Louis XIII of France

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Louis XIII
Luis XIII, rey de Francia (Philippe de Champaigne).jpg
Portrait by Philippe de Champaigne, 1655
King of France
Reign14 May 1610 – 14 May 1643
Coronation 17 October 1610
Reims Cathedral
Predecessor Henry IV
Successor Louis XIV
Regent Marie de' Medici (1610–14)
King of Navarre
Reign14 May 1610 1620
Predecessor Henry III
Born(1601-09-27)27 September 1601
Château de Fontainebleau, France
Died14 May 1643(1643-05-14) (aged 41)
Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France
Burial
Spouse Anne of Austria
Issue Louis XIV, King of France
Philippe I, Duke of Orléans
House Bourbon
Father Henry IV, King of France
Mother Marie de' Medici
Religion Roman Catholicism
Signature Manuscript - CLdF-BR0009 Secretary signature for Louis XIII de France - Paris 1625.svg

Louis XIII (French pronunciation:  [lwi tʁɛz] ; 27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who was King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.

House of Bourbon European royal house of French origin

The Capetian House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. Bourbon kings first ruled France and Navarre in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty held thrones in Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Parma. Spain and Luxembourg currently have monarchs of the House of Bourbon.

Contents

Shortly before his ninth birthday, Louis became king of France and Navarre after his father Henry IV was assassinated. His mother, Marie de' Medici, acted as regent during his minority. Mismanagement of the kingdom and ceaseless political intrigues by Marie and her Italian favourites led the young king to take power in 1617 by exiling his mother and executing her followers, including Concino Concini, the most influential Italian at the French court.

Henry IV of France first French monarch of the House of Bourbon

Henry IV, also known by the epithet Good King Henry or Henry the Great, was King of Navarre from 1572 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first monarch of France from the House of Bourbon, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. He was assassinated in 1610 by François Ravaillac, a fanatical Catholic, and was succeeded by his son Louis XIII.

Marie de Medici Queen of France, second wife of King Henry IV of France

Marie de' Medici was Queen of France as the second wife of King Henry IV of France, of the House of Bourbon. She was a member of the wealthy and powerful House of Medici. Following the assassination of her husband in 1610, which occurred the day after her coronation, she acted as regent for her son, King Louis XIII of France, until 1617, when he came of age. She was noted for her ceaseless political intrigues at the French court and extensive artistic patronage.

Favourite intimate companion of a ruler or other important person

A favourite or favorite was the intimate companion of a ruler or other important person. In post-classical and early-modern Europe, among other times and places, the term was used of individuals delegated significant political power by a ruler. It was especially a phenomenon of the 16th and 17th centuries, when government had become too complex for many hereditary rulers with no great interest in or talent for it, and political institutions were still evolving. From 1600 to 1660 there were particular successions of all-powerful minister-favourites in much of Europe, particularly in Spain, England, France and Sweden.

Louis XIII, taciturn and suspicious, relied heavily on his chief ministers, first Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes and then Cardinal Richelieu, to govern the Kingdom of France. King and cardinal are remembered for establishing the Académie française , and ending the revolt of the French nobility. They systematically destroyed the castles of defiant lords, and denounced the use of private violence (dueling, carrying weapons, and maintaining private armies). By the end of the 1620s Richelieu established "the royal monopoly of force" as the ruling doctrine. [1] The reign of Louis "the Just" was also marked by the struggles against the Huguenots and Habsburg Spain. [2]

Charles dAlbert, duc de Luynes duke of Luynes

Charles d'Albert, Duke of Luynes was French courtier and a favourite of Louis XIII, by whom he was made a Peer and Constable of France before dying at the height of his influence.

Cardinal Richelieu French clergyman, noble and statesman

Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis, 1st Duke of Richelieu and Fronsac, commonly referred to as Cardinal Richelieu, was a French clergyman, nobleman, and statesman. He was consecrated as a bishop in 1607 and was appointed Foreign Secretary in 1616. Richelieu soon rose in both the Catholic Church and the French government, becoming a cardinal in 1622, and King Louis XIII's chief minister in 1624. He remained in office until his death in 1642; he was succeeded by Cardinal Mazarin, whose career he had fostered.

Kingdom of France kingdom in Western Europe from 843 to 1791

The Kingdom of France was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was one of the most powerful states in Europe and a great power since the Late Middle Ages and the Hundred Years' War. It was also an early colonial power, with possessions around the world.

Early life, 1601–10

Born at the Palace of Fontainebleau, Louis XIII was the eldest child of King Henry IV of France and his second wife Marie de' Medici. As son of the king, he was a Fils de France ("son of France"), and as the eldest son, Dauphin of France. His father Henry IV was the first French king of the House of Bourbon, having succeeded his second cousin, Henry III (1574–1589), in application of Salic law. Louis XIII's paternal grandparents were Antoine de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme, and Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of Navarre. His maternal grandparents were Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Joanna of Austria, Grand Duchess of Tuscany. Eleonora de' Medici, his maternal aunt, was his godmother. [3] As a child, he was raised under the supervision of the royal governess Françoise de Montglat.

Palace of Fontainebleau castle in Fontainebleau, France

The Palace of Fontainebleau or Château de Fontainebleau, located 55 kilometres southeast of the center of Paris, in the commune of Fontainebleau, is one of the largest French royal châteaux. The medieval castle and subsequent palace served as a residence for the French monarchs from Louis VII to Napoleon III. Francis I and Napoleon were the monarchs who had the most influence on the Palace as it stands today.. It is now a national museum and a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

<i>Fils de France</i>

Fils de France was the style and rank held by the sons of the kings and dauphins of France. A daughter was known as a fille de France.

Dauphin of France Title given to the heir apparent to the throne of France

Dauphin of France, originally Dauphin of Viennois, was the title given to the heir apparent to the throne of France from 1350 to 1791 and 1824 to 1830. The word dauphin is French for dolphin. At first the heirs were granted the County of Viennois (Dauphiné) to rule, but eventually only the title was granted.

The ambassador of King James I of England to the court of France, Sir Edward Herbert, who presented his credentials to Louis XIII in 1619, remarked on Louis’s extreme congenital speech impediment and his double teeth:

Edward Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Cherbury Anglo-Welsh soldier, diplomat, historian, poet and religious philosopher

Edward Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Cherbury KB was an Anglo-Welsh soldier, diplomat, historian, poet and religious philosopher of the Kingdom of England.

...I presented to the King [Louis] a letter of credence from the King [James] my master: the King [Louis] assured me of a reciprocal affection to the King [James] my master, and of my particular welcome to his Court: his words were never many, as being so extream [ sic ] a stutterer that he would sometimes hold his tongue out of his mouth a good while before he could speak so much as one word; he had besides a double row of teeth, and was observed seldom or never to spit or blow his nose, or to sweat much, 'tho he were very laborious, and almost indefatigable in his exercises of hunting and hawking, to which he was much addicted... [4]

The Latin adverb sic inserted after a quoted word or passage indicates that the quoted matter has been transcribed or translated exactly as found in the source text, complete with any erroneous, archaic, or otherwise nonstandard spelling. It also applies to any surprising assertion, faulty reasoning, or other matter that might be likely interpreted as an error of transcription.

Rule of Marie de' Medici, 1610–17

Louis XIII by Frans Pourbus the Younger (1611) (Palazzo Pitti) 0 Louis XIII en costume de deuil - Frans Pourbus le Jeune (2).JPG
Louis XIII by Frans Pourbus the Younger (1611) (Palazzo Pitti)

Louis XIII ascended the throne in 1610 upon the assassination of his father, and his mother Marie de' Medici acted as his Regent. Although Louis XIII became of age at thirteen (1614), his mother did not give up her position as Regent until 1617, when he was 16. Marie maintained most of her husband's ministers, with the exception of Maximilien de Béthune, Duke of Sully, who was unpopular in the country. She mainly relied on Nicolas de Neufville, seigneur de Villeroy, Noël Brûlart de Sillery, and Pierre Jeannin for political advice. Marie pursued a moderate policy, confirming the Edict of Nantes. She was not, however, able to prevent rebellion by nobles such as Henri, Prince of Condé (1588–1646), second in line to the throne after Marie's second surviving son Gaston, Duke of Orléans. Condé squabbled with Marie in 1614, and briefly raised an army, but he found little support in the country, and Marie was able to raise her own army. Nevertheless, Marie agreed to call an Estates General assembly to address Condé's grievances.

The assembly of this Estates General was delayed until Louis XIII formally came of age on his thirteenth birthday. Although his coming-of-age formally ended Marie's Regency, she remained the de facto ruler of France. The Estates General accomplished little, spending its time discussing the relationship of France to the Papacy and the venality of offices, but reaching no resolutions.

Half Louis d'Or (1643) depicting Louis XIII France 1643-A Half Louis d'Or.jpg
Half Louis d'Or (1643) depicting Louis XIII

Beginning in 1615, Marie came to rely increasingly on Concino Concini, an Italian who assumed the role of her favourite, and was widely unpopular because he was a foreigner. This further antagonised Condé, who launched another rebellion in 1616. Huguenot leaders supported Condé's rebellion, which led the young Louis XIII to conclude that they would never be loyal subjects. Eventually, Condé and Queen Marie made peace via the Treaty of Loudun, which allowed Condé great power in government but did not remove Concini. With growing dissatisfaction from nobles due to Concini's position, Queen Marie, with Louis's help, imprisoned Condé to protect Concini, leading to renewed revolts against the Queen and Concini.

In the meantime, Charles d'Albert, the Grand Falconer of France, convinced Louis XIII that he should break with his mother and support the rebels. Louis staged a palace coup d'état . As a result, Concini was assassinated on 24 April 1617. His widow Leonora Dori Galigaï was tried for witchcraft, condemned, beheaded, and burned on 8 July 1617, and Marie was sent into exile in Blois. Later, Louis conferred the title of Duke of Luynes on d'Albert.

Ascendancy of Charles de Luynes, 1617–21

Louis XIII on horseback, c. 1615-1620. Bronze, from France (probably Paris). Victoria and Albert Museum, London Louis XIII on Horseback. Circa 1615-1620 CE. Bronze, from France (probably Paris). The Victoria and Albert Museum, London.jpg
Louis XIII on horseback, c. 1615–1620. Bronze, from France (probably Paris). Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Luynes soon became as unpopular as Concini had been. Other nobles resented his monopolisation of the King. Luynes was seen as less competent than Henry IV's ministers, many now elderly or deceased, who had surrounded Marie de' Medici.

The Thirty Years' War broke out in 1618. The French court was initially unsure of which side to support. On the one hand, France's traditional rivalry with the House of Habsburg argued in favour of intervening on behalf of the Protestant powers (and Louis's father Henry IV of France had once been a Huguenot leader). On the other hand, Louis XIII had a strict Catholic upbringing, and his natural inclination was to support the Holy Roman Emperor, the Habsburg Ferdinand II.

The French nobles were further antagonised against Luynes by the 1618 revocation of the paulette tax and by the sale of offices in 1620. From her exile in Blois, Marie de' Medici became the obvious rallying point for this discontent, and the Bishop of Luçon (who became Cardinal Richelieu in 1622) was allowed to act as her chief adviser, serving as a go-between Marie and the King.

French nobles launched a rebellion in 1620, but their forces were easily routed by royal forces at Les Ponts-de-Cé in August 1620. Louis then launched an expedition against the Huguenots of Béarn who had defied a number of royal decisions. This expedition managed to re-establish Catholicism as the official religion of Béarn. However, the Béarn expedition drove Huguenots in other provinces into a rebellion led by Henri, Duke of Rohan.

In 1621 Louis XIII was formally reconciled with his mother. Luynes was appointed Constable of France, after which he and Louis set out to quell the Huguenot rebellion. The siege at the Huguenot stronghold of Montauban had to be abandoned after three months owing to the large number of royal troops who had succumbed to camp fever. One of the victims of camp fever was Luynes, who died in December 1621.

Rule by Council, 1622–24

Louis XIII, by Frans Pourbus the younger (1620) Louis-XIII by-Franz-II-Pourbus.jpg
Louis XIII, by Frans Pourbus the younger (1620)

Following the death of Luynes, Louis determined that he would rule by council. His mother returned from exile and, in 1622, entered this council, where Condé recommended violent suppression of the Huguenots. The 1622 campaign, however, followed the pattern of the previous year: royal forces won some early victories, but were unable to complete a siege, this time at the fortress of Montpellier.

The rebellion was ended by the Treaty of Montpellier, signed by Louis XIII and the Duke of Rohan in October 1622. The treaty confirmed the tenets of the Edict of Nantes: several Huguenot fortresses were to be razed, but the Huguenots retained control of Montauban and La Rochelle.

Louis ultimately dismissed Noël Brûlart de Sillery and Pierre Brûlart in 1624 because of his displeasure with how they handled the diplomatic situation over the Valtellina with Spain. Valtellina was an area with Catholic inhabitants under the suzerainty of the Protestant Three Leagues. It served as an important route to Italy for France and it provided an easy connection between the Spanish and the Holy Roman empires, especially in helping each other with armies if necessary. Spain was constantly interfering in the Valtellina, which angered Louis, as he wanted to hold possession of this strategically important passageway. (In these years the French kingdom was literally surrounded by the Habsburg realms, for the Habsburgs were Kings of Spain as well as Holy Roman Emperors. In addition, the Spanish and Holy Roman empires included the territories of today's Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxembourg, Germany, and northern Italy.) He therefore found a better servitor in his Superintendent of Finances Charles de La Vieuville, who held similar views of Spain as the king, and who advised Louis to side with the Dutch via the Treaty of Compiègne. [5] However, La Vieuville was dismissed by the middle of 1624, partly due to his bad behaviour (during his tenure as superintendent he was arrogant and incompetent) and because of a well-organized pamphlet campaign by Cardinal Richelieu against his council rival. [6] Louis needed a new chief advisor; Cardinal Richelieu would be that counsellor.

Ministry of Cardinal Richelieu, 1624–42

Louis XIII Crowned by Victory (Siege of La Rochelle, 1628), Philippe de Champaigne, musee du Louvre Philippe de Champaigne - Louis XIII Crowned by Victory (Siege of La Rochelle, 1628) - WGA4712.jpg
Louis XIII Crowned by Victory (Siege of La Rochelle, 1628), Philippe de Champaigne, musée du Louvre

Cardinal Richelieu played a major role in Louis XIII's reign from 1624, determining France's direction over the course of the next eighteen years. As a result of Richelieu's work, Louis XIII became one of the first examples of an absolute monarch. Under Louis and Richelieu, the crown successfully intervened in the Thirty Years' War against the Habsburgs, managed to keep the French nobility in line, and retracted the political and military privileges granted to the Huguenots by Henry IV (while maintaining their religious freedoms). Louis XIII successfully led the important Siege of La Rochelle. In addition, Louis had the port of Le Havre modernised, and he built a powerful navy.

Louis also worked to reverse the trend of promising French artists leaving for Italy to work and study. He commissioned the painters Nicolas Poussin and Philippe de Champaigne to decorate the Louvre Palace. In foreign matters, Louis organised the development and administration of New France, expanding its settlements westward along the Saint Lawrence River from Quebec City to Montreal.

Expansion overseas under Louis XIII

Morocco

Louis XIII, warrior King Louis XIII.jpg
Louis XIII, warrior King

In order to continue the exploration efforts of his predecessor Henry IV, Louis XIII considered a colonial venture in Morocco, and sent a fleet under Isaac de Razilly in 1619. [7] Razilly was able to explore the coast as far as Mogador. In 1624 he was given charge of an embassy to the pirate harbour of Salé in Morocco, in order to solve the affair of the library of Mulay Zidan. [8]

In 1630, Razilly was able to negotiate the purchase of French slaves from the Moroccans. He visited Morocco again in 1631, and helped negotiate the Franco-Moroccan Treaty (1631). [9] The Treaty gave France preferential treatment, known as Capitulations: preferential tariffs, the establishment of a Consulate, and freedom of religion for French subjects. [10]

Americas

Unlike other colonial powers, France, under the guidance of Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu, encouraged a peaceful coexistence in New France between the Natives and the Colonists. Indians, converted to Catholicism, were considered as "natural Frenchmen" by the Ordonnance of 1627:

"The descendants of the French who are accustomed to this country [New France], together with all the Indians who will be brought to the knowledge of the faith and will profess it, shall be deemed and renowned natural Frenchmen, and as such may come to live in France when they want, and acquire, donate, and succeed and accept donations and legacies, just as true French subjects, without being required to take letters of declaration of naturalization." [11]

Acadia was also developed under Louis XIII. In 1632, Isaac de Razilly became involved, at the request of Cardinal Richelieu, in the colonization of Acadia, by taking possession of the Habitation at Port-Royal (now Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia) and developing it into a French colony. The King gave Razilly the official title of lieutenant-general for New France. He took on military tasks such as taking control of Fort Pentagouet at Majabigwaduce on the Penobscot Bay, which had been given to France in an earlier Treaty, and to inform the English they were to vacate all lands North of Pemaquid. This resulted in all the French interests in Acadia being restored.

In Brazil, the colony of Equinoctial France was established in 1612, but only lasted 4 years until it was eliminated by the Portuguese.

Asia

"Fleet of Montmorency", led by Augustin de Beaulieu, in the East Indies, 1619-22 Fleet of Montmorency led by Augustin de Beaulieu 1619 1622.jpg
"Fleet of Montmorency", led by Augustin de Beaulieu, in the East Indies, 1619–22

France-Japan relations started under Louis XIII in 1615 when Hasekura Tsunenaga, a Japanese samurai and ambassador, sent to Rome by Date Masamune, landed at Saint-Tropez for a few days. In 1636, Guillaume Courtet, a French Dominican priest, reciprocated when he set foot in Japan. [12]

Also in 1615, Marie de' Medici incorporated the merchants of Dieppe and other harbours to found the Company of the Moluccas. In 1619, an armed expedition composed of three ships (275 crew, 106 cannon) and called the "Fleet of Montmorency" under General Augustin de Beaulieu was sent from Honfleur, to fight the Dutch in the Far East. In 1624, with the Treaty of Compiègne, Cardinal Richelieu obtained an agreement to halt the Dutch–French warfare in the Far East. [13]

Duke of Orléans

On two occasions the king's younger brother, Gaston, Duke of Orléans, had to leave France for conspiring against the King's government and for attempting to undermine the influence of both his mother and Cardinal Richelieu. After waging an unsuccessful war in Languedoc, he took refuge in Flanders. In 1643, on the death of Louis XIII, Gaston became lieutenant-general of the kingdom and fought against Spain on the northern frontiers of France.

Marriage

Anne of Austria, Queen of France, wife of Louis XIII (by Peter Paul Rubens, 1625) Anna of Austria by Rubens (1622-1625, Norton Simon Museum).jpg
Anne of Austria, Queen of France, wife of Louis XIII (by Peter Paul Rubens, 1625)

On 24 November 1615, Louis XIII married Anne of Austria, daughter of Philip III of Spain. This marriage followed a tradition of cementing military and political alliances between the Catholic powers of France and Spain with royal marriages. The tradition went back to the marriage of Louis VII of France and Constance of Castile. The marriage was only briefly happy, and the King's duties often kept them apart. After twenty-three years of marriage and four stillbirths, Anne finally gave birth to a son on 5 September 1638, the future Louis XIV.

Many people regarded this birth as a miracle and, in show of gratitude to God for the long-awaited birth of an heir, his parents named him Louis-Dieudonné ("God-given"). As another sign of gratitude, according to several interpretations, seven months before his birth, France was dedicated by Louis XIII to the Virgin Mary, who, many believed, had interceded for the perceived miracle. [14] [15] [16] However, the text of the dedication does not mention the royal pregnancy and birth as one of its reasons. Also, Louis XIII himself is said to have expressed his scepticism with regard to the miracle after his son's birth. [17] In gratitude for having successfully given birth, the queen founded the Benedictine abbey of the Val-de-Grâce, for which Louis XIV himself laid the cornerstone of its church, an early masterpiece of French Baroque architecture.

Issue

The couple had the following children:

NamePortraitLifespanNotes
stillborn childDec 1619
stillborn child14 Mar 1622
stillborn child1626
stillborn childApr 1631
Louis Dieudonne of France (later King Louis XIV) LouisXIV-child.jpg 5 Sep 1638 – 1 Sep 1715Married Maria Theresa of Spain (Spanish : María Teresa de Austria; French : Marie-Thérèse d'Autriche) (1638–83) in 1660. Had issue.
Philippe of France, Duke of Anjou (later Duke of Orléans) A young King Louis XIV of France (wearing Fleur-de-lis) sitting on a throne with his brother Philippe, Duke of Orleans.jpg 21 Sep 1640 – 8 Jun 1701married (1) Princess Henrietta of England (1644–70) in 1661. Had issue. Married (2) Elisabeth Charlotte of the Palainate (1652–1722) in 1671. Had issue.

Sexuality

There is no evidence that Louis kept mistresses (a distinction that earned him the title "Louis the Chaste"), but persistent rumours insinuated that he may have been homosexual or at least bisexual. His interests as a teenager increasingly focused on his male courtiers, and he quickly developed an intense emotional attachment to his favourite, Charles d'Albert, although there is no clear evidence of a physical sexual relationship. [18] Gédéon Tallemant des Réaux, drawing from rumours told to him by a critic of the King (the Marquise de Rambouillet), explicitly speculated in his Historiettes about what happened in the king's bed.

A further liaison with an equerry, François de Baradas, ended when the latter lost favour fighting a duel after duelling had been forbidden by royal decree. [19]

Louis was also allegedly captivated by Henri Coiffier de Ruzé, Marquis of Cinq-Mars, who was later executed for conspiring with the Spanish enemy in time of war. Tallemant described how on a royal journey, the King "sent M. le Grand [de Cinq-Mars] to undress, who returned, adorned like a bride. 'To bed, to bed' he said to him impatiently... and the mignon was not in before the king was already kissing his hands." [20]

Death

Louis XIII died in Paris on 14 May 1643, the 33rd anniversary of his father's death. According to his biographer A. Lloyd Moote,

"his intestines were inflamed and ulcerated, making digestion virtually impossible; tuberculosis had spread to his lungs, accompanied by habitual cough. Either of these major ailments, or the accumulation of minor problems, may have killed him, not to mention physiological weaknesses that made him prone to disease or his doctors' remedies of enemas and bleedings, which continued right to his death." [21]

Composer and lute player

Louis XIII shared his mother's love of the lute, developed in her childhood in Florence. One of his first toys was a lute and his personal doctor, Jean Héroard, reports him playing it for his mother in 1604, at the age of three. [22] In 1635, Louis XIII composed the music, wrote the libretto and designed the costumes for the "Ballet de la Merlaison." The king himself danced in two performances of the ballet the same year at Chantilly and Royaumont. [23]

Influence on men's fashion

In the sphere of the men's fashion, Louis helped introduce the wearing of wigs among men in 1624 [ citation needed ] that became fashionable for the first time since antiquity. This would be a dominant style among men in European and European-influenced countries for nearly 200 years until the fashion changes brought about by the French Revolution. [24]

In fiction and film

Ancestors

See also

Notes

  1. Tilly, Charles (1985). "War making and state making as organized crime," in Bringing the State Back In, eds P.B. Evans, D. Rueschemeyer, & T. Skocpol. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985. p. 174.
  2. "Schneider, Robert A. ''History 1450–1789: Louis XIII.''". Answers.com. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
  3. James 1897 , pp.  421
  4. Herbert of Cherbury 1830, pp.  116
  5. Moote 1989, p. 135.
  6. Moote 1989, p. 114.
  7. "The narrative really begins in 1619, when the adventurer, Admiral S. John de Razilly, resolved to go to Africa. France had no colony in Morocco; hence, King Louis XIII gave whole-hearted support to de Razilly." In Round table of Franciscan research, Volumes 17–18 Capuchin Seminary of St. Anthony, 1952
  8. Dubé, Jean-Claude & Rapley, Elizabeth (2005). The Chevalier de Montmagny (1601–1657): First Governor of New France. Google Books . University of Ottawa Press. p. 111. ISBN   9780776605593.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  9. García-Arenal, Mercedes; Garcia-Arenal, Fernando; Wiegers, García-Arenal; Wiegers, Gerard Albert; Wiegers, Professor Gerard (19 May 2003). ''A Man of Three Worlds'' Mercedes García-Arenal, Gerard Albert Wiegers. p. 114. ISBN   9780801872259 . Retrieved 23 August 2012.
  10. Tapié, Victor L (12 July 1984). ''France in the age of Louis XIII and Richelieu'' by Victor Lucien Tapié p. 259. ISBN   9780521269247 . Retrieved 23 August 2012.
  11. Acte pour l'établissement de la Compagnie des Cent Associés pour le commerce du Canada, contenant les articles accordés à la dite Compagnie par M. le Cardinal de Richelieu, le 29 avril 1627
  12. Butler's Lives of the Saints by Alban Butler, Paul Burns, p. 259
  13. Lach, Donald F. Asia in the Making of Europe, Volume III: A Century of Advance. 1. pp. 93–94, 398.
  14. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 31 January 2008.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Our Lady of Graces and the birth of Louis XIV, The website of the Sanctuary of Our Lady at Cotignac, Provence Archived 13 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved 24 January 2008
  15. Bremond 1908 , pp.  381 "Sans l'assurance d'avoir un fils, Louis XIII n'aurait pas fait le voeu de 1638." Translation: "Without the assurance of having a son, Louis XIII would not have made the vow of 1638."
  16. Louis XIV. MSN Encarta. 2008. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
  17. Dulong, Claude, Anne d’Autriche. Paris: Hachette, 1980. "Irrité de voir tant de courtisans parler de "miracle", Louis XIII aurait répliqué que "ce n'était point là si grand miracle qu'un mari couchât avec sa femme et lui fasse un enfant." Translation: "Irritated to see so many courtiers speak of a “miracle”, Louis XIII is said to have replied: “it was not such a great miracle that a husband slept with his wife and made a child with her.”"[ page needed ]
  18. Moote 1989, p. 148.
  19. Crompton 2006 , pp.  338 The grandson of Henry III, Saint-Luc, penned the irreverent rhyme: "Become a bugger, Baradas / if you are not already one / like Maugiron my grandfather / and La Valette".
  20. Crompton 2006 , pp.  338
  21. Moote 1989, p. 292.
  22. "INTERVIEW with Miguel Yisrael, lutenist, about the lute in France in the 17th century". classiquenews.com.
  23. "CND - Centre National de la Danse". cnd.fr. Archived from the original on 26 December 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  24. ""Horrid Bushes of Vanity": A History of Wigs". Randomhistory.com. 24 February 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
  25. 1 2 Anselme 1726, pp. 328–329.
  26. 1 2 Anselme 1726, pp. 143–144.
  27. 1 2 Anselme 1726, p. 211.
  28. 1 2 "The Medici Granducal Archive and the Medici Archive Project" (PDF). p. 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 January 2006.
  29. 1 2 Leonie Frieda (14 March 2006). Catherine de Medici: Renaissance Queen of France. HarperCollins. p. 386. ISBN   978-0-06-074493-9 . Retrieved 21 February 2011.
  30. 1 2 Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1860). "Habsburg, Johanna von Oesterreich (Tochter des Kaisers Ferdinand I.)"  . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 6. p. 290 via Wikisource.

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François de Bassompierre was a French courtier.

Gaston, Duke of Orléans French prince

Gaston, Duke of Orléans, was the third son of King Henry IV of France and his wife Marie de' Medici. As a son of the king, he was born a Fils de France. He later acquired the title Duke of Orléans, by which he was generally known during his adulthood. As the eldest surviving brother of King Louis XIII, he was known at court by the traditional honorific Monsieur.

Concino Concini Marshal of France

Concino Concini, 1st Marquis d'Ancre, was an Italian politician, best known for being a minister of Louis XIII of France, as the favourite of Louis's mother, Marie de Medici, Queen of France.

Siege of La Rochelle

The Siege of La Rochelle was a result of a war between the French royal forces of Louis XIII of France and the Huguenots of La Rochelle in 1627–28. The siege marked the height of the struggle between the Catholics and the Protestants in France, and ended with a complete victory for King Louis XIII and the Catholics.

Marie de Rohan French noble

Marie de Rohan was a French courtier and political activist, famed for being the center of many of the intrigues of the first half of the 17th century in France. In various sources, she is often known simply as Madame de Chevreuse.

Louis, Count of Soissons French noble

Louis de Bourbon was Count of Soissons. He was the son of Charles de Bourbon, Count of Soissons and Anne de Montafié. He was the second cousin of King Louis XIII of France and held the rank of prince of the blood.

Isaac de Razilly was a member of the French nobility appointed a knight of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem at the age of 18. He was born at the Château d'Oiseaumelle in the Province of Touraine, France. A member of the French navy, he served for many years during which he played an important role in the French colony of Acadia in New France. He was the son of François de Razilly and Catherine de Villiers, brother of Claude de Razilly and François de Razilly. Commandeur de la Commanderie de l'Ile Bouchard (Touraine)

Michel de Marillac was a French jurist and counsellor at the court of Louis XIII of France, one of the leading dévots. His uncle was Charles de Marillac, Archbishop of Vienne and a member of the king's council, the Conseil du Roi. A member of the circle of Marie de' Medici, he was arrested after the Queen Mother's flight in 1631 and died in prison.

The Treaty of Loudun was signed on May 3, 1616, in Loudun, France, and ended the war that originally began as a power struggle between queen mother Marie de Medici's favorite Concino Concini and Henry II de Condé, the next in line for Louis XIII's throne. The war gained religious undertones when rebellious Huguenot princes joined Condé's revolt.

Charles II, Duke of Elbeuf French nobleman

Charles II, Duke of Elbeuf, was a French nobleman, the son of Charles I, Duke of Elbeuf, by his wife, Marguerite de Chabot. He succeeded his father in the Elbeuf dukedom in 1605.

Roger de Saint-Lary de Termes French noble

Roger de Saint-Lary de Termes, duc de Bellegarde, nephew of Roger de Saint-Lary de Bellegarde, was a French duke.

Huguenot rebellions Rebellions in the Kingdom of France

The Huguenot rebellions, sometimes called the Rohan Wars after the Huguenot leader Henri de Rohan, were an event of the 1620s in which French Calvinist Protestants (Huguenots), mainly located in southwestern France, revolted against royal authority. The uprising occurred a decade following the death of Henry IV, who, himself originally a Huguenot before converting to Catholicism, had protected Protestants through the Edict of Nantes. His successor Louis XIII, under the regency of his Italian Catholic mother Marie de' Medici, became more intolerant of Protestantism. The Huguenots tried to respond by defending themselves, establishing independent political and military structures, establishing diplomatic contacts with foreign powers, and openly revolting against central power. The Huguenot rebellions came after two decades of internal peace under Henry IV, following the intermittent French Wars of Religion of 1562–1598.

Events of the year 1626 in France.

Charles de La Vieuville

Charles I. Coskaer, marquis and later duc de La Vieuville was an important French noble and Superintendent of Finances of France from 1623 to 1624 and once again from 1651 to 1653.

Antoine Coiffier de Ruzé, marquis dEffiat French diplomat

Antoine Coiffier de Ruzé d'Effiat, marquis d'Effiat, was a French noble and Superintendent of Finances to Louis XIII during the years 1626 to 1632. He was also a Marshal of France.

Blaise Francois Pagan French military engineer

Blaise François Pagan (1603–1665) was a French soldier and military engineer who served in the army of Louis XIII. His military career ended in 1642 when he lost his sight and in 1645, he published Les Fortifications; this became the dominant text of its era on military fortifications and significantly influenced Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban.

References

Further reading

Louis XIII of France & II of Navarre
Cadet branch of the House of Capet
Born: 27 September 1601 Died: 14 May 1643
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Henry IV and III
King of France
1610 – 1643
Succeeded by
Louis XIV
King of Navarre
1610 – 1620
French annexation
French royalty
Preceded by
Francis
Dauphin of France
1601 – 1610
Succeeded by
Louis