conducting criminal activities along the border, they operate throughout the Gulf of Mexico, in the southern states of Tabasco, Yucatán, Quintana Roo, and Chiapas, and in the Pacific Coast states of Guerrero, Oaxaca, and Michoacán, as well as in Mexico City. [47] [168]

They are also active in several states in the United States, including Texas. [169] [170] The cartel also has important areas of operation in Guatemala, [171] where their operations are reported to have begun as early as 2008. [101] They are active in Europe, specifically in Italy with the 'Ndrangheta. [172]

Early in 2012 it was reported that 'Los Zetas' are operating in the northern VenezuelaColombia border, and have teamed up with the Colombian outfit called Los Rastrojos. [173] Together they control the drug trafficking routes in the Colombian La Guajira and the Venezuelan state of Zulia, Colombia as the producing country and Venezuela as the main port route toward the U.S. and Europe. [173]


Indications of the broken alliance between the Gulf Cartel and Los Zetas began in September 2009. On 24 February 2010, gunmen onboard hundreds of trucks marked C.D.G, XXX, and M3 the insignias of the Cartel clashed with Zetas gunmen in the northern cities of Tamaulipas. [174] The clash between these two groups started in Reynosa, and then expanded to Nuevo Laredo and Matamoros. [175] The war then spread out through eleven municipalities of Tamaulipas, nine of them bordering Texas. [176] Soon, the war reached Tamaulipas' neighboring states of Nuevo León and Veracruz. [177] [178] Their conflict also spread to U.S. soil, where Cartel hit men killed two Zeta members in Brownsville, Texas on 5 October 2010. [179]

Confrontations between the two groups temporarily paralyzed entire cities in broad daylight. [180] Many of the municipalities throughout Tamaulipas were described by witnesses as "war zones," with many businesses and homes burned down. [181] In the midst of violence and panic, local authorities and media tried to minimize the situation and claimed that "nothing was occurring," but the facts were impossible to cover up. [182] [183]

For many years, there were long-fought battles between the Gulf and Sinaloa Cartels, that eventually led the two to reevaluate the situation and decide whether or not this combat was in either organization's best interests. [184] The complexity and territorial advantage of Los Zetas forced the Gulf Cartel to seek an alliance with the Sinaloa Cartel and La Familia Michoacana. [185]


Following the conflict with the Gulf Cartel, Los Zetas joined forces with the Beltrán Leyva Cartel (who was simultaneously separating from the Sinaloa Cartel) as well as the Juarez Cartel and Tijuana Cartel or Arellano Félix organization, to counteract the alliance of the Gulf Cartel, Sinaloa Cartel and La Familia Michoacana cartels. [186] [187] Since February 2010, the major cartels have aligned in two factions, one formed by the Juárez Cartel, Tijuana Cartel, Los Zetas and the Beltrán-Leyva Cartel; the other faction integrated by the Gulf Cartel, Sinaloa Cartel and La Familia Cartel. [188]

United States

In a 2010 report, it was noted Sureño street gangs maintain ties with the Los Zetas cartel in California and South Carolina. [189] A recent report from the FBI shows US street gangs growing closer with Mexican cartels. Within the United States, Los Zetas are using social media as a method of communication between the two countries and are also using the sites as a method of recruiting young aspiring members who in their perception see the actions of the cartel as glorified and are able to ask how they can join. [190] In addition, Sureños share connections with Los Zetas, as do the gangs MS-13, Mexican Mafia, and Latin Kings. [190]


On 13 February 2017, Venezuelan vice president Tareck El Aissami was sanctioned by the United States Treasury Department under the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act, with US officials accusing him of facilitating drug shipments from Venezuela to Mexico and the US, freezing millions of dollars of assets purportedly under El Aissami's control. [191] The accusation included allegations that EL Aissami had trafficked drugs to Los Zetas. [192]

Law enforcement raids

Following a bilateral law enforcement investigation named 'Operation Black Jack', executed by the ATF, DEA, ICE and the FBI, three Zeta safe houses were identified in Mexico and raided by Mexican Federal security forces, releasing more than 40 kidnapped individuals, [36] and making the largest weapons seizure in the history of Mexico; it included 540 rifles including 288 assault rifles and several .50-caliber rifles, 287 hand grenades, 2 M72 LAW anti-tank weapons, 500,000 rounds of ammunition, 67 ballistic vests, 3 anti aircraft weapons and 14 sticks of dynamite. [193] [194]

In October 2008, the FBI warned that a Zetas' cell in Texas would engage law enforcement with a full tactical response, should law enforcement attempt to intervene in their operations. [195] The cell leader was identified as Jaime González Durán (The Hummer), who was later arrested on 7 November 2008, in the border city of Reynosa, Tamaulipas. [196]

In February 2009, Texas Governor Rick Perry announced a program called "Operation Border Star Contingency Plan" to safeguard the border if the Zetas carried out their threats to attack U.S. security officers. This project included the use of tanks, airplanes and the National Guard "as a preventive measure upon the possible collapse of the Mexican State" to protect the border from a Zetas attack and receive an eventual exodus of Mexicans fleeing from the violence. [197] [198]

In 2012 the Obama administration imposed sanctions on Los Zetas as one of four key transnational organized crime groups, along with the Brothers' Circle from Russia, the Yamaguchi-gumi (Yakuza) from Japan, and the Camorra from Italy. [199]

Also in 2012, the United States posted a $5,000,000 reward for information leading to the successful capture of Miguel Treviño Morales. Trevino-Morales is known in Los Zetas as "Z-40" [200] On 12 June 2012, "Z-40" and two of his brothers were arrested and indicted on charges in the State of Texas after raids and dozens of arrests in New Mexico, Texas and Oklahoma. [201]

There is a great lack of funding being sent to Mexico by the United States to combat Los Zetas, although they address Mexico in the media as their biggest concern. [202] The Mérida Initiative that was put in place by the Bush administration in the United States suggested that $1.4 billion in funds was to be sent to Mexico over a three-year period to combat narco trafficking from the U.S.-Mexico border to Panama, but few of these funds have yet to be received in Mexico. [202] In addition, the Obama administration made a very modest effort by way of support for the struggling country although "former drug czar Barry McCaffrey told Congress that Merida, was ‘a drop in the bucket,’" and that the United States "’cannot afford to have a narco-state as [their] neighbour.’" [202] Thus far, of the resources promised by the United States Government regarding Mexico and their ongoing drug combat, little has been received, principally because Mexico's 2012–18 PRI government failed to honour the clause of improving and upholding human rights in the Mexican Federal Republic.

Anonymous' Operation Cartel

The operation to expose information of people who work with Los Zetas, dubbed "Operation Cartel", was reportedly started as a result of an Anonymous member being kidnapped during Operation Paperstorm in Veracruz, [203] a once peaceful city. [204]

The New York Times mentioned that Los Zetas has access to sophisticated tracking software due to the fact that they have infiltrated Mexican law enforcement agencies, and that online anonymity might not be enough protection for Internet users. [205]

See also

Related Research Articles

Osiel Cárdenas Guillén Mexican drug lord incarcerated in a US federal prison

Osiel Cárdenas Guillén is a Mexican drug lord and the former leader of the Gulf Cartel and Los Zetas. Originally a mechanic in Matamoros, Tamaulipas, he entered the cartel by killing Juan García Abrego's friend and competitor Salvador Gómez, after the former's arrest in 1996. As confrontations with rival groups heated up, Osiel Cárdenas sought and recruited over 30 deserters from the Grupo Aeromóvil de Fuerzas Especiales to form the cartel's armed wing. Los Zetas served as the hired private mercenary army of the Gulf Cartel.

Gulf Cartel Criminal group based in Tamaulipas

The Gulf Cartel is a criminal syndicate and drug trafficking organization in Mexico, and perhaps one of the oldest organized crime groups in the country. It is currently based in Matamoros, Tamaulipas, directly across the U.S. border from Brownsville, Texas.

Los Negros was a criminal organization that was once the armed wing of the Sinaloa Cartel and after a switch of alliances, became the armed wing of the Sinaloa splinter gang, the Beltrán-Leyva Cartel. In 2010 it went independent and had been contesting the control of the Beltrán-Leyva Cartel. It was then the criminal paramilitary unit of Édgar Valdez Villarreal in Mexico. Valdez was arrested on August 30, 2010 near Mexico City. Los Negros was led by Valdez at the time they merged with the Sinaloa Cartel.

The timeline of some of the most relevant events in the Mexican drug war is set out below. Although violence between drug cartels had been occurring for three decades, the Mexican government held a generally passive stance regarding cartel violence through the 1980s and early 2000s.

Miguel Treviño Morales Mexican drug lord

Miguel Ángel Treviño Morales, commonly referred to by his alias Z-40, is a former Mexican drug lord and leader of the criminal organization known as Los Zetas. Considered a violent and dangerous criminal, he was one of Mexico's most-wanted drug lords until his arrest in July 2013.

Heriberto Lazcano Lazcano Mexican drug lord

Heriberto Lazcano Lazcano, commonly referred to by his aliases Z-3 and El Lazca, was a Mexican drug lord and the leader of Los Zetas drug cartel. He was one of the most-wanted Mexican drug lords.

Antonio Cárdenas Guillén Mexican drug lord

Antonio Ezequiel Cárdenas Guillén, commonly referred to by his alias Tony Tormenta, was a Mexican drug lord and co-leader of the Gulf Cartel, a drug trafficking organization based in Tamaulipas. He headed the criminal group along with Jorge Eduardo Costilla Sánchez. Antonio was considered by Mexican security forces as one of Mexico's most-wanted men.

Arturo Guzmán Decena, also known by his code name Z-1, was a Mexican Army Special Forces officer and high-ranking member of Los Zetas, a criminal group based in Tamaulipas. He defected from the military in 1997 and formed Los Zetas, the Gulf Cartel's former paramilitary wing, under the leadership of the kingpin Osiel Cárdenas Guillén.

Jesús Enrique Rejón Aguilar

Jesús Enrique Rejón Aguilar is a former leader of the Mexican criminal organization known as Los Zetas. He was wanted by the governments of Mexico and USA until his capture on July 4, 2011 in Atizapán de Zaragoza, a Mexico City suburb.

Samuel Flores Borrego

Samuel Flores Borrego was a Mexican drug lord and high-ranking lieutenant of the Gulf Cartel. He was a former state judicial policeman who protected the ex-leader of the Gulf cartel, Osiel Cárdenas Guillén. Upon his arrest, Flores Borrego became the right-hand man of Jorge Eduardo Costilla Sánchez, the former leader of the criminal organization.

Mario Ramírez Treviño Mexican drug trafficker (born 1962)

Mario Armando Ramírez Treviño, commonly referred to by his aliases El Pelón and/or X-20, is a Mexican suspected drug lord and former leader of the Gulf Cartel, a drug trafficking organization.

Apodaca prison riot Prison riot at a prison in Nuevo León, Mexico on 19 February 2012

The Apodaca prison riot occurred on 19 February 2012 at a prison in Apodaca, Nuevo León, Mexico. Mexico City officials stated that at least 44 people were killed, with another twelve injured. The Blog del Narco, a blog that documents events and people of the Mexican Drug War anonymously, reported that the actual (unofficial) death toll may be more than 70 people. The fight was between Los Zetas and the Gulf Cartel, two drug cartels that operate in northeastern Mexico. The governor of Nuevo León, Rodrigo Medina, mentioned on 20 February 2012 that 30 inmates escaped from the prison during the riot. Four days later, however, the new figures of the fugitives went down to 29. On 16 March 2012, the Attorney General's Office of Nuevo León confirmed that 37 prisoners had actually escaped on the day of the massacre. One of the fugitives, Óscar Manuel Bernal alias La Araña, is considered by the Mexican authorities to be "extremely dangerous," and is believed to be the leader of Los Zetas in the municipality of Monterrey. Some other fugitives were also leaders in the organization.

Los Rojos is a faction of a Mexican drug trafficking organization known as the Gulf Cartel. The group was formed in the late 1990s during the reign of Osiel Cárdenas Guillén, the former leader of the cartel, to provide security to the organization's leaders as the cartel's armed wing.

The 2012 Nuevo Laredo massacres were a series of mass murder attacks between the allied Sinaloa Cartel and Gulf Cartel against Los Zetas in the border city of Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, across the U.S.-Mexico border from Laredo, Texas. The drug-violence in Nuevo Laredo began back in 2003, when the city was controlled by the Gulf Cartel. Most media reports that write about the Mexican Drug War, however, point to 2006 as the start of the drug war. That year is a convenient historical marker because that's when Felipe Calderón took office and carried out an aggressive approach against the cartels. But authors like Ioan Grillo and Sylvia Longmire note that Mexico's drug war actually began at the end of Vicente Fox's administration in 2004, when the first major battle took place in Nuevo Laredo between the Sinaloa Cartel and Los Zetas, who at that time worked as the armed wing of the Gulf Cartel.

Cadereyta Jiménez massacre 2012 mass killing by the Los Zetas cartel in Cadereyta Jiménez, Nuevo León, Mexico

The Cadereyta Jiménez massacre occurred on the Fed 40 on 12–13 May 2012. Mexican officials stated that 49 people were decapitated and mutilated by members of Los Zetas drug cartel and dumped by a roadside near the city of Monterrey in northern Mexico. The Blog del Narco, a blog that documents events and people of the Mexican Drug War anonymously, reported that the actual (unofficial) death toll may be more than 68 people. The bodies were found in the town of San Juan in the municipality of Cadereyta Jiménez, Nuevo León at about 4 a.m. on a non-toll highway leading to Reynosa, Tamaulipas. The forty-three men and six women killed had their heads, feet, and hands cut off, making their identification difficult. Those killed also bore signs of torture and were stuffed in plastic bags. The arrested suspects have indicated that the victims were Gulf Cartel members, but the Mexican authorities have not ruled out the possibility that they were U.S.-bound migrants. Four days before this incident, 18 people were found decapitated and dismembered near Mexico's second largest city, Guadalajara.

Óscar Guerrero Silva

Óscar Eduardo Guerrero Silva, commonly referred to by his alias Z-8 and/or The Winnie Pooh, was a Mexican drug lord and high-ranking leader of Los Zetas, a Mexican criminal organization.

Miguel "El Gringo" Villarreal

Miguel Villarreal was a U.S.-born Mexican suspected drug lord and high-ranking leader of the Gulf Cartel, a criminal group based in Tamaulipas. He was the crime boss of Reynosa, Tamaulipas. Nicknamed El Gringo in reference to his U.S. nationality, Villarreal was identified by authorities as a Gulf Cartel leader in 2010, when he allegedly commanded cells that fought Los Zetas drug cartel in northeastern Mexico. By 2011, he served as the regional kingpin in Miguel Alemán, Tamaulipas and ordered several kidnappings and killings in the South Texas border area from Mexico.

Héctor Manuel Sauceda Gamboa

Héctor Manuel Sauceda Gamboa, commonly referred to by his alias El Karis, was a suspected Mexican drug trafficker and high-ranking leader of the Gulf Cartel, a drug trafficking organization based in Tamaulipas. He was the brother of the drug lord Gregorio Sauceda Gamboa, another high-ranking drug trafficker who worked under the tutelage of Osiel Cárdenas Guillén, the former top leader of the cartel. El Karis took the lead of the Gulf Cartel in Reynosa following the arrest of Jaime González Durán, a leader of Los Zetas drug cartel, in November 2008.

Galindo Mellado Cruz

Galdino or Galindo Mellado Cruz, commonly referred to by his alias El Mellado and/or Z-9, was a Mexican suspected drug lord and one of the founders of Los Zetas, a criminal organization originally formed by ex-commandos from the Mexican Armed Forces. He joined the Mexican Army in 1992 and was part of the Grupo Aeromóvil de Fuerzas Especiales (GAFE), an elite special forces unit of the Army. In 1999, he withdrew from the military and was recruited by the Gulf Cartel, a drug trafficking organization, shortly thereafter.

Raúl Alberto Trejo Benavides Mexican drug lord

Raúl Alberto Trejo Benavides was a Mexican suspected drug lord and high-ranking member of Los Zetas, a criminal group based in Tamaulipas, Mexico. Trejo Benavides served in the Mexican Army from 1991 to 1999, and was a member of the Grupo Aeromóvil de Fuerzas Especiales (GAFE), the army's special forces. He joined the Gulf Cartel under kingpin Osiel Cárdenas Guillén after leaving the army, becoming one of the first members of its newly-formed paramilitary wing, Los Zetas. Like Trejo Benavides, most of the first members of Los Zetas were ex-military. Los Zetas was responsible for providing security services to Cárdenas Guillén and carrying out executions on the cartel's behalf.


  1. Vulliamy, Ed (14 November 2009). "The Zetas: gangster kings of their own brutal narco-state". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 January 2012.
  2. "4 de los carteles mexicanos operan en Panamá: Autoridades". Insight Crime.
  3. Grillo, Ioan. "The Mexican Drug Cartels' Other Business: Sex Trafficking". Time.
  4. "Zetas". 4 April 2012.
  5. Booth, William (29 May 2011). "Drug cartels muscle in to piracy business" via The Washington Post.
  6. Allen, Nick (16 July 2013). "Mexico's 'most sadistic' drug kingpin's reign ends without a shot fired" via The Daily Telegraph.
  7. Tuckman, Jo (4 September 2010). "Tortured Mexican kidnap victim says: 'I would sit there wondering how people could be that bad'". The Guardian.
  8. "Pay de Limón, the Dog that Survived the Torture of the Los Zetas Cartel". Vallarta Daily News. 13 May 2020.
  9. "Zetas and MS-13 Join Forces in Guatemala". 7 April 2012.
  10. "Organized Crime Exploits China's Growing Links to Latin America".
  11. "Coked Up: How Hezbollah is fundraising with Mexican drug cartels - The Commentator". www.thecommentator.com. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  12. "The secret backstory of how Obama let Hezbollah off the hook". POLITICO. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  13. "Iran and Hezbollah's Presence Around the World". Lawfare. 8 January 2020. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  14. "ANALYSIS: Hezbollah's presence in Donald Trump's backyard". Al Arabiya English. 16 May 2018. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  15. "The Business Relationship Between Italy's Mafia and Mexico's Drug Cartels".
  16. "Iran working with Los Zetas Drug Cartel threatens US national security".
  17. Crime, InSight (27 March 2017). "Zetas".
  18. Pachico, Elyssa (27 March 2017). "Why Kidnapping, Extortion Boomed in Mexico".
  19. Robbins, Seth (27 March 2017). "Murder Spotlights Zetas Extortion at Mexico University".
  20. Ware, Michael (6 August 2009). "Los Zetas called Mexico's most dangerous drug cartel". CNN. Retrieved 7 August 2009.
  21. "Narco Terms". Borderland Beat. Retrieved 3 April 2009.
  22. 1 2 Stastna, Kazi (28 August 2011). "The cartels behind Mexico's drug war". CBS News . Retrieved 14 May 2012.
  23. "A Profile of Los Zetas: Mexico's Second Most Powerful Drug Cartel – Combating Terrorism Center at West Point". 16 February 2012.
  24. McCAUL, MICHAEL T. "A Line in the Sand: Confronting the Threat at the Southwest Border" (PDF). HOUSE COMMITTEE ON HOMELAND SECURITY. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 September 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
  25. "Dissecting a Mexican Cartel Bombing in Monterrey". Stratfor. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
  26. Grant, Will (11 September 2012). "Mexico's Zetas drug gang split raises bloodshed fears". BBC News. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
  27. "Weekend shootouts in northeastern Mexico kill at least 9". CNN News. Archived from the original on 15 March 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2011.
  28. "El origen de 'Los Zetas': brazo armado del cártel del Golfo". CNN México. 5 July 2011. Archived from the original on 28 January 2013.
  29. "Zetas Now Mexico's Biggest Cartel, Report Says". Fox News Channel. 26 January 2012. Archived from the original on 29 May 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
  30. "The Rise and Fall of Los Zetas" . Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  31. "Proceso: Fracción de Los Zetas, ahora Cártel del Noreste, advierte masacre por extradiciones". Proceso. Revista Proceso. 16 March 2016. Retrieved 21 August 2019.
  32. "Rep. Chip Roy Releases Bill Asking Sec. Pompeo to Designate Cartels Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs)". 12 March 2019.
  33. "Trump halts plan to treat cartels as terrorists". BBC News. 7 December 2019.
  34. Los Zetas: Evolution of a Criminal Organization – 11 March 2009
  35. 1 2 3 Bunker, Robert (July 2005). Networks, Terrorism and Global Insurgency. Routledge. p. xv. ISBN   978-0-415-34819-5.
  36. 1 2 3 Weak bilateral law enforcement presence at the U.S.Mexico border. Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security. November 2005.
  37. Texas Monthly On. . . : Texas True Crime. University of Texas Press. April 2007. p. 44. ISBN   978-0-292-71675-9.
  38. "Cártel de 'Los Zetas'". Mundo Narco. 15 January 2011. Archived from the original on 18 January 2011.
  39. De Amicis, Albert (March 2011). Los Zetas and La Familia Michoacana Drug Trafficking Organizations (DTOs) (Thesis). CiteSeerX . NCJ 256412.
  40. Grayson, George W. (2010). Mexico: narco-violence and a failed state?. Transaction Publishers. p. 339. ISBN   978-1-4128-1151-4.
  41. "¿Quienes son los Zetas?". Blog del Narco. 7 March 2010. Archived from the original on 29 July 2011.
  42. "Los Zetas and Mexico's Transnational Drug War". Borderland Beat . Retrieved 9 December 2011.
  43. Grayson, George W. (2012). The Executioner's Men: Los Zetas, Rogue Soldiers, Criminal Entrepreneurs, and the Shadow State They Created (1st ed.), page 46, Transaction Publishers. ISBN   9781412846172
  44. Schiller, Dane. "Narco gangster reveals the underworld". Houston Chronicle.
  45. "The Mexican Drug War and the Thirty Years' War". Bellum: The Stanford Review. Archived from the original on 5 March 2011. Retrieved 8 February 2011.
  46. "Army troops capture a Zetas cartel boss in northern Mexico". Fox News Latino. 15 February 2011.
  47. 1 2 Grayson, George. "Los Zetas: the Ruthless Army Spawned by a Mexican Drug Cartel". U.S. Foreign Policy Research Institute. Archived from the original on 12 August 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2008.
  48. Rodríguez Martínez, Marco A. (2006). "El Poder de Los Zetas". Monografías. Retrieved 23 August 2009.
  49. "Zeta recalls his life, warns against it". The Brownsville Herald. Retrieved 9 December 2011.
  50. "¿Qué es el Cartel de Sinaloa?". Perfil.com. 24 August 2008.
  51. Sánchez, Alex (4 June 2007). "Mexico's Drug War: Soldiers versus Narco-Soldiers". New American Media | La Prensa San Diego | News Analysis. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012.
  52. "Drug Trafficking Organizations". National Drug Intelligence Center. Retrieved 9 December 2011.
  53. Rodriguez, Olga R. (13 April 2010). "Cartels gang up against gunmen". San Antonio News.
  54. "FBI — Former U.S. Army Officer Hitman Sentenced in Murder-for-Hire Plot". FBI. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  55. Desarrollo de Medios (2 August 2013). "La Jornada: Cárteles mexicanos contratan soldados de EU como sicarios y capacitadores" . Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  56. Fischer, Edward F. (11 October 2010). "Guatemala and the Face of the New Sustainable Narco-State" (PDF). Department of Anthropology: Vanderbilt University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 October 2012.
  57. "The Evolution of 'Los Zetas,' a Mexican Crime Organization". mexidata.info. Archived from the original on 23 August 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2009.
  58. "Zetas". 4 April 2012.
  59. Sampaio, Antônio, Criminal ambushes in Jalisco – a hyper-violent wave of cartel brutality, International Institute for Strategic Studies, 16 April 2015. Retrieved 25 May 2020
  60. "Zetas". 4 April 2012.
  61. "Law and Order in Mexico". GrimesandWarwick. June 2010. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012.
  62. "Mexico's Cartels Declare War on the Zetas". Geopolitical Monitor. 19 April 2010. Archived from the original on 29 March 2012.
  63. "Gulf Cartel split with Zetas made public". Borderland Beat . 10 March 2010.
  64. 1 2 "Mexican cartels strategize to win hearts and minds". The Monitor. Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
  65. "Otro Cárdenas Guillén hereda la organización". Vanguardia. 8 November 2010.
  66. "Authorities: Gulf Cartel, Zetas gang up on each other as arrangement dies". The Monitor. 10 March 2010. Archived from the original on 12 September 2012.
  67. "War between Gulf Cartel, Zetas marks year anniversary". The Brownsville Herald: Valley Morning Star. 7 March 2011.
  68. Longmire, Sylvia. "TCO 101: The Gulf Cartel". Mexico's drug war. Archived from the original on 25 October 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2011.
  69. "Ejecución de "El Concorde" detonó guerra en Tamaulipas". El Universal. 7 March 2010.
  70. "The Gulf-Zeta Split and the Praetorian Revolt". ISN. 7 April 2010.
  71. "México: Los Zetas rompen con el Cartel del Golfo". BBC Mundo | Semana.com. 26 February 2010.
  72. Hernández, Jaime (4 March 2010). "EU: alarma guerra "Zetas"-El Golfo". El Universal.
  73. "El cártel de los Zetas tiende acuerdos de "no agresión y colaboración"". Infobae. 8 March 2011. Archived from the original on 30 May 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2011.
  74. "Gulf Cartel lieutenant's associates enter plea agreement". The Monitor. 13 December 2011. Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2011.
  75. Castillo, E. Eduardo (24 August 2012). "Even more brutal leader takes over Mexico's Zetas". El Paso Times . Archived from the original on 3 January 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  76. Pachico, Elyssa; Dudley, Steven (24 August 2012). "Why a Zetas Split is Inevitable". InSight Crime . Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
  77. Castillo, E. Eduardo; Stevenson, Mark (24 August 2012). "Even more brutal leader takes over Mexico's Zetas". Bloomberg Businessweek . p. 2. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
  78. Stevenson, Mark (24 August 2012). "Miguel Angel Trevino, Mexico Assassin, Rises In Zetas Cartel". HuffPost . Archived from the original on 25 August 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
  79. "Feared Mexican Zetas leader Z-40 now top target". The Monitor . 24 August 2012. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  80. "Los Zetas, una cronologia de sangre". Mundo | Noticias. 14 February 2011. Archived from the original on 22 September 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2011.
  81. "Zetas ejecutaron por la espalda a los 72 migrantes; no pudieron pagar rescate". La Jornada | UNAM. 26 August 2010.
  82. Flores, Xavier (7 June 2011). "Localizan 7 nuevas narcofosas en San Fernando, suman 193 víctimas". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 11 June 2011. Retrieved 6 September 2011.
  83. "Policía encuentra 27 cadáveres en Guatemala; vincula a Los Zetas". CNN Mexico. 15 May 2011.
  84. "Presentan a los Zetas que incendiaron el Casino Royale en Monterrey NL México". Multimedios TV. 30 August 2011.
  85. Klerigan, Efrain (4 January 2012). "Mexico Prison Fight: 31 Killed in Altamira". HuffPost . Archived from the original on 16 January 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
  86. "Dozens killed in Mexico prison fight". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 19 February 2012.
  87. "Del penal de Apodaca se fugaron 37 reos, no 29, corrigen las autoridades". Animal Politico (in Spanish). 16 March 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
  88. "Thieves blamed in Mexico pipeline blast that kills;28". The Seattle Times. 19 December 2010. Archived from the original on 22 June 2011.
  89. "Victims of Mexico's drug war: Tracing the missing". The Economist. 14 June 2014.
  90. "Mexico town fears nightclub shooting means drug war has come". 17 January 2017. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
  91. "At least 5 dead, 15 hurt in shooting at Mexico's BPM music festival". Reuters. 17 January 2017. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
  92. "Mexican cartel demanded payment from BPM festival ahead of nightclub killings: source". CBC News. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
  93. "El Universal – - Diez ms, prfugos: indagatorias". 23 June 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  94. "WebCite query result". Archived from the original on 11 October 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2014.Cite uses generic title (help)
  95. "Detienen a lugarteniente de Los Zetas" . Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  96. Milenio Digital. "Confirma Rubido muerte de 'El Z-9'". Milenio. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  97. Vega, Aurora. "Los Zetas son la organización delictiva que controla el mayor territorio". Excélsior (in Spanish). Retrieved 6 March 2012.
  98. "Los Zetas" dominan más territorios que "El Chapo". Milenio Noticias (in Spanish). 1 January 2012. Archived from the original on 7 January 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  99. "Nueva ofensiva contra Los Zetas; instalarán cuarteles en frontera norte. Excélsior". Excelsior.com.mx. 26 January 2012. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
  100. "Zetas cartel leader Heriberto Lazcano's corpse stolen by gunmen after dying in firefight | World". National Post. 9 October 2012. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
  101. 1 2 3 International Crisis Group. "Corridor of Violence: The Guatemala-Honduras Border". CrisisGroup.org. 4 June 2014. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
  102. CBS News. "Mexican army captures Zetas drug lord Miguel Angel Trevino Morales". CBS News. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  103. "Omar Treviño, el Z 42, se perfila como cabecilla Zeta". Univision (in Spanish). 16 July 2013. Archived from the original on 6 December 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  104. Wells, Miriam. "Zetas' Top Guatemala Operative Captured in Mexico". "InSightCrime.org". 15 October 2013. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
  105. "Mexican troops 'kill Zetas cartel founder Mellado'". BBC News. 12 May 2014. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  106. "Officials: Leader of Mexico's Zetas drug cartel captured". Fox News Channel. 4 March 2015. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
  107. "Declara 'El Rama', sucesor de Treviño Morales | Azteca Noticias". aztecanoticias.com.mx. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
  108. "Mexico: Zetas drugs cartel leader caught". BBC. 9 February 2018.
  109. 1 2 "Google Translate".
  110. 1 2 "Federal forces capture two cartel chieftains in Jalisco". 10 April 2019.
  111. "Los Zetas cartel operator arrested in Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz". 27 May 2019.
  112. "Google Translate".
  113. "Google Translate".
  114. 1 2 "Presumed Veracruz Zetas chief captured in Oaxaca". 31 January 2020. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  115. "Veracruz attorney general confirms cousin is Los Zetas chief". 22 January 2020. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  116. 1 2 3 Rodriguez, César; Times, LMTonline com / Laredo Morning (30 March 2020). "Cartel leader dies following Nuevo Laredo gun battle". Laredo Morning Times. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  117. "Feared gang leader dies with Covid-19 in prison". 11 May 2020. Retrieved 4 July 2020 via www.bbc.com.
  118. Nájar, Alberto (13 April 2011). "Tamaulipas, ¿en camino de convertirse en un estado fallido?". BBC Mundo. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  119. "Migrantes, 72 muertos de fosa en Tamaulipas". El Universal. 25 August 2010. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  120. Sánchez López, Daniel (9 April 2011). "Sin resolver origen de narcofosas en Tamaulipas". Sexenio. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  121. "Asesinan a Rodolfo Torre Cantú, candidato al gobierno de Tamaulipas". Milenio Noticias. 28 June 2011. Archived from the original on 13 October 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  122. Miglierini, Julian (13 April 2011). "Tamaulipas: 'Failed state' in Mexico's war on drugs". BBC News, Mexico City. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  123. Longmire, Sylvia. "Mexico's PRI Names Presidential Candidate". Mexico's Drug War. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  124. Andreas, Peter (April 1998). "The political economy of narco-corruption in Mexico". Current History. Oakland. 97 (618): 160–165. ProQuest   200744185.
  125. "Mexico's drug war: A pax narcotica?". The Economist. 7 January 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  126. Klepak, H. P. Mexico: Current and Future Political, Economic and Security Trends. Canadian Defence and Foreign Affairs Institute. OCLC   1059215056.
  127. "Hay pruebas sobre nexos de priistas con narco: PAN". El Universal. 21 October 2004. Archived from the original on 19 April 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  128. "Narcopolítica en Tamaulipas". El Universal. 29 June 2010. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  129. Salas, Alejandro (February 2010). "Blindaje contra narcopolíticos en Tamaulipas". Milenio. Archived from the original on 16 July 2012. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  130. Moreno, Martín (10 April 2011). "Tamaulipas: gobierno fallido". Excélsior. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  131. "Busca PGR contra 3 ex gobernadores de Tamaulipas". El Siglo de Torreon. 30 January 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2012.
  132. "PGR emitió alerta migratoria contra tres ex gobernadores de Tamaulipas". Univision. 30 January 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2012.
  133. "Mexican cartels paid $4.5 million in political bribes". Kuwait Times. Archived from the original on 29 May 2012. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
  134. Chapa, Sergio (10 February 2012). "Former Tamaulipas governor named in Texas money laundering case". KRGV News. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
  135. "Arrestan nuevamente a Óscar Pérez Inguanzo, ex alcalde de Tampico". Milenio. 12 November 2011. Archived from the original on 28 January 2013. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  136. "Ciudadana graba evidencias de balaceras en Tamaulipas". El Universal. 2 March 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
  137. "La violencia nos rebasó, acepta Eugenio Hernández". Milenio. 28 August 2010. Archived from the original on 31 August 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
  138. "Alcalde admite psicosis por violencia en Reynosa". El Universal. 25 February 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
  139. "Se fugan 40 reos de penal en Matamoros". El Universal. 25 March 2010. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  140. "Se fugan 40 reos de Penal de Matamoros". El Economista. 25 March 2010. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  141. "40 reos se fugan de penal de Matamoros". CNN Mexico. 25 March 2010. Archived from the original on 1 January 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  142. "Un comando libera a trece prisioneros de un penal de Reynosa". CNN Mexico. 5 April 2010. Archived from the original on 1 January 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  143. "85 reos escaparon del penal de Reynosa, precisa el gobierno". CNN México. 10 September 2010. Archived from the original on 1 January 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  144. "Al menos 71 reos se fugan de un penal de Reynosa, en Tamaulipas". CNN México. 10 September 2010. Archived from the original on 1 January 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  145. "Al menos 148 presos se escapan de una cárcel de Tamaulipas". CNNMéxico. 17 December 2010. Archived from the original on 1 January 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  146. "Tamaulipas cesa a directivos de penal por la fuga de los 141 reos". CNN México. 17 December 2010. Archived from the original on 1 January 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  147. "Al menos siete muertos y 59 reos fugados en una cárcel de Nuevo Laredo". CNN México. 15 July 2011. Archived from the original on 1 January 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  148. "Se fugan 59 reos en Nuevo Laredo". El Universal. 16 July 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  149. "Tras las fugas de reos en Tamaulipas, el gobierno federal se defiende". CNN Mexico. 7 April 2010. Archived from the original on 1 January 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  150. "Se fugan 59 reos en Nuevo Laredo tras enfrentamiento". Terra Noticias. 15 July 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  151. "Más de 400 reos se fugaron de cárceles de Tamaulipas en 14 meses". CNN México. 15 July 2011. Archived from the original on 1 January 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  152. Pone, Alyssa (20 September 2012). "Zetas Drug Cartel Arranged Prison Break, Say Officials". ABC News . Retrieved 30 December 2012.
  153. "Se fugan al menos 130 presos del Cereso de Piedras Negras". Milenio (in Spanish). 17 September 2012. Archived from the original on 29 January 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
  154. "Policías de Tamaulipas ganan 3 mil 618 pesos". Excelsior. 25 September 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  155. "Policías de Tamaulipas, los peores pagados de México; ganan menos de 4 mil pesos al mes". Animal Politico. 26 September 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  156. "Policías de Tamaulipas aun no son confiables: Lomelí". Hoy Tamaulipas. 7 November 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  157. "Acusan a estados de incumplir homologación salarial policiaca". El Universal. 26 September 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  158. "México enviará más Fuerzas Armadas a Nuevo León y Tamaulipas". CNN Mexico. 24 November 2011. Archived from the original on 2 January 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  159. "Sedena desarma a policías de Tamaulipas". TV Milenio. 9 May 2011.
  160. "El gobierno de México desplegará 2,790 militares en Tamaulipas". CNN Mexico. 24 June 2011. Archived from the original on 1 January 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  161. Castillo, Mariano (26 June 2011). "Tropas mexicanas reemplazan a los policías en la mitad de Tamaulipas". CNN Mexico. Archived from the original on 22 February 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  162. "Batallones son parte de la estrategia de seguridad". El Diario de Ciudad Victoria. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  163. "Expulsan a mil 650 policías de Tamaulipas por pérdida de confianza". Excelsior. 7 November 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  164. 1 2 Cook, Colleen W., ed. (16 October 2007). "Mexico's Drug Cartels" (PDF). CRS Report for Congress. Congressional Research Service. p. 10. Retrieved 9 August 2009.
  165. "2011 National Gang Threat Assessment – Emerging Trends". Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2011. Archived from the original on 2 September 2012. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
  166. David F. Marley, Mexican Cartels: An Encyclopedia of Mexico's Crime and Drug Wars, Penguin Press (2011) p. 280.
  167. "Zetas Now Mexico's Biggest Cartel, Report Says". Fox News Channel. 26 January 2012. Archived from the original on 28 January 2012. Retrieved 27 January 2012.
  168. Alejandro Gutierrez, "Narcotráfico: El gran desafío de Calderón." Mexico City: Lilaneta, 2007, Chapters 1 and 5.
  169. "Brutal Mexican drug gang crosses into U.S." The Washington Times. Retrieved 9 December 2011.
  170. "Los Zetas: the Ruthless Army Spawned by a Mexican Drug Cartel" (in Spanish). 1 May 2008. Archived from the original on 12 August 2012.
  171. "Guatemala levanta el estado de sitio motivado por 'Los Zetas' en 2010". CNN Mexico. Retrieved 9 December 2011.
  172. Anderson, Curt. "talia – 'Violencia' se escribe con ZETA: Los zetas toman el control por la forza. Nicola Gratteri, zar antimafia de Reggio Calabria" . Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  173. 1 2 "Pick your poison: Drug gangs now dominate where guerrillas once reigned". The Economist . 28 April 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
  174. "Gulf Cartel vs. Los Zetas... One year later". Borderland Beat . 26 February 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2012.
  175. Penhaul, Kent (21 June 2010). "La ley del silencio en Reynosa sólo la rompe... Twitter". CNN Mexico. Archived from the original on 29 January 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2012.
  176. "La guerra Golfo-zetas, en 11 municipios tamaulipecos; nueve son fronterizos con EU". La Jornada. 12 November 2010. Retrieved 28 January 2012.
  177. "Los Zetas y el cártel del Golfo se pelean por Monterrey". Univision. Retrieved 28 January 2012.
  178. "La batalla del cártel del Golfo y "Los Zetas" por la Huasteca". Proceso. 31 December 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2012.
  179. "Two Zetas executed in Brownsville, Texas". Borderland Beat . 25 October 2010. Retrieved 28 January 2012.
  180. "Enfrentamientos entre el cártel del Golfo y Los Zetas paralizaron Nuevo Laredo". La Jornada. 20 May 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2012.
  181. "The Missing in Tamaulipas". Borderland Beat . 26 April 2010. Retrieved 28 January 2012.
  182. "La guerra del cártel del Golfo y Los Zetas, mañana 24 de febrero se cumple un año". Mundo Narco. 23 February 2011. Archived from the original on 16 December 2013. Retrieved 28 January 2012.
  183. "All Tamaulipas, a War Zone". Borderland Beat . 22 April 2010. Retrieved 28 January 2012.
  184. Grayson, George W. (2012). Executinoer's Men: Los Zetas, Rogue Soldiers, Criminal Entrepreneurs and the Shadow State they Created. Piscataway: Transaction. p. 17.
  185. "DEA: acuerdan 3 cárteles alianza contra Los Zetas". Milenio. 5 March 2010. Archived from the original on 14 January 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2012.
  186. "Sicarios de los Beltrán Leyva y Zetas atacan a gente del Chapo en Sonora". Milenio. 2 July 2010. Archived from the original on 5 September 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2012.
  187. Grayson, George W. (2012). Executioner's Men: Los Zetas, Rogue Soldiers, Criminal Entrepreneurs and the Shadow State they Created. Piscataway: Transaction. pp. 1–24.
  188. ROEBUCK, JEREMY (9 March 2010). "Violence the result of fractured arrangement between Zetas and Gulf Cartel, authorities say". The Brownsville Herald. Retrieved 23 October 2010.
  189. "FBI — 2011 National Gang Threat Assessment". Fbi.gov. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
  190. 1 2 Womer, Sarah; Bunker, Robert J. (1 March 2010). "Sureños gangs and Mexican cartel use of social networking sites". Small Wars & Insurgencies. 21 (1): 81–94. doi:10.1080/09592310903561486. S2CID   143327189.
  191. Lynch; Sevastopulo; Schipani (14 February 2017). "US labels Venezuelan vice-president a drug kingpin". Financial Times. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  192. Herrero, Ana Vanessa; Casey, Nicholas (13 February 2017). "U.S. Imposes Sanctions on Venezuela's Vice President, Calling Him a Drug 'Kingpin'". The New York Times . Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  193. "El Ejército decomisa el mayor arsenal hallado en la historia de México" (in Spanish). Union Radio. 7 November 2008. Retrieved 8 November 2008.[ permanent dead link ]
  194. Lacey, Marc (7 November 2008). "In Drug War, Mexico Fights Cartel and Itself". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 March 2010.
  195. Carter, Sara A. (26 October 2008). "FBI warns of drug cartel arming". The Washington Times. Retrieved 3 November 2008.
  196. Roebuck, Jeremy; Ana Ley (7 November 2008). "Top Gulf Cartel leader arrested in Reynosa". The Monitor. Retrieved 8 November 2008.
  197. Explorando Mexico Editorial Team. "The Zetas". Explorando Mexico. Retrieved 23 August 2009.
  198. Juarez, Geraldine (31 October 2011). "Mexico: Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt over Anonymous' #OpCartel". GlobalVoices. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  199. Cohen, David. "Combating Transnational Organized Crime". United States Department of the Treasury . Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  200. "Narcotics Rewards Program – Target Information". State.gov. 22 January 2009. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
  201. Archived 14 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  202. 1 2 3 Kellner, Tomas; Pipitone, Francesco (2010). "Inside Mexico's Drug War". World Policy Journal. 27 (1): 29–37. doi:10.1162/wopj.2010.27.1.29. S2CID   155083605.
  203. Stewart, Scott. "Anonymous vs. Zetas Amid Mexico's Cartel Violence". Stratfor. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
  204. Beaubien, Jason. "Drug Violence Swamps A Once Peaceful Mexican City". NPR. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
  205. "After a Kidnapping, Hackers Take On a Ruthless Mexican Crime Syndicate". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 November 2011.