|King of France|
|Reign||29 November 1314 – 5 June 1316|
|Coronation||24 August 1315, Reims|
|King of Navarre|
|Reign||4 April 1305 – 5 June 1316|
|Coronation||1 October 1307, Pamplona|
|Predecessor||Joan I and Philip I|
|Born||4 October 1289|
|Died||5 June 1316 (aged 26)|
Vincennes, Val-de-Marne, France
|Burial||7 June 1316  |
|Spouse|| Margaret of Burgundy (m.1305, d.1315)|
Clementia of Hungary (m.1315)
|Father||Philip IV of France|
|Mother||Joan I of Navarre|
Louis X (4 October 1289 – 5 June 1316), known as the Quarrelsome (French : le Hutin), was King of France from 1314 and King of Navarre as Louis I from 1305 until his death. He emancipated serfs who could buy their freedom and readmitted Jews into the kingdom. His short reign in France was marked by tensions with the nobility, due to fiscal and centralisation reforms initiated during the reign of his father by Grand Chamberlain Enguerrand de Marigny.
Louis' first wife, Margaret, implicated in the Tour de Nesle affair, was found guilty of infidelity and was imprisoned til her death on 14 August 1315. Louis and Clémence of Hungary were married that same year, but he died on 5 June 1316 leaving a pregnant wife. Queen Clémence gave birth to a boy, who was proclaimed king as John I, but the infant lived only five days. Louis' brother Philip, Count of Poitiers, succeeded John to become Philip V, King of France.
Louis was born in Paris, the eldest son of Philip IV of France and Joan I of Navarre.  He inherited the kingdom of Navarre on the death of his mother, on 4 April 1305, and was crowned on 1 October 1307.  On 21 September 1305, at age 15, he married Margaret of Burgundy and they had a daughter, Joan.  Louis was known as "the Quarreler",  "the Quarrelsome",  as the result of the tensions prevailing throughout his reigns.
Both Louis and Margaret became involved in the Tour de Nesle affair towards the end of Philip's reign. In 1314, Margaret, Blanche and Joan — the latter two being the wives of Louis' brothers Charles and Philip, respectively — were arrested on charges of infidelity.  Margaret and Blanche were both tried before the French parlement later that year and found guilty. Their alleged lovers were executed, and the women had their hair shorn and were sentenced to life imprisonment.  Philip stood by his wife Joan, who was ultimately found innocent and released. Margaret would be imprisoned at Chateau Gaillard in Normandy. 
On the death of his father in 1314, Louis became King of France. Margaret of Burgundy would not be released from imprisonment or crowned, but as his wife, she technically became Queen of France. Without an incumbent pope, Louis could not annul his marriage. The imprisoned Queen of France died on 14 August 1315 and Louis remarried five days later, on 19 August to Clémence of Hungary,  the daughter of Charles Martel of Anjou and the niece of Louis' own uncle and close advisor, Charles of Valois. Louis and Clémence were crowned at Reims in August 1315. 
In 1305, Louis married Margaret of Burgundy, with whom he had a daughter, Joan II of Navarre. Margaret was later convicted of adultery, was imprisoned in Château Gaillard, caught a cold and died in 1315,  although another source states that she was strangled to death.  In 1315, Louis married Clémence of Hungary, who gave birth to John I of France five months after the king's death. The infant John's death a few days later led to a disputed succession.   With an unknown woman, Louis had a daughter, Eudeline, who joined the Order of St. Claire  and became the abbess of the Franciscan nuns of Paris, 1334-1339.  [lower-alpha 1]
Louis was king of Navarre for eleven years and king of France for less than two years. His reign was dominated by continual feuding with the noble factions within the kingdom, and major reforms designed to increase royal revenues, such as the freeing of the French serfs and the readmittance of the Jews.
By the end of Philip IV's reign opposition to the fiscal reforms was growing. With Philip's death and the accession of Louis, this opposition rapidly developed into more open revolt, some authors citing Louis' relative youth as one of the reasons behind the timing of the rebellions.  Leagues of regional nobles began to form around the country, demanding changes.  Charles of Valois took advantage of this movement to turn against his old enemy, Philip IV's former minister and chamberlain Enguerrand de Marigny, and convinced Louis to bring corruption charges against him. When these failed, Charles then convinced Louis to bring sorcery charges against him instead, which proved more effective and led to de Marigny's execution at Vincennes in April 1315.  Other former ministers were similarly prosecuted.  This, combined with the halting of Philip's reforms, the issuing of numerous charters of rights  and a reversion to more traditional rule, largely assuaged the regional leagues. 
In July 1315, Louis X issued an edict effectively abolishing serfdom in the royal domain.  As a way of raising revenues, for his war against Flanders,  and having alighted on a reform of French serfdom as a way of achieving this, he declared that French serfs would be freed, although each serf would have to purchase his freedom. A body of commissioners was established to undertake the reform, establishing the peculium , or value, of each serf.  For serfs owned directly by the King, all of the peculium would be received by the Crown; for serfs owned by subjects of the King, the amount would be divided between the Crown and the owner.
Louis was also responsible for a key shift in policy towards the Jews. In 1306, his father, Philip IV, had expelled the Jewish minority from across France, a "shattering" event for most of these communities.  Louis began to reconsider this policy, motivated by the additional revenues that might be forthcoming to the Crown if the Jews were allowed to return.  Accordingly, Louis issued a charter in 1315, readmitting the Jews subject to various conditions. The Jews would be admitted back into France for only twelve years, after which the agreement might be terminated; Jews were to wear an armband at all times; Jews could live only in those areas where there had been Jewish communities previously; Jews were initially to be forbidden from usury.  This was the first time that French Jews had been covered by such a charter, and Louis was careful to justify his decision with reference to the policies of his ancestor Saint Louis IX, the position of Pope Clement V and an argument that the people of France had demanded a return of the Jews.  The result was a much-weakened Jewish community that depended directly upon the King for their right of abode and protection. 
Louis X continued the effort of his predecessor to achieve a military solution to the vexing problem of Flanders. The Count of Flanders ruled an "immensely wealthy state"  which enjoyed a largely autonomous existence on the margins of the French realm; French kings claimed to exercise suzerainty over Flanders, but heretofore with little success.  Philip IV had attempted to assert royal overlordship, but his army, led by Robert II of Artois, had been defeated at Courtrai in 1302;  despite a later French victory at the Battle of Mons-en-Pévèle the relationship remained testy and unsettled.
Louis mobilised an army along the Flemish border, but the French position rapidly became strained by the demands of maintaining a wartime footing. Louis had prohibited exports of grain and other material to Flanders in 1315. This proved challenging to enforce, and the king had to pressure officers of the Church in the borderlands,  as well as Edward II of England, to support his effort to prevent Spanish merchant vessels from trading with the embargoed Flemish.  An unintended result of the embargo was the rise of smuggling activities that reduced the advantage (and consequently the amount) of trading in compliance with royal restrictions in the border region. Louis was also forced to requisition food directly for his forces, resulting in a series of complaints from local lords and the Church. 
Louis was a keen player of jeu de paume, or real tennis, and became notable as the first person to construct indoor tennis courts in the modern style. Louis was unhappy with playing tennis outdoors and accordingly had indoor, enclosed courts made in Paris "around the end of the 13th century".  In due course this design spread across royal palaces all over Europe.  On 5 June 1316 at Vincennes, following a particularly exhausting game, Louis drank a large quantity of cooled wine and subsequently died of either pneumonia or pleurisy, although there were also suspicions of poisoning.  Because of the contemporary accounts of his death, Louis is history's first tennis player known by name.  He and his second wife Clémence are interred in Saint Denis Basilica.
Louis' second wife Clémence was pregnant at the time of his death, leaving the succession in doubt. A son would have primacy over Louis' daughter, Joan.  A daughter, however, would have a weaker claim to the throne, and would need to compete with Joan's own claims, although suspicions hung over Joan's parentage following the scandal of 1314.  As a result, Louis' brother Philip was appointed regent for the five months remaining until the birth of his brother's child, John I, who lived only five days. Philip then succeeded in pressing his claims to the crowns of France and Navarre.
All de jure monarchs of Navarre from 1328 onwards were descended from Louis through his daughter, Joan, including Jeanne d'Albret, the mother of Henry IV of France, and therefore the entire royal House of Bourbon.
Louis is a major character in Les Rois maudits (The Accursed Kings), a series of French historical novels by Maurice Druon. He was portrayed by Georges Ser  in the 1972 French miniseries adaptation of the series, and by Guillaume Depardieu in the 2005 adaptation.
|Ancestors of Louis X of France|
Year 1315 (MCCCXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.
Philip IV, called Philip the Fair, was King of France from 1285 to 1314. By virtue of his marriage with Joan I of Navarre, he was also King of Navarre as Philip I from 1284 to 1305, as well as Count of Champagne. Although Philip was known to be handsome, hence the epithet le Bel, his rigid, autocratic, imposing, and inflexible personality gained him other nicknames, such as the Iron King. His fierce opponent Bernard Saisset, bishop of Pamiers, said of him: "He is neither man nor beast. He is a statue."
John II, called John the Good, was King of France from 1350 until his death in 1364. When he came to power, France faced several disasters: the Black Death, which killed nearly 40% of its population; popular revolts known as Jacqueries; free companies of routiers who plundered the country; and English aggression that resulted in catastrophic military losses, including the Battle of Poitiers of 1356, in which John was captured.
Philip III, called the Bold, was King of France from 1270 until his death in 1285. His father, Louis IX, died in Tunis during the Eighth Crusade. Philip, who was accompanying him, returned to France and was anointed king at Reims in 1271.
Philip V, known as the Tall, was King of France and Navarre from 1316 to 1322.
Charles IV, called the Fair in France and the Bald in Navarre, was last king of the direct line of the House of Capet, King of France and King of Navarre from 1322 to 1328. Charles was the third son of Philip IV; like his father, he was known as "the fair" or "the handsome".
The count of Champagne was the ruler of the County of Champagne from 950 to 1316. Champagne evolved from the County of Troyes in the late eleventh century and Hugh I was the first to officially use the title count of Champagne.
Joan I was Queen of Navarre and Countess of Champagne from 1274 until 1305; she was also Queen of France by marriage to King Philip IV. She founded the College of Navarre in Paris in 1305.
Joan II was Queen of Navarre from 1328 until her death. She was the only surviving child of Louis X of France, King of France and Navarre, and Margaret of Burgundy. Joan's paternity was dubious because her mother was involved in a scandal, but Louis X declared her his legitimate daughter before he died in 1316. However, the French lords were opposed to the idea of a female monarch and elected Louis X's brother, Philip V, king. The Navarrese noblemen also paid homage to Philip. Joan's maternal grandmother, Agnes of France, and uncle, Odo IV of Burgundy, made attempts to secure the counties of Champagne and Brie to Joan, but the French royal troops defeated her supporters. After Philip V married his daughter to Odo and granted him two counties as her dowry, Odo renounced Joan's claim to Champagne and Brie in exchange for a compensation in March 1318. Joan married Philip of Évreux, who was also a member of the French royal family.
Margaret of Burgundy was Queen of France and Navarre as the first wife of King Louis X, although locked in prison during her whole French queenship.
Enguerrand de Marigny, Baron Le Portier was a French chamberlain and minister of Philip IV.
Marie of Brabant was Queen of France from 1274 until 1285 as the second wife of King Philip III. Born in Leuven, Brabant, she was a daughter of Henry III, Duke of Brabant, and Adelaide of Burgundy.
The Accursed Kings is a series of historical novels by French author Maurice Druon about the French monarchy in the 14th century. Published between 1955 and 1977, the series has been adapted as a miniseries twice for television in France.
Philip III, called the Noble or the Wise, was King of Navarre from 1328 until his death. He was born a minor member of the French royal family but gained prominence when the Capetian main line went extinct, as he and his wife and cousin, Joan II of Navarre, acquired the Iberian kingdom and a number of French fiefs.
The House of Capet ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328. It was the most senior line of the Capetian dynasty – itself a derivative dynasty from the Robertians.
Margaret I was a Capetian princess who ruled as Countess of Burgundy and Artois from 1361 until her death. She was also countess of Flanders, Nevers and Rethel by marriage to Louis I of Flanders, and regent of Flanders during the minority of her son, Louis II, in 1346.
Blanche of Burgundy was Queen of France and Navarre for a few months in 1322 through her marriage to King Charles IV the Fair. The daughter of Count Otto IV of Burgundy and Countess Mahaut of Artois, she was led to a disastrous marriage by her mother's ambition. Eight years before her husband's accession to the thrones, Blanche was arrested and found guilty of adultery with a Norman knight. Her sister-in-law, Margaret of Burgundy, suffered the same fate, while her sister Joan was acquitted. Blanche was imprisoned and not released even after becoming queen, until her marriage was annulled when she was moved to the coast of Normandy. The date and place of her death are unknown; the mere fact that she died was simply mentioned on the occasion of her husband's third marriage in April 1326.
Joan II, Countess of Burgundy, was Queen of France by marriage to Philip V of France; she was also ruling Countess of Burgundy from 1303 to 1330 and ruling Countess of Artois in 1329-1330.
Clementia of Hungary was Queen of France and Navarre as the second wife of King Louis X.
The Tour de Nesle affair was a scandal amongst the French royal family in 1314, during which Margaret, Blanche, and Joan, the daughters-in-law of King Philip IV, were accused of adultery. The accusations were apparently started by Philip's daughter, Isabella. The Tour de Nesle was a tower in Paris where much of the adultery was said to have occurred. The scandal led to torture, executions and imprisonments for the princesses' lovers and the imprisonment of the princesses, with lasting consequences for the final years of the House of Capet.
...il n'avait pu se rendre aux funérailles célébrées deux jours après la mort du roi.