Louis Riel

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LouisRielTortured.jpg
"Tortured" Louis Riel statue at the Université de Saint-Boniface

In 2007, Manitoba's provincial government voted to recognize Louis Riel Day as a provincial holiday, observed on the third Monday of February. [102] [103]

Two statues of Riel are located in Winnipeg. One of these statues, the work of architect Étienne Gaboury and sculptor Marcien Lemay, depicts Riel as a naked and tortured figure. It was unveiled in 1971 and stood in the grounds of the Manitoba Legislative Building for 23 years. After much outcry (especially from the Métis community) that the statue was an undignified misrepresentation, the statue was removed and placed at the Université de Saint-Boniface. [104] [105] It was replaced with a statue of Louis Riel designed by Miguel Joyal depicting Riel as a dignified statesman. The unveiling ceremony was on 12 May 1996, in Winnipeg. [106] [105] A statue of Riel on the grounds of the Saskatchewan Legislative Building in Regina was installed and later removed for similar reasons. [107]

In numerous communities across Canada, Riel is commemorated in the names of streets, schools, neighbourhoods, and other buildings. Examples in Winnipeg include the landmark Esplanade Riel pedestrian bridge linking old Saint-Boniface with Downtown Winnipeg, [108] and the Louis Riel School Division. [109] The student centre at the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon is named after Riel, as is the Louis Riel Trail. [110] There are schools named after Louis Riel in four major Canadian cities: Calgary, Montreal, Ottawa and Winnipeg. [111] [112] [113] [114]

Portrayals of Riel's role in the Red River Resistance include the 1979 CBC television film Riel [115] and Canadian cartoonist Chester Brown's acclaimed 2003 graphic novel Louis Riel: A Comic-Strip Biography . [116] An opera about Riel entitled Louis Riel was commissioned for Canada's centennial celebrations in 1967; it was written by Harry Somers, with an English and French libretto by Mavor Moore and Jacques Languirand. [117]

See also

Footnotes

  1. Bumsted 1992 , pp. xiii, 31
  2. Bumsted, J. M. (1987). "The 'Mahdi' of Western Canada: Lewis Riel and His Papers". The Beaver. 67 (4): 47–54.
  3. Bumsted, J. M.; Smyth, Julie (25 March 2015). "Red River Colony". The Canadian Encyclopedia.
  4. Hamon 2019 , p. 32
  5. Payment, Diane (1980). Riel Family: Home and Lifestyle at St-Vital, 1860–1910 (PDF) (Report). Parks Canada. p. 32. Report No. 379.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Thomas, Lewis H. (2016) [1982]. "Riel, Louis (1844–85)". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Vol. 11.
  7. Morton, W. L. (1976). "Riel, Louis (1817–64)". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Vol. 9.
  8. Stanley 1963 , pp. 13–20
  9. Hamon 2019 , p. 30
  10. 1 2 Mitchell, W.O. (1 February 1952). "The Riddle of Louis Riel Part 1". Maclean's.
  11. Goldsborough, Gordon (16 February 2020). "Louis 'David' Riel (18441885)". Memorable Manitobans. Manitoba Historical Society.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Louis Riel – One Life, One Vision" (PDF). Société historique de Saint-Boniface / Centre du patrimoine. 2020. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  13. "Louis Riel". Library and Archives Canada. 4 June 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2021.
  14. Stanley 1963 , pp. 26–28
  15. 1 2 3 4 Stanley, George F. G.; Gaudry, Adam (9 May 2016). "Louis Riel". The Canadian Encyclopedia.
  16. Stanley 1963 , p. 33
  17. "Louis Riel". Métis Nation of Ontario. 2006. Archived from the original on 7 July 2007.
  18. Stanley et al. 1985 , pp. xxv & xxvi, Stanley's Foreword: "The Fréchette experience [in Chicago] is, however, open to question."
  19. Stanley 1963 , pp. 13–34
  20. 1 2 3 Bumsted, J. M.; Foot, Richard (22 November 2019). "Red River Rebellion". The Canadian Encyclopedia.
  21. Dorge, Lionel (1969). "Bishop Taché and the Confederation of Manitoba, 1969–1970". MHS Transactions. 3 (26).
  22. 1 2 3 Brodbeck, Tom (13 December 2019). "The Riel deal". Winnipeg Free Press.
  23. Read, Colin (1982). "The Red River Rebellion and J. S. Dennis, 'Lieutenant and Conservator of the Peace'". Manitoba History (3).
  24. Read, Colin (1982). "Dennis, John Stoughton (18201885)". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Vol. 11.
  25. "Red River Resistance". Indigenous Peoples Atlas of Canada. Retrieved 6 April 2021.
  26. "Louis Riel". From Sea to Sea. CBC. 2001. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  27. "The Execution of Thomas Scott". From Sea to Sea. CBC. 2001. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  28. Mitchell, Ross (1960). "John Christian Schultz, M.D. – 1840–1896". Manitoba Pageant. 5 (2).
  29. Reford, Alexander (1998). "Smith, Donald Alexander, 1st Baron Strathcona and Mount Royal". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Vol. 14.
  30. "Local Laws". New Nation. Vol. 1, no. 18. 15 April 1870. p. 3.
  31. "Legislative Assembly of Assiniboia". Indigenous & Northern Relations. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  32. 1 2 Dick, Lyle (2004–2005). "Nationalism and Visual Media in Canada: The Case of Thomas Scott's Execution". Manitoba History. 48 (Autumn/Winter): 2–18.
  33. Salhany 2020 , p. 25
  34. Bélanger, Claude (2007). "The 'Murder' of Thomas Scott". The Quebec History Encyclopedia. Marianopolis College.
  35. Boulton 1985 , p. 51
  36. Bumsted 2000 , p. 3
  37. Anastakis 2015 , p. 27
  38. Berger, Thomas (2015). "The Manitoba Metis Decision and the Uses of History". Manitoba Law Journal. 38 (1): 1–28.
  39. Bowles, Richard S. (1968). "Adams George Archibald, First Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba". MHS Transactions. 3 (25).
  40. Huel 2003 , p. 117
  41. 1 2 Swan, Ruth; Jerome, Edward A. (2000). "'Unequal justice:' The Metis in O'Donoghue's Raid of 1871". Manitoba History (39 Spring / Summer).
  42. Brodbeck, Tom (10 July 2020). "Métis stepped up for Crown, got stepped on for their trouble". Winnipeg Free Press.
  43. Gwyn 2011 , pp. 150–151
  44. "Relations with First Nations and Métis". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Retrieved 3 April 2021.
  45. "Louis Riel (1844–1885): Biography" (PDF). Virtual Museum. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  46. Marleau, Robert; Montpetit, Camille (2000). "The House of Commons and Its Members – Notes 351–373". House of Commons Procedure and Practice. Parliament of Canada.
  47. Tolton 2011 , p. 19
  48. 1 2 "Rethinking Riel – Was Louis Riel Mentally Ill?". CBC. 2006.
  49. 1 2 Littmann, S.K. (1978). "A Pathography of Louis Riel". Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal. 23 (7): 449–462. doi:10.1177/070674377802300706. PMID   361196.
  50. 1 2 Campbell, Glen; Flanagan, Tom (Fall 2019). "Louis Riel's romantic interests". Manitoba History (90): 2–12.
  51. "L'arbre généalogique de Louis Riel" (PDF). Société historique de Saint-Boniface / Centre du patrimoine. 2020.
  52. Payment, Diane (1980). Riel Family: Home and Lifestyle at St-Vital, 1860–1910 (PDF) (Report). Parks Canada, Historical Research Division, Prairie Region. Manuscript Report Number 379. Map of Figure 10 points east of mouth of Rivière au Lait & Missouri River towards Ft. Berthold, Dakota Territory and/or Pointe au Loup.
  53. "Louis Riel (October 22, 1844 – November 16, 1885)". Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  54. 1 2 3 Beal, Bob; MacLeod, Rod; Foot, Richard (30 July 2019). "North-West Rebellion". The Canadian Encyclopedia.
  55. 1 2 3 "1885 Northwest Resistance". Indigenous Peoples Atlas of Canada. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  56. Flanagan, Thomas (1991). "Louis Riel's Land Claims". Manitoba History. 21 (Spring).
  57. Gaudry, Adam (9 September 2019). "Gabriel Dumont". The Canadian Encyclopedia.
  58. Smyth, David (1998). "Isbister, James". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Vol. 14.
  59. Miller 2004 , p.  44
  60. Payment, Diane P. (1994). "Nolin, Charles". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Vol. 13.
  61. Dumontet, Monique (1994). "Essay 16 Controversy in the Commemoration of Louis Riel". Mnemographia Canadensis. 2.
  62. 1 2 3 Ouellette, Robert-Falcon (Autumn 2014). "The Second Métis War of 1885: A Case Study of Non-Commissioned Member Training and the Intermediate Leadership Program" (PDF). Canadian Military Journal. 14 (4): 54–65.
  63. Foster, Keith; Oosterom, Nelle (13 February 2014). "Shifting Riel-ity: The 1885 North-West Rebellion". Canada's History.
  64. "The Battle of Fish Creek (April 23, 1885)" (PDF). Virtual Museum. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  65. Mein, Stewart (2006). "North-West Resistance". The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan.
  66. Basson 2008 , p. 66
  67. Stanley 1979 , p. 23
  68. Boulton 1886 , p. 411
  69. Gwyn 2011 , p. 469
  70. Mitchell, W.O. (15 February 1952). "The Riddle of Louis Riel: Conclusion". Maclean's.
  71. "Louis Riel (October 22, 1844 – November 16, 1885)". Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  72. Boulton 1886 , p. 413
  73. 1 2 Boulton 1886 , p. 414
  74. Stewart 2002 , p. 156
  75. Read, Geoff; Webb, Todd (2012). "'The Catholic Mahdi of the North West': Louis Riel and the Metis Resistance in Transatlantic and Imperial Context". Canadian Historical Review. 93 (2): 171–195. doi:10.3138/chr.93.2.171.
  76. Hamon 2019 , p. 14
  77. Francis, Jones & Smith 2009 , pp. 306–307
  78. Sprague 1988 , p. 1
  79. Morton 1963 , p. 371
  80. Morton 1963 , p. 369
  81. Bumsted 2000 , p. 17
  82. Perin 1990 , p. 259
  83. Saywell 1973 , p. 94
  84. 1 2 Flanagan 2000 , p. x
  85. Foster, John E. (1985). "Review of Riel and the Rebellion 1885 Reconsidered By Thomas Flanagan". Great Plains Quarterly. 5 (4): 259–60.
  86. Owram, Douglas (1982). "The Myth of Louis Riel". The Canadian Historical Review. 63 (3): 315–336. doi:10.3138/CHR-063-03-01.
  87. Stanley et al. 1985
  88. Hamon 2019 , p. 15
  89. McLachlin, Beverley (2011). "Louis Riel: Patriot Rebel" (PDF). Manitoba Law Journal. 35 (1): 1–13.
  90. Flanagan 2000 , p. 82
  91. Flanagan 2000 , p. 60
  92. Robinson, Amanda (6 November 2018). "Métis Scrip in Canada". The Canadian Encyclopedia.
  93. Godbout 2020 , pp. 151–154
  94. "1885 – Aftermath". Our Legacy. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  95. Tattrie, Jon (3 February 2015). "Saskatchewan and Confederation". The Canadian Encyclopedia.
  96. Godbout 2020 , p. 152
  97. "Parti national". The Canadian Encyclopedia. 19 February 2014.
  98. Godbout 2020 , p. 153
  99. 1 2 Reid 2008, p. 4.
  100. Flanagan 2000 , p. 179
  101. "And the Greatest Canadian of all time is..." CBC. Retrieved 6 April 2021.
  102. Reid 2008, p. 5.
  103. "Louis Riel Day holiday (3rd Mon. in Feb.)". Government of Manitoba. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  104. "Louis Riel Statue". Winnipeg Architecture Foundation. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  105. 1 2 Bower, Shannon (2001). ""Practical Results": The Riel Statue Controversy at the Manitoba Legislative Building". Manitoba History. 42 (Autumn / Winter 2001–2002).
  106. "Private Members' Business regarding An Act to Revoke the Conviction of Louis David Riel – Bill C297". Hansard Debates for Friday, November 22, 1996. House Publications Parliament of Canada. 1996.
  107. Beatty, Greg (Winter 2003–2004). "Kim Morgan: Antsee" (PDF). Espace Sculpture (66): 42.
  108. "Winnipeg's Esplanade Riel: A magnificent bridge connecting people and cultures". Le Corridor. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  109. "Our history: a look back". Louis Riel School Division. 18 August 2014.
  110. "Place Riel opens". University of Saskatchewan. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  111. "Louis Riel School". Calgary Board of Education. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  112. "École secondaire Louis-Riel". Ministère de l'Éducation et de l'Enseignement supérieur. Retrieved 21 May 2021.
  113. "École secondaire publique Louis-Riel". Conseil des écoles publiques de l'Est de l'Ontario. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  114. "Notre histoire". Division scolaire franco-manitobaine. Retrieved 24 June 2021.
  115. Walz, Eugene; Payment, Diane; Laroque, Emma (1981). "Review: Three Views of Riel". Manitoba History (1).
  116. Bell 2006 , p. 166
  117. King, Betty; Winters, Kenneth (20 April 2017). "Louis Riel (opera)". The Canadian Encyclopedia.

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References

Further reading

Louis Riel
Louis Riel.jpg
President of the Provisional Government, then, Legislative Assembly of Assiniboia