Louis X of France

Last updated
Louis X
Ludvik X.png
Miniature depiction of Louis X from the Vie de saint Louis, c.1330–1340
King of France
Reign29 November 1314 – 5 June 1316
Coronation 24 August 1315, Reims
Predecessor Philip IV
Successor John I
King of Navarre
Reign4 April 1305 – 5 June 1316
Coronation1 October 1307, Pamplona
Predecessor Joan I and Philip I
Successor John I
Born4 October 1289
Paris, France
Died5 June 1316 (aged 26)
Vincennes, Val-de-Marne, France
Burial
Spouse Margaret of Burgundy (m.1305, d.1315)
Clementia of Hungary (m.1315)
Issue
House Capet
Father Philip IV of France
Mother Joan I of Navarre
French Monarchy
Direct Capetians
Arms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svg
Hugh Capet
Robert II
Henry I
Philip I
Louis VI
Louis VII
Philip II
Louis VIII
Louis IX
Philip III
Philip IV
Louis X
John I
Philip V
Charles IV

Louis X (4 October 1289 – 5 June 1316), called the Quarrelsome, the Headstrong, or the Stubborn (French : le Hutin), was King of France from 1314 to 1316, succeeding his father Philip IV. After the death of his mother, Joan I of Navarre, he was also King of Navarre as Louis I (Basque : Luis I a Nafarroakoa) from 1305 until his death in 1316.

Contents

His short reign in France was marked by tensions with the nobility, due to fiscal and centralization reforms initiated by Enguerrand de Marigny, the Grand Chamberlain of France, under the reign of his father. Louis' uncle—Charles of Valois, leader of the feudalist party—managed to convince the king to execute Enguerrand de Marigny.

Louis allowed serfs to buy their freedom (which was the first step towards the abolition of serfdom), abolished slavery, and readmitted French Jews into the kingdom.

In 1305, Louis married Margaret of Burgundy, with whom he had Joan II of Navarre. Margaret was later convicted of adultery and died in prison, possibly murdered by strangulation. In 1315, Louis married Clementia of Hungary, who gave birth to John I of France a few months after the king's death. John's untimely death led to a disputed succession.

Personality, marriage and coronation

Louis being crowned with his second wife, Clementia of Hungary. Louis Clemence1315.jpg
Louis being crowned with his second wife, Clementia of Hungary.

Louis was born in Paris, the eldest son of Philip IV of France and Joan I of Navarre. [1] He inherited the kingdom of Navarre on the death of his mother, on 4 April 1305, later being crowned 1 October 1307. [2] On 21 September 1305, at age 15, he married Margaret of Burgundy and they had a daughter, Joan. [1] Louis was known as "the Quarreler" as the result of the tensions prevailing throughout his reigns. [3]

Both Louis and Margaret became involved in the Tour de Nesle affair towards the end of Philip's reign. In 1314, Margaret, Blanche and Joan—the latter two being the wives of Louis' brothers Charles and Philip, respectively—were arrested on charges of infidelity. [4] Margaret and Blanche were both tried before the French parliament later that year and found guilty. Their alleged lovers were executed, and the women had their hair shorn and were sentenced to life imprisonment. [4] Philip stood by his wife Joan, who was ultimately found innocent and released. Margaret would be imprisoned at Chateau Gaillard, where she died. [4]

On the death of his father in 1314, Louis became King of France. Margaret of Burgundy died on 14 August 1315 and Louis remarried five days later, on 19 August to Clementia of Hungary, [1] the daughter of Charles Martel of Anjou and the niece of Louis' own uncle and close advisor, Charles of Valois. Louis and Clementia were crowned at Reims in August 1315. [5]

Domestic policy

Coat of arms Blason Royaume de France (1289-1316).svg
Coat of arms

Louis was king of Navarre for eleven years and king of France for less than two years. His reign was dominated by continual feuding with the noble factions within the kingdom, and major reforms designed to increase royal revenues, such as the freeing of the French serfs and the readmittance of the Jews.

In 1315, Louis X published a decree proclaiming that "France signifies freedom" and that any slave setting foot on French soil should be freed. This prompted subsequent governments to circumscribe slavery in the overseas colonies. [6] His Ordonnances des Roi de France, V, p.1311 declared that "as soon as a slave breathes the air of France, he breathes freedom" [7]

Regional leagues

By the end of Philip IV's reign opposition to the fiscal reforms was growing. With Philip's death and the accession of Louis, this opposition rapidly developed in more open revolt, some authors citing Louis' relative youth as one of the reasons behind the timing of the rebellions. [8] Leagues of regional nobles began to form around the country, demanding changes. [9] Charles of Valois took advantage of this movement to turn against his old enemy, Philip IV's former minister and chamberlain Enguerrand de Marigny, and convinced Louis to bring corruption charges against him. When these failed, Charles then convinced Louis to bring sorcery charges against him instead, which proved more effective and led to de Marigny's execution at Vincennes in April 1315. [10] Other former ministers were similarly prosecuted. [11] This, combined with the halting of Philip's reforms, the issuing of numerous charters of rights [12] and a reversion to more traditional rule, largely assuaged the regional leagues. [13]

Readmittance of the Jews and reform of serfdom

Louis receiving a diploma from the Jews, whom he readmitted to France under strict terms. Painting made in 14th century. Louis10 zidi.png
Louis receiving a diploma from the Jews, whom he readmitted to France under strict terms. Painting made in 14th century.

In practical terms, Louis X effectively abolished slavery within the Kingdom of France in 1315. Louis continued to require revenues, however, and alighted on a reform of French serfdom as a way of achieving this. Arguing that all men are born free, Louis declared in 1315 that French serfs would therefore be freed, although each serf would have to purchase his freedom. [14] A body of commissioners was established to undertake the reform, establishing the peculium , or value, of each serf. [15] For serfs owned directly by the King, all of the peculium would be received by the Crown; for serfs owned by subjects of the King, the amount would be divided between the Crown and the owner. [16] In the event, not all serfs were prepared to pay in this fashion and in due course Louis declared that the goods of these serfs would be seized anyway, with the proceeds going to pay for the war in Flanders. [17]

Louis was also responsible for a key shift in policy towards the Jews. In 1306, his father, Philip IV, had expelled the Jewish minority from across France, a "shattering" event for most of these communities. [18] Louis began to reconsider this policy, motivated by the additional revenues that might be forthcoming to the Crown if the Jews were allowed to return. [19] Accordingly, Louis issued a charter in 1315, readmitting the Jews subject to various conditions. The Jews would only be admitted back into France for twelve years, after which the agreement might be terminated; Jews were to wear an armband at all times; Jews could only live in those areas where there had been Jewish communities previously; Jews were initially to be forbidden from usury. [20] This was the first time that French Jews had been covered by such a charter, and Louis was careful to justify his decision with reference to the policies of his ancestor Saint Louis IX, the position of Pope Clement V and an argument that the people of France had demanded a return of the Jews. [21] The result was a much weakened Jewish community that depended directly upon the King for their right of abode and protection. [22]

Challenge of Flanders

Louis campaigning in Flanders, where he sought a military solution to the ongoing problem of the "immensely wealthy", quasi-autonomous province of France. Painting circa 15th century. Louis X of France Flandre.jpg
Louis campaigning in Flanders, where he sought a military solution to the ongoing problem of the "immensely wealthy", quasi-autonomous province of France. Painting circa 15th century.

Louis X continued the effort of his predecessor to achieve a military solution to the vexing problem of Flanders. The Count of Flanders ruled an "immensely wealthy state" [23] which enjoyed a largely autonomous existence on the margins of the French realm; French kings claimed to exercise suzerainty over Flanders, but heretofore with little success. [24] Philip IV had attempted to assert royal overlordship, but his army, led by Robert II of Artois, had been defeated at Courtrai in 1302; [25] despite a later French victory at the Battle of Mons-en-Pévèle the relationship remained testy and unsettled.

Louis mobilised an army along the Flemish border, but the French position rapidly become strained by the demands of maintaining a wartime footing. Louis had prohibited exports of grain and other material to Flanders in 1315. This proved challenging to enforce, and the king had to pressure officers of the Church in the borderlands, [26] as well as Edward II of England, to support his effort to prevent Spanish merchant vessels from trading with the embargoed Flemish. [27] An unintended result of the embargo was the rise of smuggling activities that reduced the advantage (and consequently the amount) of trading in compliance with royal restrictions in the border region. Louis was also forced to directly requisition food for his forces, resulting in a series of complaints from local lords and the Church. [28]

Death and legacy

Louis was a keen player of jeu de paume, or real tennis, and became notable as the first person to construct indoor tennis courts in the modern style. Louis was unhappy with playing tennis out of doors and accordingly had indoor, enclosed courts made in Paris "around the end of the 13th century". [29] In due course this design spread across royal palaces all over Europe. [30] In June 1316 at Vincennes, following a particularly exhausting game, Louis drank a large quantity of cooled wine and subsequently died of either pneumonia or pleurisy, although there was also suspicion of poisoning. [31] Because of the contemporary accounts of his death, Louis is history's first tennis player known by name. [32] He and his second wife Clementia are interred in Saint Denis Basilica.

Louis' second wife Clementia was pregnant at the time of his death, leaving the succession in doubt. A son would have primacy over Louis' daughter, Joan. [33] A daughter, however, would have a weaker claim to the throne, and would need to compete with Joan's own claims – although suspicions hung over Joan's parentage following the scandal in 1314. [34] As a result, Louis' brother Philip was appointed regent for the five months remaining until the birth of his brother's child, John I, who lived only five days. Philip then succeeded in pressing his claims to the crowns of France and Navarre.

All de jure monarchs of Navarre from 1328 onwards were descended from Louis through his daughter, Joan, including Jeanne d'Albret, the mother of Henry IV of France, and therefore the entire royal House of Bourbon.

In fiction

Louis is a major character in Les Rois maudits (The Accursed Kings), a series of French historical novels by Maurice Druon. He was portrayed by Georges Ser  [ fr ] in the 1972 French miniseries adaptation of the series, and by Guillaume Depardieu in the 2005 adaptation. [35] [36]

Ancestry

Related Research Articles

The Capetian dynasty, also known as the House of France, is a dynasty of Frankish origin, and a branch of the Robertians. It is among the largest and oldest royal houses in Europe and the world, and consists of Hugh Capet, the founder of the dynasty, and his male-line descendants, who ruled in France without interruption from 987 to 1792, and again from 1814 to 1848. The senior line ruled in France as the House of Capet from the election of Hugh Capet in 987 until the death of Charles IV in 1328. That line was succeeded by cadet branches, the Houses of Valois and then Bourbon, which ruled without interruption until the French Revolution abolished the monarchy in 1792. The Bourbons were restored in 1814 in the aftermath of Napoleon's defeat, but had to vacate the throne again in 1830 in favor of the last Capetian monarch of France, Louis Philippe I, who belonged to the House of Orléans.

John I of France King of France and Navarre

John I, called the Posthumous, was king of France and Navarre, as the posthumous son and successor of Louis X, for the five days he lived in 1316. He is the youngest person to be king of France, the only one to have borne that title from birth, and the only one to hold the title for his entire life. His reign is the shortest of any French king. Although considered a king today, his status was not recognized until chroniclers and historians in later centuries began numbering John II, thereby acknowledging John I's brief reign.

Philip IV of France King of France 1285–1314

Philip IV, called Philip the Fair, was King of France from 1285 to 1314. By virtue of his marriage with Joan I of Navarre, he was also King of Navarre as Philip I from 1284 to 1305, as well as Count of Champagne. Although Philip was known as handsome, hence the epithet le Bel, his rigid and inflexible personality gained him other nicknames, such as the Iron King. His fierce opponent Bernard Saisset, bishop of Pamiers, said of him: "he is neither man nor beast. He is a statue."

Philip V of France King of France and Navarre

Philip V, known as the Tall, was King of France and Navarre. He reigned from 1316 to 1322.

Charles IV of France Last King of France who was directly a member of the House of Capet

Charles IV, called the Fair in France and the Bald in Navarre, was last king of the direct line of the House of Capet, King of France and King of Navarre from 1322 to 1328. Charles was the third son of Philip IV; like his father, he was known as "the fair" or "the handsome".

Count of Champagne Wikimedia list article

The Count of Champagne was the ruler of the County of Champagne from 950 to 1316. Champagne evolved from the county of Troyes in the late eleventh century and Hugh I was the first to officially use the title "Count of Champagne".

Joan I of Navarre Queen of Navarre

Joan I was queen regnant of Navarre and countess of Champagne from 1274 until 1305; she was also queen consort of France by marriage to Philip IV of France. She was the daughter of king Henry I of Navarre and Blanche of Artois.

Charles, Count of Valois Emperor of Constantinople

Charles of Valois, the third son of Philip III of France and Isabella of Aragon, was a member of the House of Capet and founder of the House of Valois, whose rule over France would start in 1328.

Joan II of Navarre Queen of Navarre

Joan II was Queen of Navarre from 1328 until her death. She was the only surviving child of Louis X of France, King of France and Navarre, and Margaret of Burgundy. Joan's paternity was dubious because her mother was involved in a scandal, but Louis X declared her his legitimate daughter before he died in 1316. However, the French lords were opposed to the idea of a female monarch and elected Louis X's brother, Philip V, king. The Navarrese noblemen also paid homage to Philip. Joan's maternal grandmother, Agnes of France, Duchess of Burgundy, and uncle, Odo IV of Burgundy, made attempts to secure the counties of Champagne and Brie to Joan, but the French royal troops defeated her supporters. After Philip V married his daughter to Odo and granted him two counties as her dowry, Odo renounced Joan's claim to Champagne and Brie in exchange for a compensation in March 1318. Joan married Philip of Évreux, who was also a member of the French royal family.

Margaret of Burgundy, Queen of France Queen consort of France

Margaret of Burgundy was Queen of France and Navarre as the first wife of Louis X of France.

Enguerrand de Marigny French politician

Enguerrand de Marigny, Baron Le Portier was a French chamberlain and minister of Philip IV.

House of Capet Rulers of the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328

The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians, also called the House of France, or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328. It was the most senior line of the Capetian dynasty – itself a derivative dynasty from the Robertians. Historians in the 19th century came to apply the name "Capetian" to both the ruling house of France and to the wider-spread male-line descendants of Hugh Capet. Contemporaries did not use the name "Capetian". The Capets were sometimes called "the third race of kings". The name "Capet" derives from the nickname given to Hugh, the first Capetian King, who became known as Hugh Capet.

Joan of Valois, Countess of Hainaut Countess of Hainaut, Holland, and Zeeland

Joan of Valois was a Countess consort of Hainaut, Holland, and Zeeland. She was the second eldest daughter of the French prince Charles, Count of Valois, and his first wife, Margaret, Countess of Anjou. As the sister of King Philip VI of France and the mother-in-law of Edward III, she was ideally placed to act as mediator between them.

Margaret I, Countess of Burgundy Countess Palatine of Burgundy

Margaret I, was a ruling Countess Palatine of Burgundy and Artois from 1361 and 1382. She was also countess of Flanders, Nevers and Rethel by marriage to Louis I, Count of Flanders, and regent of Flanders during the minority of her son Louis II, Count of Flanders in 1346.

Blanche of Burgundy Queen consort of France and Navarre

Blanche of Burgundy was Queen of France and Navarre for a few months in 1322 through her marriage to King Charles IV the Fair. The daughter of Count Otto IV of Burgundy and Countess Mahaut of Artois, she was led to a disastrous marriage by her mother's ambition. Eight years before her husband's accession to the thrones, Blanche was arrested and found guilty of adultery with a Norman knight. Her sister-in-law, Margaret of Burgundy, suffered the same fate, while her sister Joan was acquitted. Blanche was imprisoned until she became queen, when she was moved to the coast of Normandy. The date and place of her death are unknown; the mere fact that she died was simply mentioned on the occasion of her husband's third marriage in April 1326.

Joan II, Countess of Burgundy Countess of Burgundy

Joan II, Countess of Burgundy, was Queen of France by marriage to Philip V of France, and ruling Countess of Burgundy and Countess of Artois. She was the eldest daughter and heiress of Otto IV, Count of Burgundy, and Mahaut, Countess of Artois.

Clementia of Hungary Queen consort of France and Navarre

Clementia of Hungary was queen of France and Navarre as the second wife of King Louis X.

Tour de Nesle affair

The Tour de Nesle affair was a scandal amongst the French royal family in 1314, during which Margaret, Blanche, and Joan, the daughters-in-law of King Philip IV, were accused of adultery. The accusations were apparently started by Philip's daughter, Isabella. The Tour de Nesle was a tower in Paris where much of the adultery was said to have occurred. The scandal led to torture, executions and imprisonments for the princesses' lovers and the imprisonment of the princesses, with lasting consequences for the final years of the House of Capet.

County of Longueville countship

Count of Longueville is a French noble title, whose holder had the fiefdom of the County of Longueville. The County was erected into a Duchy in 1505.

Hugues III de Bouville (1275–1331) was the chamberlain of Philip IV of France.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Woodacre 2013, p. xix.
  2. The Low Countries and the Disputed Imperial Election of 1314, Henry S. Lucas, Speculum,Vol. 21, No. 1 (Jan., 1946), 79.
  3. Konta, p.521.
  4. 1 2 3 Jim Bradbury, The Capetians: Kings of France 987-1328, (Hambledon Continuum, 2007), 277.
  5. Jordan 2005, p. 64.
  6. Christopher L. Miller, The French Atlantic triangle: literature and culture of the slave trade, p.20.
  7. Ordonnances des Roi de France, V, p.1311, as quoted in Travers Twist. "The Extraterritoriality of Public Ships of War in Foreign Waters", The Law Magazine and Review: A Quarterly Review of Jurisprudence , Volume 1, No. 219, Saunders and Benning (February 1876)
  8. Sellery, p.292.
  9. Wagner, p.203.
  10. Lea, p.451.
  11. Emmerson and Clayton-Emmerson, p.528.
  12. Emmerson and Clayton-Emmerson, p.528.
  13. Wagner, p.203.
  14. Bishop, p.296.
  15. Stephen, p.377.
  16. Stephen, p.377.
  17. Jeudwine, p.18.
  18. Chazan, p.79.
  19. Chazan, p.79.
  20. Chazan, pp79-80.
  21. Chazan, p.79.
  22. Chazan, p.79.
  23. Holmes, p.16.
  24. Holmes, p.16.
  25. Holmes, p.16.
  26. Jordan, pp151-2.
  27. Kulsrud, p.212.
  28. Jordan, pp.169–170.
  29. Newman, p.163.
  30. Newman, p.163.
  31. Gillmeister, pp. 17–21.
  32. Gillmeister, pp.17–21.
  33. Rose, p.89.
  34. Wagner, p.250.
  35. "Official website: Les Rois maudits (2005 miniseries)" (in French). 2005. Archived from the original on 15 August 2009. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
  36. "Les Rois maudits: Casting de la saison 1" (in French). AlloCiné. 2005. Archived from the original on 19 December 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
  37. 1 2 Anselme, pp. 83–85
  38. 1 2 3 4 Anselme, pp. 87–88
  39. 1 2 Bulletin de la Société de l'histoire de France (in French). J. Renouard. 1855. p.  98.
  40. 1 2 Anselme, p. 90
  41. 1 2 Anselme, pp. 381–382

Bibliography

Further reading

Louis X of France and I of Navarre
Born: 4 October 1289 Died: 5 June 1316
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Philip IV
King of France
1314–1316
Vacant
Title next held by
John I
Preceded by
Joan I
Philip I
King of Navarre
1305–1316
Count of Champagne
1305–1314
Royal domain