Lothair II

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Lothair II
Lothair II of Lotharingia.jpg
Seal of Lothair II
King of Lotharingia
Reign855–869
Predecessor Lothair I
Successor Charles the Bald
Born835
Died8 August 869 (0869-08-09)
Piacenza
Burial
Spouse Teutberga
Waldrada
Issue
more...
Hugh, Duke of Alsace
Bertha
Dynasty Carolingian Dynasty
Father Lothair I
Mother Ermengarde of Tours

Lothair II (835 – August 8, 869) was the king of Lotharingia from 855 until his death. He was the second son of Emperor Lothair I and Ermengarde of Tours. He was married to Teutberga (died 875), daughter of Boso the Elder.

Contents

Reign

Map of locations where King Lothar II issued royal charters Map of where King Lothar II issued charters.jpg
Map of locations where King Lothar II issued royal charters

For political reasons, his father made him marry Teutberga in 855. Upon his father's death in 855, he received the Middle Francia territory west of the Rhine stretching from the North Sea to the Jura mountains. It became known as Regnum Lotharii and early in the 10th century as Lotharingia or Lorraine (a designation subsequently applied only to the duchy of Lorraine). His elder brother Louis II received northern Italy and the title of Emperor, and his younger brother Charles received the western parts of his father's domains, Burgundy and the Provence.

On the death of his brother Charles in 863, Lothair added some lands south of the Jura to this realm, but except for a few feeble expeditions against the Norman pirates he seems to have done little for its government or its defense. Thirty-six of Lothar II's royal charters survive. [1]

Teutberga was not capable of bearing children and Lothair's reign was chiefly occupied by his efforts to obtain an annulment of their marriage, and his relations with his uncles Charles the Bald and Louis the German were influenced by his desire to obtain their support for this endeavour. Although quarrels and reconciliations between the three kings followed each other in quick succession, in general it may be said that Louis favoured annulment, and Charles opposed it, while neither lost sight of the fact that Lothair had no sons to inherit his lands. Lothair, whose desire for annulment was prompted by his affection for his mistress, Waldrada, put away Teutberga, but Hucbert took up arms on her behalf, and after she had submitted successfully to the ordeal of water, Lothair was compelled to restore her in 858. Still pursuing his purpose, he won the support of his brother, Emperor Louis II, by a cession of lands and obtained the consent of the local clergy, such as Adventius of Metz, to the annulment and to his marriage with Waldrada, which took place in 862.

A synod of Frankish bishops met at Metz in 863 and confirmed this decision, but Teutberga fled to the court of Charles the Bald, and Pope Nicholas I voided the decision of the synod. An attack on Rome by the emperor was without result, and in 865 Lothair, threatened with excommunication and convinced that Louis and Charles at their recent meeting had discussed the partition of his kingdom, again took back his wife. Teutberga, however, either from inclination or compulsion, now expressed her desire for an annulment, and Lothair went to Italy to obtain the assent of the new pope, Adrian II. Placing a favourable interpretation upon the words of the pope, he had set out on the return journey, when he was seized with fever and died at Piacenza on August 8, 869.

Succession

His son, Hugh, by Waldrada, was declared illegitimate, so his heir was his brother, Louis II of Italy. As Louis was at that time campaigning against the Emirate of Bari, his kingdom was divided by and between his uncles Charles the Bald and Louis the German by the Treaty of Meerssen.

Descendants

Lothair II had some sons and probably three daughters, all by Waldrada, and all of whom were declared illegitimate:

Related Research Articles

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Lothair I 9th-century Frankish emperor

Lothair I or Lothar I was emperor, and the governor of Bavaria (815–817), King of Italy (818–855) and Middle Francia (840–855).

Louis II of Italy Emperor of the Romans

Louis II, sometimes called the Younger, was the king of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 844, co-ruling with his father Lothair I until 855, after which he ruled alone.

Treaty of Meerssen

The Treaty of Mersen or Meerssen, concluded on 8 August 870, was a treaty of partition of the realm of Lothair II, known as Lotharingia, by his uncles Louis the German of East Francia and Charles the Bald of West Francia, the two surviving sons of Emperor Louis I the Pious. The treaty followed an earlier treaty of Prüm which had split Middle Francia between Lothair I's sons after his death in 855.

Teutberga was a queen of Lotharingia by marriage to Lothair II. She was a daughter of Bosonid Boso the Elder and sister of Hucbert, the lay-abbot of St. Maurice's Abbey.

Boso of Provence King of Provence

Boso was a Frankish nobleman of the Bosonid family who was related to the Carolingian dynasty and who rose to become King of Lower Burgundy and Provence.

Kingdom of Burgundy

Kingdom of Burgundy was a name given to various states located in Western Europe during the Middle Ages. The historical Burgundy correlates with the border area of France, Italy and Switzerland and includes the major modern cities of Geneva and Lyon.

Charles of Provence

Charles of Provence or Charles II was the Carolingian King of Provence from 855 until his early death in 863.

Upper Burgundy

The Kingdom of Upper Burgundy was a Frankish dominion established in 888 by the Welf king Rudolph I of Burgundy on the territory of former Middle Francia. It grew out of the Carolingian margraviate of Transjurane Burgundy southeast of ('beyond') the Jura Mountains together with the adjacent County of Burgundy (Franche-Comté) in the northwest. The adjective 'upper' refers to its location further up the Rhône river, as distinct from Lower Burgundy and also from the Duchy of Burgundy west of the Saône river. Upper Burgundy was reunited with the Kingdom of Lower Burgundy in 933, and eventually merged into the Imperial Kingdom of Arles (Arelat).

Middle Francia former country

Middle Francia was a short-lived Frankish kingdom which was created in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun after an intermittent civil war between the grandsons of Charlemagne resulted in division of the united empire. Middle Francia was allocated to emperor Lothair I, the eldest son and successor of emperor Louis the Pious. His realm contained the imperial cities of Aachen, the residence of Charlemagne, as well as Pavia but lacked any geographic or ethnic cohesion, which prevented it from surviving and forming a nucleus of a larger state, as was the case with West Francia and East Francia.

Adalbert II, called the Rich, son of Adalbert I, Margrave of Tuscany and Rothild of Spoleto. He was a grandson of Boniface II, and was concerned with the troubles of Lombardy, at a time when so many princes were contending for the wreckage of the Carolingian Empire. Before his father died in 884 or 886, he is accredited the title of "count". He inherited from his father the titles of Count and Duke of Lucca and Margrave of Tuscany.

Engelberga was the wife of Emperor Louis II and thus Carolingian empress to his death on 12 August 875. As empress, she exerted a powerful influence over her husband. She was probably the daughter of Adelchis I of Parma and a member of one of the most powerful families in the Kingdom of Italy at that time, the Supponids.

Hugh or Hugo was an illegitimate son of Lothair II, king of Lotharingia, by his concubine Waldrada. His father made him Duke of Alsace in 867.

Bertha was countess of Arles by marriage to Theobald of Arles, and margravine of Tuscany by marriage to Adalbert II of Tuscany. She served as regent of Lucca and Tuscany from 915 until 916 during the minority of her son Guy of Tuscany. She was described as beautiful, spirited, and courageous, and her influence over her spouse was, coupled with ambition, attributed to have involved her husbands in many wars.

The Bosonids were a dynasty of Carolingian era dukes, counts, bishops and knights descended from Boso the Elder. Eventually they married into the Carolingian dynasty and produced kings and an emperor of the Frankish Empire.

Ermengarde of Tours was the daughter of Hugh of Tours, a member of the Etichonen family. In October 821 in Thionville, she married the Carolingian Emperor Lothair I of the Franks (795–855).

Hucbert was a Frank and son of Boso the Elder. Therefore, he was a Bosonid. His sister was Teutberga, who married Lothair II, a prince of the Carolingian dynasty, the imperial family of Francia. Hucbert was lay-abbot of the Abbey of Saint Maurice-in-Valais.

Treaty of Prüm

The Treaty of Prüm, concluded on 19 September 855, was the second of the partition treaties of the Carolingian Empire. As Emperor Lothair I was approaching death, he divided his realm of Middle Francia among his three sons.

Waldrada was the mistress, and later the wife, of Lothair II of Lotharingia.

Ermengarde of Tuscany was a medieval Italian noblewoman. She was the daughter of Bertha of Lotharingia and Adalbert II, Margrave of Tuscany. She was countess of Ivrea through marriage to Adalbert I of Ivrea. Alongside her half-brother Hugh of Italy Ermengarde was an important opponent of Rudolf II of Burgundy’s rule in Italy.

References

  1. Die Urkunden Lothars I. und Lothars II., ed. Theodor Schieffer (Berlin, 1966); see http://turbulentpriests.group.shef.ac.uk/our-dearest-wife-and-son-king-lothar-iis-charters/
  2. Wickham, Chris (1990). Early Medieval Italy: Central Power and Local Society 400-1000. University of Michigan Press. pp. 59–60. ISBN   0-472-08099-7.
  3. Townsend, Geo (1847) Ecclesiastical and Civil History Philosophically Considered, Vol. II, p. 157

Bibliography

Lothair II
Born: 835 Died: 8 August 869
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Lothar I
as king of Middle Francia
King of Lotharingia
23 September 855 – 8 August 869
Kingdom divided
between Louis the German
and Charles the Bald