Louis-Alexandre Berthier

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For the American privateer named after him, see Prince de Neufchatel.
Louis-Alexandre Berthier
Louis-Alexandre Berthier.png
Portrait of Berthier, painted in 1808
Born(1753-11-20)20 November 1753
Versailles, France
Died1 June 1815(1815-06-01) (aged 61)
Bamberg, Bavaria
Allegiance Royal Standard of the King of France.svg Kingdom of France,
Flag of France 1790-1794.PNG Kingdom of France (1791-1792),
Flag of France.svg French First Republic,
Flag of France.svg First French Empire,
Pavillon royal de France.svg Bourbon Restoration
Years of service1764–1815
Rank General of Division
Battles/wars American Revolutionary War,
French Revolutionary Wars,
Napoleonic Wars
Awards Marshal of the Empire,
Légion d'honneur (Grand Cross),
Order of Saint Louis (Commander),
Prince of Neuchâtel and Wagram,
Vice-Constable of the Empire,
Named on the Arc de Triomphe
Relations Jean Baptiste Berthier (father),
César Berthier (brother),
Victor Léopold Berthier (brother),
Joseph-Alexandre Berthier (brother),
Napoléon Alexandre Berthier (son)

Louis-Alexandre Berthier (20 November 1753 – 1 June 1815), 1st Prince of Wagram, Sovereign Prince of Neuchâtel, was a French Marshal and Vice-Constable of the Empire, and Chief of Staff under Napoleon.

Princes of Wagram Wikimedia list article

Prince of Wagram was a title of French nobility that was granted to Marshal Louis-Alexandre Berthier in 1809. It was created as a victory title by Emperor Napoleon I after the Battle of Wagram. Berthier had previously been granted the title of Sovereign Prince of Neuchâtel in 1806.

Canton of Neuchâtel Canton of Switzerland

The Republic and Canton of Neuchâtel is a French-speaking canton in western Switzerland. In 2007, its population was 169,782, of whom 39,654 were foreigners. The capital is Neuchâtel.

Marshal of the Empire military rank

Marshal of the Empire was a civil dignity during the First French Empire. It was created by Sénatus-consulte on 18 May 1804 and to a large extent resurrected the formerly abolished title of Marshal of France. According to the Sénatus-consulte, a Marshal was a grand officer of the Empire, entitled to a high-standing position at the Court and to the presidency of an electoral college.

Contents

Early life

He was born on 20 November 1753 at Versailles [1] to Lieutenant-Colonel Jean-Baptiste Berthier (1721 – 1804), an officer in the Corps of Topographical Engineers, and his first wife (married in 1746) Marie Françoise L'Huillier de La Serre. He was the eldest of five children, with the three brothers also serving in the French Army, two becoming generals during the Napoleonic Wars. [2]

Jean-Baptiste Berthier French officer in French Corps of Topographical Engineers

Jean-Baptiste Berthier (1721–1804) was an officer (Lieutenant-Colonel) in the French Corps of Topographical Engineers during the reigns of Louis XV and Louis XVI.

Napoleonic Wars Series of early 19th century European wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict. The wars are often categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon: the Third Coalition (1805), the Fourth (1806–07), the Fifth (1809), the Sixth (1813), and the Seventh (1815).

Military career

Marechal de camp Louis-Alexandre Berthier in 1792 by Francois-Gabriel Lepaulle Louis-Alexandre Berthier, marechal de camp, chef d'etat-major en 1792 (1753-1815).jpg
Maréchal de camp Louis-Alexandre Berthier in 1792 by François-Gabriel Lépaulle

As a boy, he was instructed in the military art by his father, an officer of the Corps de genie (Engineer Corps). At the age of seventeen, he entered the army, serving successively in the staff, the engineers and the Prince of Lambesq's dragoons. In 1780, he went to North America with Rochambeau, and on his return, having attained the rank of colonel, he was employed in various staff posts and in a military mission to Prussia. During the Revolution, as Chief of Staff of the Versailles National Guard, he protected the aunts of Louis XVI from popular violence, and aided their escape (1791). [1]

French Revolution social and political revolution in France and its colonies occurring from 1789 to 1798

The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.

Louis XVI of France King of France and Navarre

Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution. He was referred to as Citizen Louis Capet during the four months before he was guillotined. In 1765, at the death of his father, Louis, son and heir apparent of Louis XV, Louis-Auguste became the new Dauphin of France. Upon his grandfather's death on 10 May 1774, he assumed the title "King of France and Navarre", which he used until 4 September 1791, when he received the title of "King of the French" until the monarchy was abolished on 21 September 1792.

In the war of 1792, he was at once made Chief of Staff to Marshal Lückner, and he bore a distinguished part in the Argonne campaign of Dumouriez and Kellermann. He served with great credit in the Vendéan War of 1793–1795, and was in the next year made a general of division and chief of staff (major-général) to the army of Italy, which Bonaparte had recently been appointed to command. He played an important role in the Battle of Rivoli, relieving Barthélemy Joubert when the latter was attacked by the Austrian general Jozsef Alvinczi. His power of work, accuracy and quick comprehension, combined with his long and varied experience and his complete mastery of detail, made him the ideal chief of staff to a great soldier. In this capacity, he was Napoleon's most valued assistant for the rest of his career. [1]

Charles François Dumouriez French general

Charles-François du Périer Dumouriez was a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars. He shared the victory at Valmy with General François Christophe Kellermann, but later deserted the Revolutionary Army, and became a royalist intriguer during the reign of Napoleon as well as an adviser to the British government. Dumouriez is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe, on Column 3.

War in the Vendée part of the War of the First Coalition

The War in the Vendée was an uprising in the Vendée region of France during the French Revolution. The Vendée is a coastal region, located immediately south of the Loire River in western France. Initially, the war was similar to the 14th-century Jacquerie peasant uprising, but quickly acquired themes considered by the Jacobin government in Paris to be counter-revolutionary, and Royalist. The uprising headed by the newly formed Catholic and Royal Army was comparable to the Chouannerie, which took place in the area north of the Loire.

Army of Italy (France) field army of the French Revolutionary Army

The Army of Italy was a field army of the French Army stationed on the Italian border and used for operations in Italy itself. Though it existed in some form in the 16th century through to the present, it is best known for its role during the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars.

He accompanied Napoleon throughout the brilliant campaign of 1796, and was left in charge of the army after the Treaty of Campo Formio. He was in this post in 1798 when he entered Italy, invaded the Vatican, organized the Roman Republic, and took the pope Pius VI as prisoner back to Valence (France) where, after a torturous journey under Berthier's supervision, the pope died, dealing a major blow to the Vatican's political power which, however, did not prove as ephemeral as that of the First Empire.

Treaty of Campo Formio 1797 treaty between Napoleonic France and Habsburg Austria

The Treaty of Campo Formio was signed on 18 October 1797 by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Philipp von Cobenzl as representatives of the French Republic and the Austrian monarchy, respectively. The treaty followed the armistice of Leoben, which had been forced on the Habsburgs by Napoleon's victorious campaign in Italy. It ended the War of the First Coalition and left Great Britain fighting alone against revolutionary France.

Roman Republic (18th century) republic at the Apennine Peninsula between 1798-1799

The Roman Republic was proclaimed on 15 February 1798 after Louis Alexandre Berthier, a general of Napoleon, had invaded the city of Rome on 10 February. The Roman Republic was a client republic under the French Directory composed of territory conquered from the Papal States. Pope Pius VI was exiled to France and died there in 1799. It immediately took control of the other two former-papal revolutionary administrations, the Tiberina Republic and the Anconine Republic. The Roman Republic was short-lived, as the Papal States were restored in October 1799.

Pope Pius VI pope and sovereign of the Papal States

Pope Pius VI, born Count Giovanni Angelo Braschi, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 15 February 1775 to his death in 1799.

After this, he joined his chief in Egypt, serving there until Napoleon's return. He assisted in the coup d'état of 18 Brumaire (9 November 1799), afterwards becoming Minister of War for a time. In the campaign of Marengo, he was the nominal head of the Army of Reserve, but the first consul accompanied the army and Berthier acted in reality, as always, as Chief of Staff to Napoleon. [1]

Coup détat Sudden deposition of a government; illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus

A coup d'état, also known as a putsch, a golpe, or simply as a coup, means the overthrow of an existing government; typically, this refers to an illegal, unconstitutional seizure of power by a dictator, the military, or a political faction.

Battle of Marengo battle

The Battle of Marengo was fought on 14 June 1800 between French forces under Napoleon Bonaparte and Austrian forces near the city of Alessandria, in Piedmont, Italy. Near the end of the day, the French overcame Gen. Michael von Melas's surprise attack, driving the Austrians out of Italy and consolidating Napoleon's political position in Paris as First Consul of France in the wake of his coup d’état the previous November.

Lest one think this was a relatively safe job,a contemporary subordinate staff officer, Brossier, reports that at the Battle of Marengo:

The General-in-Chief Berthier gave his orders with the precision of a consummate warrior, and at Marengo maintained the reputation that he so rightly acquired in Italy and in Egypt under the orders of Bonaparte. He himself was hit by a bullet in the arm. Two of his aides-de-camp, Dutaillis and La Borde, had their horses killed. [3]

At the close of the campaign, he was employed in civil and diplomatic business. [1] This included a mission to Spain in August 1800, which resulted in the retrocession of Louisiana to France by the Treaty of San Ildefonso, 1 October 1800, and led to the Louisiana Purchase.[ citation needed ]

When Napoleon deposed King Frederick William III of Prussia from the principality of Neuchâtel, Berthier was appointed its ruler. This lasted until 1814 and also brought him the title of sovereign prince in 1806.

Marshal Louis-Alexandre Berthier by Andrea Appiani. Berthier was Napoleon's Chief of Staff from the start of his first Italian campaign in 1796 until his first abdication in 1814. The operational efficiency of the Grande Armee owed much to his considerable administrative and organizational skills. Marechal Louis-Alexandre Berthier.jpg
Marshal Louis-Alexandre Berthier by Andrea Appiani. Berthier was Napoleon's Chief of Staff from the start of his first Italian campaign in 1796 until his first abdication in 1814. The operational efficiency of the Grande Armée owed much to his considerable administrative and organizational skills.

When Napoleon became emperor, Berthier was at once made a Marshal of the Empire. He took part in the campaigns of Austerlitz, Jena and Friedland. He was created Duke (or Prince) of Valangin in 1806, Sovereign Prince of Neuchâtel in the same year, and Vice-Constable of the Empire in 1807.

In 1808, he served in the Peninsular War, and in 1809, he served in the Austrian theatre during the War of the Fifth Coalition, after which he was given the title of Prince of Wagram. He was with Napoleon in Russia in 1812, Germany in 1813, and France in 1814, fulfilling, until the fall of the French Empire, the functions of major-général of the Grande Armée. [1]

Following Napoleon's first abdication, Berthier retired to his 600-acre (2.4 km²) estate, and resumed his hobbies of falconry and sculpture.[ citation needed ] He made peace with Louis XVIII in 1814, and accompanied the king on his solemn entry into Paris. During Napoleon's short exile on Elba, he informed Berthier of his projects. Berthier was much perplexed as to his future course and, being unwilling to commit to Napoleon, fell under the suspicion both of his old leader and of Louis XVIII.

On Napoleon's return to France, Berthier withdrew to Bamberg, where he died a few weeks later on 1 June 1815 in a fall from an upstairs window. The manner of his death is uncertain. According to some accounts, he was assassinated by members of a secret society, while others say that, maddened by the sight of Russian troops marching to invade France, he threw himself from his window and was killed. [1]

The loss of Berthier's skills at Waterloo was keenly felt by Napoleon, as he later stated succinctly:

If Berthier had been there, I would not have met this misfortune. [4]

Character assessment

Marshal Louis-Alexandre Berthier by Joseph Boze Marechal Berthier.jpg
Marshal Louis-Alexandre Berthier by Joseph Boze

Berthier was an immensely skilled chief of staff, but he was not a great field commander. When he was in temporary command in 1809, the French army in Bavaria underwent a series of reverses. His merit as a general was completely overshadowed by the genius of his emperor, he is nevertheless renowned for his excellent organising skills and being able to understand and carry out the emperor's directions to the minutest detail. [1] General Paul Thiébault said of him in 1796:

No one could have better suited General Bonaparte, who wanted a man capable of relieving him of all detailed work, to understand him instantly and to foresee what he would need. [5]

Marriage and family

Duchess Maria Elisabeth in Bavaria by Joseph Boze Portrait of Duchess Maria Elisabeth in Bavaria.jpg
Duchess Maria Elisabeth in Bavaria by Joseph Boze

In 1796, he fell in love with the Marquise Visconti, who was to be his mistress for the duration of the Empire, despite the Emperor's disapproval. And even when Napoleon forced him to marry a Bavarian princess, the Duchess Maria Elisabeth, in 1808, Berthier made it so that his mistress and wife could get on and live under the same roof, to the Emperor's fury. [6]

On 9 March 1808, Berthier married Duchess Maria Elisabeth in Bavaria (Landshut, 5 May 1784 – Paris, 1 June 1849), only daughter of Duke Wilhelm in Bavaria and Countess Palatine Maria Anna of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld-Rappolstein, [7] the sister of King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria and relative of the Russian Tsar through the Wittelsbach line on the Bavarian side and Prussian (Mecklenburg) side of her lineage.

They had one son and two daughters : [8] [9]

In literature

Berthier is mentioned and/or appears in several of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's Brigadier Gerard stories, including How the Brigadier Was Tempted by the Devil (1895) and in Leo Tolstoy's War and Peace.

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Chisholm 1911, p. 812.
  2. Watson 1957 , p. 13.
  3. Watson 1957, p. 92
  4. http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/biographies/marshals/c_berthier1.html
  5. http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/biographies/marshals/c_berthier1.html
  6. "FRANCK FAVIER: "BERTHIER THE MARSHAL EXISTED WELL BEFORE AND WITHOUT NAPOLEON".
  7. "PORTRAIT DE MARIE-ELISABETH, PRINCESS DE WAGRAM, NÉE DUCHESS EN BAVIÈRE (1785-1849)". Sothebys.
  8. Huberty, Michel; Giraud, Alain; Magdelaine, F. and B. (1985). L'Allemagne Dynastique, Tome IV Wittelsbach. France: Laballery. pp. 277, 348, 381–382. ISBN   2-901138-04-7.
  9. Huberty, Michel; Giraud, Alain; Magdelaine, F. and B. (1989). L'Allemagne Dynastique, Tome V. France: Laballery. pp. 532–533. ISBN   2-901138-05-5.

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References

Attribution

Wikisource-logo.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Berthier, Louis Alexandre"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 812.

Further reading

Political offices
Preceded by
Edmond Louis Alexis Dubois-Crancé
Minister of War
11 November 1799 – 2 April 1800
Succeeded by
Lazare Carnot
Preceded by
Lazare Carnot
Minister of War
8 October 1800 – 19 August 1807
Succeeded by
Henri Clarke, duc de Feltre
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Frederick William III
Prince of Neuchâtel
1806–1814
Succeeded by
Frederick William III