Louis-Léopold Boilly (French: [bwɑji] ; 5 July 1761 – 4 January 1845) was a French painter and draftsman. A gifted creator of popular portrait paintings, he also produced a vast number of genre paintings vividly documenting French middle-class social life. His life and work spanned the eras of monarchical France, the French Revolution, the Napoleonic Empire, the Bourbon Restoration and the July Monarchy.
Boilly was born in La Bassée in northern France,the son of a local wood sculptor. A self-taught painter, Boilly began his career at a very young age, producing his first works at the age of twelve or thirteen. In 1774 he began to show his work to the Austin friars of Douai who were evidently impressed: within three years, the bishop of Arras invited the young man to work and study in his bishopric. While there, he produced a cascade of paintings – some three hundred small works of portraiture. He received instruction in trompe l'oeil painting from Dominique Doncre (1743–1820) before moving to Paris around 1787.
At the height of the revolutionary Terror in 1794, Boilly was condemned by the Committee of Public Safety for the erotic undertones of his work.This offence was remedied by Boilly's eleventh-hour production of the more patriotic Triumph of Marat (now in the Musée des Beaux Arts, Lille) which saved him from serious penalties.
Boilly was a popular and celebrated painter of his time. He was among the first artists to produce lithographs, and became wealthy from the sale of his prints and paintings. He was awarded a medal by the Parisian Salon in 1804 for his work The Arrival of a Mail-coach in the Courtyard of the Messageries. In 1833 he was decorated as a chevalier of the nation's highest order, the Légion d'honneur.
Boilly died in Paris on 4 January 1845.His youngest son, Alphonse Boilly (1801–1867), was a professional engraver who apprenticed in New York with Asher Brown Durand.
Boilly's early works showed a preference for amorous and moralising subjects. The Suitor's Gift is comparable to much of his work in the 1790s. His small-scale paintings with carefully mannered colouring and precise detailing recalled the work of seventeenth-century Dutch genre painters such as Gabriël Metsu (1629–1667), Willem van Mieris and Gerard ter Borch (1617–1681), of whose work Boilly owned an important collection.
After 1794, Boilly began to produce far more crowded compositions that serve as social chronicles of the urban middle class.In these works, his observation of contemporary customs is slightly sentimental and often humorous.
Boilly was also well respected for his portraiture. By the end of his lifetime he had painted about 5,000 portraits, most of which were painted on canvases measuring 22 cm x 17 cm (8 5/8 in. x 6 5/8 in.).He worked quickly, and boasted of requiring only two hours to complete a portrait. He painted both middle class sitters and prominent contemporaries such as Robespierre. Boilly's portraits strongly characterize the sitters as individuals, and are usually painted in a sober range of colors.
Boilly used his great skill in depicting textures to produce numerous illusionistic works, including paintings in grisaille that mimic prints.In the Salon of 1800 he exhibited a painting that depicted layers of overlapping prints, drawings, and papers, covered by a sheet of broken glass in a wooden frame. His title for the work, "Un trompe l'oeil ("a trick played on the eye"), marked the first use of that term to describe an illusionistic painting. Although art critics derided the painting as a stunt, it caused a popular sensation, and trompe l'oeil entered the language as a name for an entire genre.
His interest in caricature is most apparent in his suite of 98 lithographs titled Recueil de grimaces, published between 1823 and 1828.
Boilly remains a highly regarded master of oil painting. A major exhibition of his work, The Art of Louis-Léopold Boilly: Modern Life in Napoleonic France, travelled to the United States where it was shown at both the Kimbell Art Museum in Fort Worth and the National Gallery of Art in Washington (1995).The Musée des Beaux Arts in Lille held a large-scale exhibition of Boilly's work during the winter season of 2011–2012.
Henri Fantin-Latour was a French painter and lithographer best known for his flower paintings and group portraits of Parisian artists and writers.
John Frederick Peto was an American trompe l'oeil painter who was long forgotten until his paintings were rediscovered along with those of fellow trompe l'oeil artist William Harnett.
Charles Le Brun was a French painter, physiognomist, art theorist, and a director of several art schools of his time. As court painter to Louis XIV, who declared him "the greatest French artist of all time", he was a dominant figure in 17th-century French art and much influenced by Nicolas Poussin.
Trompe-l'œil is an art technique that uses realistic imagery to create the optical illusion that the depicted objects exist in three dimensions. Forced perspective is a comparable illusion in architecture.
Photorealism is a genre of art that encompasses painting, drawing and other graphic media, in which an artist studies a photograph and then attempts to reproduce the image as realistically as possible in another medium. Although the term can be used broadly to describe artworks in many different media, it is also used to refer specifically to a group of paintings and painters of the American art movement that began in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
William Michael Harnett was an Irish-American painter known for his trompe-l'œil still lifes of ordinary objects.
John Haberle (1856–1933) was a 19th-century American painter in the trompe l'oeil style. His still lifes of ordinary objects are painted in such a way that the painting can be mistaken for the objects themselves. He is considered one of the three major figures—together with William Harnett and John F. Peto—practicing this form of still life painting in the United States in the last quarter of the 19th century.
Bernard Buffet was a French painter of Expressionism and a member of the anti-abstract art group L'homme Témoin.
Andrea Pozzo was an Italian Jesuit brother, Baroque painter and architect, decorator, stage designer, and art theoretician.
Maurice Boitel was a French painter.
Master of the Embroidered Foliage was a Netherlandish painter or a group of painters who worked out of Bruges and Brussels.
Cornelis Norbertus Gijsbrechts or Gysbrechts was a Flemish painter working in Belgium, Germany, Denmark and Sweden in the second half of the seventeenth century. He specialised in trompe-l'œil, an artistic genre aiming to trick contemporary viewers into believing that the painted, two-dimensional illusions were real three-dimensional objects.
Charles Joshua Chaplin was a French painter and printmaker who painted both landscapes and portraits. He was an accomplished artist mastering different techniques such as pastels, lithography, watercolor, chalk, oil painting and etching. He was best known for his elegant portraits of young women.
Bernardo Germán de Llórente was a Spanish painter of the late-Baroque period. He was active in Seville where he was one of the followers of Murillo and made a name with his devotional paintings of the Virgin Mary. He also painted portraits and still lifes with trompe-l'œil effects.
Jean-Baptiste Wicar was a French Neoclassical painter and art collector.
Kenneth Davies is an American painter based in Madison, Connecticut, known for his trompe-l'œil work.
U.S.A. is a trompe l'oeil oil painting by American artist John Haberle from 1889, located in the Indianapolis Museum of Art, which is in Indianapolis, Indiana. It depicts currency and stamps so realistically that Haberle was accused of pasting real money to the canvas.
Jan van der Vaart or Jan van der Vaardt was a Dutch painter and draughtsman of portraits, landscapes and trompe-l'œil paintings and a mezzotint artist who was active in England for most of his career. He was also an art restorer and art collector.
Artists in Isabey's Studio is a painting of 1798 by the French artist Louis Léopold Boilly, showing a large number of artists who were influential under the French Directory. It was displayed with 529 other works at the 1798 Paris Salon, which was mainly noted for Gérard's Psyche and Cupid. It is now in the Louvre, whose collections it entered in 1911.
François Xavier Joseph Jacquin or François Xavier Joseph Jaquin was a Flemish painter known for his portraits, still lifes and landscapes. He was in demand as a portrait painter of religious dignitaries, the nobility and the bourgeoisie. As a still life painter he created game pieces and trompe l'oeil still lifes of game birds.
Il a été élève du peintre de trompe-lœil Dominique Doncre.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Louis-Léopold Boilly .|