Louis Néel

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Louis Néel
Louis Neel 1970b.jpg
Néel in 1970
Born
Louis Eugène Félix Néel

(1904-11-22)22 November 1904
Died17 November 2000(2000-11-17) (aged 95)
Alma mater École Normale Supérieure, University of Paris [1]
University of Strasbourg
Known for
Awards
Scientific career
Fields Solid-state physics
Institutions CNRS, Grenoble
Doctoral advisor Pierre Weiss

Louis Eugène Félix Néel ForMemRS (22 November 1904 – 17 November 2000) was a French physicist born in Lyon. [2]

Contents

Biography

Néel studied at the Lycée du Parc in Lyon and was accepted at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris. He obtained the degree of Doctor of Science at the University of Strasbourg. He was corecipient (with the Swedish astrophysicist Hannes Alfvén) of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1970 for his pioneering studies of the magnetic properties of solids. [4] His contributions to solid state physics have found numerous useful applications, particularly in the development of improved computer memory units. About 1930 he suggested that a new form of magnetic behavior might exist; called antiferromagnetism, as opposed to ferromagnetism. Above a certain temperature (the Néel temperature) this behaviour stops. Néel pointed out (1948) [5] that materials could also exist showing ferrimagnetism. Néel has also given an explanation of the weak magnetism of certain rocks, making possible the study of the history of Earth's magnetic field. [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14]

He is the instigator of the Polygone Scientifique in Grenoble.

The Louis Néel Medal, awarded annually by the European Geophysical Society, is named in Néel's honour.

Awards and honours

Néel received numerous awards and honours for his work including:

Awards

Distinctions

Owing to his involvement in national defense, particularly through research in the protection of warships by demagnetization against magnetic mines, he received numerous distinctions:

See also

Related Research Articles

Ferromagnetism Physical phenomenon

Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets. In physics, several different types of magnetism are distinguished. Ferromagnetism is the strongest type and is responsible for the common phenomenon of magnetism in magnets encountered in everyday life. Substances respond weakly to magnetic fields with three other types of magnetism—paramagnetism, diamagnetism, and antiferromagnetism—but the forces are usually so weak that they can be detected only by sensitive instruments in a laboratory. An everyday example of ferromagnetism is a refrigerator magnet used to hold notes on a refrigerator door. The attraction between a magnet and ferromagnetic material is "the quality of magnetism first apparent to the ancient world, and to us today".

Antiferromagnetism A regular pattern of magnetic moment ordering

In materials that exhibit antiferromagnetism, the magnetic moments of atoms or molecules, usually related to the spins of electrons, align in a regular pattern with neighboring spins pointing in opposite directions. This is, like ferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism, a manifestation of ordered magnetism.

Curie temperature Temperature above which magnetic properties change

In physics and materials science, the Curie temperature (TC), or Curie point, is the temperature above which certain materials lose their permanent magnetic properties, which can be replaced by induced magnetism. The Curie temperature is named after Pierre Curie, who showed that magnetism was lost at a critical temperature.

Ferrimagnetism Type of magnetic phenomenon

In physics, a ferrimagnetic material is one that has populations of atoms with opposing magnetic moments, as in antiferromagnetism; however, in ferrimagnetic materials, the opposing moments are unequal and a spontaneous magnetization remains. This happens when the populations consist of different materials or ions (such as Fe2+ and Fe3+).

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Magnon physics term

A magnon is a quasiparticle, a collective excitation of the electrons' spin structure in a crystal lattice. In the equivalent wave picture of quantum mechanics, a magnon can be viewed as a quantized spin wave. Magnons carry a fixed amount of energy and lattice momentum, and are spin-1, indicating they obey boson behavior.

Rock magnetism The study of magnetism in rocks

Rock magnetism is the study of the magnetic properties of rocks, sediments and soils. The field arose out of the need in paleomagnetism to understand how rocks record the Earth's magnetic field. This remanence is carried by minerals, particularly certain strongly magnetic minerals like magnetite. An understanding of remanence helps paleomagnetists to develop methods for measuring the ancient magnetic field and correct for effects like sediment compaction and metamorphism. Rock magnetic methods are used to get a more detailed picture of the source of distinctive striped pattern in marine magnetic anomalies that provides important information on plate tectonics. They are also used to interpret terrestrial magnetic anomalies in magnetic surveys as well as the strong crustal magnetism on Mars.

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References

  1. At the time, the ENS was part of the University of Paris according to the decree of 10 November 1903.
  2. 1 2 3 Friedel, J.; Averbuch, P. (1 December 2003). "Louis Eugène Félix Néel. 22 November 1904 – 17 November 2000". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 49: 367–384. doi:10.1098/rsbm.2003.0021. S2CID   74311735.
  3. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1970". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
  4. Néel, L. (3 December 1971). "Magnetism and Local Molecular Field". Science. 174 (4013): 985–992. Bibcode:1971Sci...174..985N. doi:10.1126/science.174.4013.985. PMID   17757022. S2CID   27784885.
  5. Néel, Louis (1948). "Magnetic Properties of Ferrites: Ferrimagnetism and Antiferromagnetism". Ann. Phys. (Paris). 3: 137–198.
  6. Néel, Louis (1 April 1955). "Some theoretical aspects of rock-magnetism" (PDF). Advances in Physics. 4 (14): 191–243. Bibcode:1955AdPhy...4..191N. doi:10.1080/00018735500101204.
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  8. Coey, Michael (2001). "Obituary: Louis Néel (1904–2000)". Nature. 409 (6818): 302. Bibcode:2001Natur.409..302C. doi:10.1038/35053274. S2CID   36961096.
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