Louis Antoine, Duke of Angoulême

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Louis Antoine
Duke of Angoulême
Louis-Antoine, Duke of Angouleme - Lawrence 1825.jpg
Portrait by Thomas Lawrence, 1825
King of France (disputed)
as Louis XIX
Reign2 August 1830 (approx. 20 min.)
(Non proclaimed)
Predecessor Charles X
Successor Henry V (non proclaimed)
Louis Philippe I
as King of the French
Legitimist pretender to the French throne
Pretendence6 November 1836 – 3 June 1844
Predecessor Charles X
Successor Henry V
Born(1775-08-06)6 August 1775
Palace of Versailles, France
Died3 June 1844(1844-06-03) (aged 68)
Gorizia, Austrian Empire
Burial
Spouse
Marie Thérèse of France (m. 17991844)
House Bourbon
Father Charles X of France
Mother Marie Thérèse of Savoie
Religion Roman Catholicism
Signature Signature of Louis Antoine d'Artois.svg

Louis Antoine of France, Duke of Angoulême (6 August 1775 – 3 June 1844) was the elder son of Charles X of France and the last Dauphin of France from 1824 to 1830. He was technically King of France and Navarre for less than 20 minutes [1] before he himself abdicated, due to his father's abdication during the July Revolution in 1830. He never reigned over the country, but after his father's death in 1836, he was the legitimist pretender as Louis XIX.

Charles X of France King of France and of Navarre

Charles X was King of France from 16 September 1824 until 2 August 1830. For most of his life he was known as the Count of Artois. An uncle of the uncrowned Louis XVII and younger brother to reigning kings Louis XVI and Louis XVIII, he supported the latter in exile. After the Bourbon Restoration in 1814, Charles became the leader of the ultra-royalists, a radical monarchist faction within the French court that affirmed rule by divine right and opposed the concessions towards liberals and guarantees of civil liberties granted by the Charter of 1814. Charles gained influence within the French court after the assassination of his son Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry, in 1820 and eventually succeeded his brother in 1824.

Dauphin of France Title given to the heir apparent to the throne of France

Dauphin of France, originally Dauphin of Viennois, was the title given to the heir apparent to the throne of France from 1350 to 1791 and 1824 to 1830. The word dauphin is French for dolphin. At first the heirs were granted the County of Viennois (Dauphiné) to rule, but eventually only the title was granted.

July Revolution July 1830 revolution in France

The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, Second French Revolution or Trois Glorieuses in French, led to the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch, and the ascent of his cousin Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, who himself, after 18 precarious years on the throne, would be overthrown in 1848. It marked the shift from one constitutional monarchy, under the restored House of Bourbon, to another, the July Monarchy; the transition of power from the House of Bourbon to its cadet branch, the House of Orléans; and the replacement of the principle of hereditary right by popular sovereignty. Supporters of the Bourbon would be called Legitimists, and supporters of Louis Philippe Orléanists.

Contents

He was a petit-fils de France at birth, and was initially known as Louis Antoine d'Artois. After his father's accession to the throne, he became fils de France , and his surname changed to de France, following the royal custom for princes with such rank. [2]

<i>Fils de France</i>

Fils de France was the style and rank held by the sons of the kings and dauphins of France. A daughter was known as a fille de France.

Biography

The young duke with his siblings and mother, the Countess of Artois (by Charles Leclercq, c. 1780-1782) Famille de la comtesse d'Artois.jpg
The young duke with his siblings and mother, the Countess of Artois (by Charles Leclercq, c. 1780–1782)

Early life

Louis Antoine was born at Versailles, as the eldest son of Charles Philippe, Count of Artois, the youngest brother of King Louis XVI of France. He was born one year after the death of his great-grandfather, Louis XV of France. His mother was Princess Maria Theresa of Savoy (known as Marie Thérèse in France), the daughter of Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia and Maria Antonia of Spain.

Louis XVI of France King of France and Navarre

Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution. He was referred to as citizen Louis Capet during the four months before he was guillotined. In 1765, at the death of his father, Louis, son and heir apparent of Louis XV, Louis-Auguste became the new Dauphin of France. Upon his grandfather's death on 10 May 1774, he assumed the title "King of France and Navarre", which he used until 4 September 1791, when he received the title of "King of the French" until the monarchy was abolished on 21 September 1792.

Louis XV of France Bourbon monarch who ruled as King of France and of Navarre 1715–1774

Louis XV, known as Louis the Beloved, was King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774. He succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV at the age of five. Until he reached maturity on 15 February 1723, the kingdom was ruled by Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, as Regent of France. Cardinal Fleury was his chief minister from 1726 until the Cardinal's death in 1743, at which time the king took sole control of the kingdom.

Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia King of Sardinia

Victor Amadeus III was King of Sardinia from 1773 to his death. Although he was politically conservative, he carried out numerous administrative reforms until he declared war on Revolutionary France in 1792. He was the father of the last three mainline Kings of Sardinia.

From 1780 until 1789, Louis Antoine and his younger brother, Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry, were educated by Armand-Louis de Sérent marquis de Sérent, their gouverneur, in the château de Beauregard, a few miles from Versailles. [3] On the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789 the two young princes followed their father into exile to first Turin, then to Germany and finally England.

Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry French politician

Charles Ferdinand d'Artois, Duke of Berry was the third child and younger son of the future King of France, Charles X, and his wife, Maria Theresa of Savoy. He was assassinated at the Paris Opera in 1820 by Louis Pierre Louvel, an anti-royal Bonapartist. In June 1832, two years after the overthrow of his father, Charles X, his widow, Marie-Caroline de Bourbon-Sicile, led a royalist insurrection in the Vendée in a failed attempt to restore their son, the Comte de Chambord, to the French throne.

Château de Beauregard, La Celle-Saint-Cloud

Château de Beauregard is a former house in La Celle-Saint-Cloud south-west suburbs of Paris, France, 5 km (3.1 mi) north of Versailles.

Palace of Versailles French palace on the outskirts of Paris

The Palace of Versailles was the principal royal residence of France from 1682, under Louis XIV, until the start of the French Revolution in 1789, under Louis XVI. It is located in the department of Yvelines, in the region of Île-de-France, about 20 kilometres southwest of the centre of Paris.

In 1792, Louis Antoine joined the émigré army of his cousin, the Prince of Condé.

An émigré is a person who has emigrated, often with a connotation of political or social self-exile. The word is the past participle of the French émigrer, "to emigrate".

In June 1795, his uncle, the comte de Provence, proclaimed himself King Louis XVIII. Later that year, the 20-year-old Louis Antoine led an unsuccessful royalist uprising in the Vendée. In early 1797, he joined his brother and uncle in the German Duchy of Brunswick, hoping to join the Austrian Army. The defeat of Austria by France obliged them to flee, and they took refuge in Mittau, Courland, under the protection of Tsar Paul I of Russia.

Louis XVIII of France Bourbon King of France and of Navarre

Louis XVIII, known as "the Desired", was King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days. He spent twenty-three years in exile, from 1791 to 1814, during the French Revolution and the First French Empire, and again in 1815, during the period of the Hundred Days, upon the return of Napoleon I from Elba.

Jelgava City in Latvia

Jelgava is a city in central Latvia about 41 kilometres southwest of Riga with 55,972 inhabitants (2019). It is the largest town in the region of Zemgale (Semigalia). Jelgava was the capital of the united Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (1578–1795) and the administrative center of the Courland Governorate (1795–1918).

Courland Place in Latvia

Courland, is one of the historical and cultural regions in western Latvia. The largest city is Liepāja, the third largest city in Latvia. The regions of Semigallia and Selonia are sometimes considered as part of Courland as they were formerly held by the same duke.

There, on 10 June 1799, he married his first cousin, Marie Thérèse of France, the eldest child of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, and the only member of the immediate royal family to survive the French Revolution. Since her release from the Temple Prison in 1795, she had been living at the Austrian court. They had no children.

Military service

In April 1800, Louis Antoine took command of a regiment of cavalry in the Bavarian army and took part in the battle of Hohenlinden against the French, showing some ability.

In early 1801, Tsar Paul made peace with Bonaparte, and the French court in exile fled to Warsaw, then controlled by Prussia. For the next ten years, Louis-Antoine accompanied and advised his uncle, Louis XVIII. They returned to Russia when Alexander I became Tsar, but in mid-1807 the treaty between Napoleon and Alexander forced them to take refuge in England. There, at Hartwell House, King Louis reconstituted his court, and Louis-Antoine was granted an allowance of £300 a month. Twice (in 1807 and 1813) he attempted to return to Russia to join the fight against Napoleon, but was refused permission by the Tsar. He remained in England until 1814 when he sailed to Bordeaux, which had declared for the King. His entry into the city on 12 March 1814 was regarded as the beginning of the Bourbon restoration. From there, Louis Antoine fought alongside the Duke of Wellington to restore his cousin Ferdinand VII to the throne of Spain.

Flight to England and return

Faience plate celebrating the Duke of Angouleme as Admiral of France. On display at the Musee national de la Marine, Paris. Plate-Duke of Angouleme-IMG 8678-white.jpg
Faience plate celebrating the Duke of Angoulême as Admiral of France. On display at the Musée national de la Marine, Paris.

Louis Antoine was unable to prevent Napoleon's return to Paris as chief of the royalist army in the southern Rhône River valley, and he was again forced to flee to England during the "Hundred Days". He loyally served Louis XVIII after the final defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo. In 1823, he commanded a French corps sent into Spain to restore the King's absolute powers, known as the Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis. He was victorious in the Battle of Trocadero, after which the reactionary power of King Ferdinand VII of Spain was firmly restored. For this achievement, he was awarded the title of a Prince of Trocadero.[ citation needed ]

Upon the King's death in 1824, his father became King Charles X and Louis-Antoine became Dauphin, heir-apparent to the throne. He supported his father's reactionary policy of purging France of her recent revolutionary and imperial past, expelling former imperial officers from the Army.[ citation needed ]

July Revolution

Masses of angry demonstrators demanded the abdication of Charles and of his descendants in July 1830, in what became known as the July Revolution, in favour of his cousin Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans. They sent a delegation to the Tuileries Palace to force his compliance.[ citation needed ]

Charles reluctantly signed the document of abdication on 2 August 1830; Louis Antoine followed 20 minutes later. It is said that Louis Antoine spent this time listening to the entreaties of his wife not to sign, while the former Charles X sat weeping. After that, he also abdicated (in favour of his nephew, the Duke of Bordeaux). For the final time he left for exile, where he was known as the "Count of Marnes". He never returned to France.[ citation needed ]

22 Regent Terrace, Edinburgh 22 Regent Terrace 2015.JPG
22 Regent Terrace, Edinburgh

Louis Antoine and his wife travelled to Edinburgh, Scotland, in November 1830 and took up residence in a house at 21 (now 22) Regent Terrace [4] [5] near Holyrood Palace where Charles X was staying. [6]

Emperor Francis I of Austria offered the Prague Castle in Prague to the royal entourage in 1832, so Louis-Antoine and Charles X moved there. Francis I, however, died in 1835, and his successor Ferdinand I of Austria told the French royal family that he needed the palace for his coronation in the summer of 1836. [6] The exiled French kings and their entourage therefore left and eventually arrived at the castle of Graffenberg in Gorizia on 21 October 1836. [6]

Many legitimists did not recognize the abdications as valid, and recognized Charles X as king until his death in 1836, with Louis XIX succeeding him. Louis Antoine died in Görz, Austria, in 1844, aged 69. He was buried in his father Charles X's crypt in the church of the Franciscan monastery of Kostanjevica near Görz, now Nova Gorica, Slovenia. Upon his death, his nephew the Duke of Bordeaux became head of the royal family of France under the regnal name Henry V, although he used the title of Count of Chambord in exile.

See also

Ancestry

In fiction and film

The newborn Duke of Angoulême is portrayed by an uncredited child actor in a brief scene from the Sofia Coppola motion picture Marie Antoinette . This scene contains a great error as it mistakenly names his parents as being Louis XVIII and Marie Josephine Louise of Savoy, who never had children.

Titles and styles

Footnotes

  1. "Shortest reign of a monarch". guinnessworldrecords.com. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
  2. http://www.heraldica.org/topics/france/frroyal.htm Family Names and Titles of Younger Sons
  3. Eugène Guichen (1 January 1909). "Le Duc d'Angoulême (1775-1844)". E. Paul. Retrieved 12 April 2017 via Internet Archive.
  4. Mitchell , Anne (1993), "The People of Calton Hill", Mercat Press, James Thin, Edinburgh, ISBN   1-873644-18-3.
  5. Newspaper article on sale of 21 Regent Terrace Diggines, Graham "For sale: tragic royals bolthole", The Scotsman, 2002-02-09 Accessed 2009-08-09
  6. 1 2 3 Mackenzie-Stuart, A.J., (1995), A French King at Holyrood, John Donald Publishers Ltd., Edinburgh, ISBN   0-85976-413-3
Louis Antoine, Duke of Angoulême
Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty
Born: 6 August 1775 Died: 3 June 1844
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Charles X
King of France and Navarre
(disputed)

2 August 1830
for fifteen or twenty minutes
July Revolution in progress
Succeeded by
Henry V
(disputed)
French royalty
Preceded by
Louis XVII
Dauphin of France
16 September 1824 – 2 August 1830
Title abolished
Titles in pretence
Preceded by
Charles X
 TITULAR 
King of France and Navarre
Legitimist pretender to the French throne
6 November 1836 – 3 June 1844
Reason for succession failure:
July Revolution
Succeeded by
Henry V
French royalty
Preceded by
Charles, Count of Artois
Heir to the Throne
as Heir apparent
16 September 1824 2 August 1830
Succeeded by
Louis-Philippe III, Duke of Orléans

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