|Louis Grégoire Deschamps Destournelles|
|Born||31 May 1744|
Rouen, Haute-Normandie, France
|Died|| 27 July 1795 51) (aged|
|Known for||Minister of Finance|
Louis Grégoire Deschamps Destournelles (31 May 1744 – 27 July 1795) was a French politician who was Minister of Finance during the French Revolution. He was imprisoned during the Reign of Terror, and died soon after being released.
The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.
The Reign of Terror, or The Terror, refers to a period during the French Revolution after the First French Republic was established.
Louis Grégoire Deschamps was born in the parish of Saint-Eloi in Rouen, Haute-Normandie, on 31 May 1744. His ancestors were notable Huguenots who probably originated in Normandy and settled first in La Rochelle and then in Bergerac, Dordogne. His grandfather Jean Deschamps (1667–1730) had emigrated from Bergerac after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and after studying in Geneva had become a pastor in Mecklenburg and then Brandenburg. His parents were Gabriel Deschamps (1703–1778) and Marie Eyma.
Rouen is a city on the River Seine in the north of France. It is the capital of the region of Normandy. Formerly one of the largest and most prosperous cities of medieval Europe, Rouen was the seat of the Exchequer of Normandy during the Middle Ages. It was one of the capitals of the Anglo-Norman dynasties, which ruled both England and large parts of modern France from the 11th to the 15th centuries.
La Rochelle is a city in western France and a seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital of the Charente-Maritime department.
Bergerac is a commune and a sub-prefecture of the Dordogne department in southwestern France.
Deschamps added "Destournelles" to his family name to distinguish himself from his brothers. He completed his education at the age of fifteen. From the classical authors he had gained a passion for liberty and admiration of republican principles. He incurred debts that he could not pay from his allowance, and engaged in the army for the duration of the war with Hanover to earn the money, despite an offer from his parents to pay the debts. He returned after peace was made. He then joined the administration with a lucrative position as a tax collector. Before the age of thirty he had settled in Paris with a position in the central tax administration.
At the start of the French Revolution Destournelles played an active role in the political events. He became a member of the battalion of Filles-Saint-Thomas. When he found that the leaders were supporting the ancien regime on the pretext of patriotism he broke with them, and as a result lost his official positions. He became one of the first members of the Jacobins. After the events of 10 August 1792, Destournelles was named commander of the national guard, elector and then municipal officer. On 1 May 1793 he gave the funeral oration of Lazowski to the commune of Paris.
Destournelles was appointed Minister of Finance (Contributions et Revenus publics) on 13 June 1793.He replaced Étienne Clavière, the last Minister of Finance named by Louis XVI of France. A true republican, he took possession of a magnificent house with many servants. He was paid a handsome salary, but did not increase his normal expenditures and gave the excess to good causes. He retained all the employees of his office apart from those who were totally hostile to the revolution. Due to this he was denounced as being an instrument of the moderate faction. At this time the Committee of Public Safety was becoming increasingly powerful, and the ministers were becoming secondary agents.
Étienne Clavière was a Genevan-born French financier and politician of the French Revolution.
Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution. He was referred to as Citizen Louis Capet during the four months before he was guillotined. In 1765, at the death of his father, Louis, son and heir apparent of Louis XV, Louis-Auguste became the new Dauphin of France. Upon his grandfather's death on 10 May 1774, he assumed the title "King of France and Navarre", which he used until 4 September 1791, when he received the title of "King of the French" until the monarchy was abolished on 21 September 1792.
The Committee of Public Safety, created in April 1793 by the National Convention and then restructured in July 1793, formed the de facto executive government in France during the Reign of Terror (1793–1794), a stage of the French Revolution. The Committee of Public Safety succeeded the previous Committee of General Defence and assumed its role of protecting the newly established republic against foreign attacks and internal rebellion. As a wartime measure, the Committee—composed at first of nine and later of twelve members—was given broad supervisory powers over military, judicial and legislative efforts. It was formed as an administrative body to supervise and expedite the work of the executive bodies of the Convention and of the government ministers appointed by the Convention. As the Committee tried to meet the dangers of a coalition of European nations and counter-revolutionary forces within the country, it became more and more powerful.
On 12 Germinal year II (1 April 1794) Lazare Carnot proposed to suppress the executive council and the six ministers, replacing the ministers with twelve Committees reporting to the Committee of Public Safety. The proposal was unanimously adopted by the National Convention.During the Terror (5 September 1793 – 28 July 1794) Destournelles tried in vain to defend one of his brothers, but was arrested himself. He was kept in prison until 9 Thermidor (27 July 1794). Convinced that he would not escape execution by the revolutionaries, he took poison during his captivity. The dose did not kill him immediately, but hastened his death. Destournelles died in Passy, today the 17th arrondissement of Paris, on 27 July 1795.
Lazare Nicolas Marguerite, Count Carnot was a French mathematician, physicist and politician. He was known as the Organizer of Victory in the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars.
The Commissioners of the Committee of Public Safety were appointed by the French Committee of Public Safety to oversee the various administrative departments between 1 April 1794 and 1 November 1795.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts.
The Cabinet of François-Pierre Guizot was the last ministry of King Louis Philippe I of France, formed by decree of 19 September 1847. It replaced the Third cabinet of Nicolas Jean-de-Dieu Soult. It was dissolved when the Provisional Government was formed on 24 February 1848 after the February Revolution.
The French Provisional Ministry of 1830 was announced on 1 August 1830 by Louis-Philippe d'Orléans in his capacity as Lieutenant General of the kingdom. It replaced the Paris Municipal Commission Ministry announced the day before after the revolution in which the Bourbon Restoration monarchy was deposed. On 11 August 1830 it was replaced by the First ministry of Louis-Philippe.
The Cabinet of Jacques Laffitte was announced on 2 November 1830 by King Louis Philippe I. It replaced the First ministry of Louis-Philippe. On 13 March 1831 it was replaced by the Cabinet of Casimir Périer.
The Cabinet of Édouard Adolphe Mortier was announced on 18 November 1834 by King Louis Philippe I. It replaced the Cabinet of Hugues-Bernard Maret.
The Cabinet of Victor de Broglie was announced on 12 March 1835 by King Louis Philippe I. It replaced the Cabinet of Édouard Adolphe Mortier.
The First cabinet of Adolphe Thiers was announced on 22 February 1836 by King Louis Philippe I. It replaced the Cabinet of Victor de Broglie.
The First cabinet of Louis Mathieu Molé was announced on 6 September 1836 by King Louis Philippe I. It replaced the First cabinet of Adolphe Thiers.
The Second cabinet of Louis Mathieu Molé was announced on 15 April 1837 by King Louis Philippe I. It replaced the First cabinet of Louis Mathieu Molé.
Jean Lacave-Laplagne was a French magistrate and politician.
The Transitional French cabinet of 1839 was announced on 31 March 1839 by King Louis Philippe I. It replaced the Second cabinet of Louis Mathieu Molé.
The Second cabinet of Nicolas Jean-de-Dieu Soult was announced on 12 May 1839 by King Louis Philippe I. It replaced the Transitional French cabinet of 1839.
The Second cabinet of Adolphe Thiers was announced on 1 March 1840 by King Louis Philippe I. It replaced the Second cabinet of Nicolas Jean-de-Dieu Soult.
The First ministry of Armand-Emmanuel du Plessis de Richelieu was formed on 26 September 1815 after the dismissal of the Ministry of Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord by King Louis XVIII of France. It was dissolved on 29 December 1818 and replaced by the Ministry of Jean-Joseph Dessolles.
The Ministry of Joseph de Villèle was formed on 14 December 1821 after the dismissal of the Second ministry of Armand-Emmanuel du Plessis de Richelieu by King Louis XVIII of France.
The Government of the first Bourbon restoration replaced the French provisional government of 1814 that had been formed after the fall of Napoleon. It was announced on 13 May 1814 by King Louis XVIII of France. After the return of Napoleon from exile, the court fled to Ghent and the government was replaced by the French Government of the Hundred Days on 20 March 1815.
The French Provisional Government of 1814 held office during the transitional period between the defeat of Napoleon followed by the surrender of Paris on 31 March 1814 and the appointment on 13 May 1814 of the Government of the first Bourbon restoration by King Louis XVIII of France.
The French Government of the Hundred Days was formed by Napoleon I upon his resumption of the Imperial throne on 20 March 1815, replacing the government of the first Bourbon restoration which had been formed by King Louis XVIII the previous year. Following the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo and his second abdication on 22 June 1815 the Executive Commission of 1815 was formed as a new government, declaring the Empire abolished for a second time on 26 June.
The Fourth cabinet of Napoleon III was formed on 17 July 1869.
The ministers of the French National Convention were appointed on 10 August 1792 after the French Legislative Assembly suspended King Louis XVI and revoked the ministers that he had named.