Louis Henri, Prince of Condé

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Louis Henri II de Bourbon
Conde, Louis VI Henri de - 2.jpg
Prince of Condé
Tenure13 May 1818 30 August 1830
Predecessor Louis Joseph
Born(1756-04-13)13 April 1756
Hôtel de Condé, Paris, France.
Died30 August 1830(1830-08-30) (aged 74)
Château de Saint-Leu, Val-d'Oise, France.
Burial
Spouse Bathilde d'Orléans
Issue Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien
Full name
Louis Henri Joseph de Bourbon
House House of Bourbon-Condé
Father Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé
Mother Charlotte de Rohan
Signature Signature of Louis Henri Joseph de Bourbon, Duke of Bourbon (future Prince of Conde) in August 1785.png

Louis Henri Joseph de Bourbon or Louis Henri II, Prince of Condé (13 April 1756 30 August 1830) was the Prince of Condé from 1818 to his death. He was the brother-in-law of Philippe Égalité and nephew of Victoire de Rohan.

Victoire de Rohan French aristocrat and royal governess

Victoire Armande Josèphe de Rohan, Princess of Guéméné was a French noblewoman and court official. She was the governess of the children of Louis XVI of France. She is known better as Madame de Guéméné, and was Lady of Clisson in her own right.

Contents

Life

Louis Henri was the only son of Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé by his first wife, Charlotte de Rohan, daughter of Charles de Rohan, Prince of Soubise. As a member of the reigning House of Bourbon, he was a prince du sang and was entitled to the style of Serene Highness , prior to his accession to the Condé title, while he was known as the duke of Enghien and later as Duke of Bourbon. On succeeding his father he was entitled to the style of Royal Highness .

Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé French noble

Louis Joseph de Bourbon was Prince of Condé from 1740 to his death. A member of the House of Bourbon, he held the prestigious rank of Prince du Sang.

Charlotte de Rohan French noble

Charlotte de Rohan was a French aristocrat who married into the House of Condé, a cadet branch of the ruling House of Bourbon, during the Ancien Régime. She was Princess of Condé by her marriage. She has no known descendants today as her grandson, heir to the Condé family, died without children and her daughter remained childless. Charlotte was praised for being a cultured and attractive princess of her age.

Charles, Prince of Soubise Marshal of France

Charles de Rohan, duke of Rohan-Rohan, seigneur of Roberval, and marshal of France from 1758, was a military man, and a minister to the kings Louis XV and Louis XVI. The last male of his branch of the House of Rohan, he was also the great-grandfather to the duc d'Enghien, executed by Napoleon in 1804. Styled prince d'Epinoy at birth, he became the Prince of Soubise after 1749.

Marriage

On 24 April 1770, he married Bathilde d'Orléans, only surviving daughter of Louis Philippe d'Orléans, Duke of Orléans and Louise Henriette de Bourbon. The couple were married in the chapel at the palace of Versailles and were descended from Louis XIV to the same degree (their paternal great grandmothers were sisters, daughters of Madame de Montespan). In 1772 their only son, Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien, was born. [1] The marriage was not a happy one, and in 1780 the couple separated. Louis never remarried.

Bathilde dOrléans French noblewoman

Bathilde d'Orléans was a French princess of the blood of the House of Orléans. She was sister of Philippe Égalité, the mother of the executed Duke of Enghien and aunt of Louis Philippe I, King of the French. Married to the young Duke of Enghien, a distant cousin, she was always known as the Duchess of Bourbon following the birth of her son. She was known as Citoyenne Vérité during the French Revolution.

Louis Philippe I, Duke of Orléans French duke

Louis Philippe d'Orléans known as le Gros, was a French prince, a member of a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon, the dynasty then ruling France. The First Prince of the Blood after 1752, he was the most senior male at the French court after the immediate royal family. He was the father of Philippe Égalité. He greatly augmented the already huge wealth of the House of Orléans.

Louise Henriette de Bourbon

Louise Henriette de Bourbon, Mademoiselle de Conti at birth, was a French princess, who, by marriage, became Duchess of Chartres (1743–1752), then Duchess of Orléans (1752–1759) upon the death of her father-in-law. On 4 February 1752, her husband became the head of the House of Orléans, and the First Prince of the Blood, the most important personage after the immediate members of the royal family.

Shortly afterwards, Louis Henri began a public affair with an opera singer, Marguerite "Mimi" Michelot, which resulted in two illegitimate daughters, one of whom, Adèle, went on to marry the Comte de Reuilly. During the French Revolution, Louis Henri accompanied his father into exile in England and survived the purge of the House of Bourbon in France, which cost the life of King Louis XVI and his Queen Marie-Antoinette, amongst others.

French Revolution Revolution in France, 1789 to 1798

The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.

In history, religion and political science, a purge is a removal of people who are considered undesirable by those in power from a government, another organization, their team leaders, or society as a whole. A group undertaking such an effort is labeled as purging itself. Purges can be either nonviolent or violent; with the former often resolved by the simple removal of those who have been purged from office, and the latter often resolved by the imprisonment, exile, or murder of those who have been purged.

House of Bourbon European royal house of French origin

The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty, the royal House of France. Bourbon kings first ruled France and Navarre in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty held thrones in Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Parma. Spain and Luxembourg currently have monarchs of the House of Bourbon.

In 1804, his son, the Duke of Enghien, was abducted in Germany by order of Napoleon and executed in the moat of the Château de Vincennes on trumped up charges of treason. The Duke of Enghien had been married to Charlotte Louise de Rohan for less than two months and had no issue.

Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien French aristocrat

Louis Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Enghien was a relative of the Bourbon monarchs of France. More famous for his death than for his life, he was executed on charges of aiding Britain and plotting against France. Royalty across Europe were shocked and dismayed at his execution. Tsar Alexander I of Russia was especially alarmed, and decided to curb Napoleon's power.

Napoleon 19th century French military leader and politician

Napoleon Bonaparte was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. He was Emperor of the French as Napoleon I from 1804 until 1814 and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over much of continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, and his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has endured as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in human history.

Château de Vincennes castle

The Château de Vincennes is a massive 14th and 17th century French royal fortress in the town of Vincennes, to the east of Paris, now a suburb of the metropolis.

Louis Henri returned with his father to France after the defeat of Napoleon in 1814, and both recovered their fortunes and public status. On his father's death in 1818, he assumed the title of Prince de Condé.

End of the Condé

Portrait by Pierre Louis Delaval, Musee Conde of Chantilly, France Louis VI Henri de Bourbon, Prince de Conde, Delaval, Chantilly.jpg
Portrait by Pierre Louis Delaval, Musée Condé of Chantilly, France

The line of Bourbon-Condé came to an end with Louis Henri II's death under suspicious circumstances in 1830, shortly after the July Revolution. While in exile in 1811, the duc de Bourbon had made the acquaintance at a bordello in Piccadilly of one Sophia Dawes or Daw, a maid in a brothel from the Isle of Wight. He set the woman and her mother up in London in a house on Gloucester Street. There, she went through an extensive educational program

Finding The Prince. Gravure extraite de l'Histoire de Louis-Philippe Ier roi des Francais, 1847. Mort du prince de Conde.JPG
Finding The Prince. Gravure extraite de l'Histoire de Louis-Philippe Ier roi des Français, 1847.

After the Bourbon Restoration in 1815, Louis Henri brought her to Paris and arranged a marriage for her to Baron Adrien Victor de Feucheres, an officer in the royal guard. This was done to allow Sophia entry into French society. However, in the course of setting up her marriage license, Sophia lied on several particulars. Feucheres, who became an aide to the duke, believed for several years that Sophia was a natural daughter of Louis Henri II. When he discovered the truth, he separated from his wife, and informed King Louis XVIII of the real relationship between Louis Henri and Sophia. The king banned Sophia from court.

In revenge, Sophia approached the head of the House of Orléans, the Duke of Orleans and through him made a new entry into society. In return, she agreed to use her influence on the aging Louis Henri II to have him set up a will making the son of Louis Philippe, Prince Henri, Duke of Aumale, the old prince's main heir. Sophia was given two million francs for her services in the matter. The new Bourbon king, Charles X, eventually accepted her back at court. She was again considered acceptable by polite French society. She was even able to arrange the marriage of a niece to a nephew of Talleyrand.

By now, Louis Henri was trying to get away from the mistress who had taken over his life. In the summer of 1830, he returned to his home at St. Leu. There, he heard of the July Revolution. Sophia immediately set about to get him to recognize the new Orléans monarchy. When on 27 August 1830 he was found dead with a rope around his neck but his feet on the ground. The baroness was suspected and an inquiry was held which formally declared the death to be a suicide. There were rumours that the new King of the French, Louis-Philippe, had collaborated with Sophie in the crime as they feared that she and Louis Phillippe's son Aumale the testamentary heirs of Condé might be disinherited by the Prince after a possible flight abroad. Later, rumours circulated amongst the nobility that Condé had died pleasuring himself, engaged in what would later be known as autoerotic asphyxiation. With the evidence of death being the result of any crime appearing insufficient, the baroness was not prosecuted, although she was involved in litigation regarding the inheritance for years to come. [2]

There are some aspects of the relationship between Sophia and the prince that William Thackeray may have had in mind in the novel Vanity Fair regarding Becky Sharp possibly killing Joseph Sedley. The prince's lands and wealth passed to his godson, the Duke of Aumale. His father, Louis Philippe, was the feudal-law heir to Conti and Condé, being the grandson of Louise Henriette de Bourbon, a daughter of Louise Élisabeth de Bourbon, who was sister of Louis Henri II's grandfather.

Issue

  1. Louis Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Enghien (2 August 1772 – 21 March 1804), died without issue.
  2. Adélaïde (Adele) de Bourbon (10 November 1780 – 26 May 1874), styled Mademoiselle de Bourbon; illegitimate with Marguerite Michelot. Married firstly in 1803, to Patrice Gabriel Bernard de Montessus, comte de Reuilly and secondly on 24 June 1833 to Guy Eugène Victor, marquis de Chaumont-Quitry. No issue.
  3. Louise Charlotte Aglaé de Bourbon (10 September 1782 – 1831), illegitimate with Marguerite Michelot. Unmarried.
  4. Daughter (born December 1817, lived a few days), illegitimate with certain Sophie Harris.
  5. Son (stillborn May 1819), illegitimate with certain Sophie Harris.

Ancestry

Titles, styles, and arms

Arms of Louis Henri Coat of Arms of Louis Joseph, Prince of Conde.svg
Arms of Louis Henri

Titles and styles

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. Fremont-Barnes, Gregory (2007). Encyclopedia of the Age of Political Revolutions and New Ideologies, 1760-1815: A-L. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 216. ISBN   978-0313334467.
  2. see for instance Diekstra, René, De macht van een maîtresse, Karakter Uitgevers BV, Uithoorn, 2011, 431 p
  3. Genealogie ascendante jusqu'au quatrieme degre inclusivement de tous les Rois et Princes de maisons souveraines de l'Europe actuellement vivans [Genealogy up to the fourth degree inclusive of all the Kings and Princes of sovereign houses of Europe currently living] (in French). Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. 1768. p. 43.

Bibliography

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Louis Henri, Prince of Condé at Wikimedia Commons

Louis Henri, Prince of Condé
Cadet branch of the House of Bourbon
Born: 13 April 1756? Died: 30 August 1830
French nobility
Preceded by
Louis Joseph
Prince of Condé
13 May 1818 – 30 August 1830
Title extinguished
end of dynasty