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The Duchess of Devonshire
Photograph of Her Grace, 1884
|Mistress of the Robes|
24 February 1858 –11 June 1859
|Preceded by||The Duchess of Sutherland|
|Succeeded by||The Duchess of Sutherland|
Louisa Frederica Augusta, Countess von Alten
15 June 1832
Hanover, Kingdom of Hanover
|Died||15 July 1911 79) (aged|
|Resting place||Edensor, Derbyshire|
William Drogo Montagu, 7th Duke of Manchester
(m. 1852;died 1890)
Spencer Cavendish, 8th Duke of Devonshire
(m. 1892;died 1908)
|Children|| George Montagu, 8th Duke of Manchester |
Mary Louisa, Duchess of Hamilton
Louisa Augusta, Countess of Gosford
Lord Charles Montagu
Alice Maude, Countess of Derby
|Parents||Karl Franz Viktor|
Hermine de Schminke
Louisa Frederica Augusta Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire, formerly Louisa Montagu, Duchess of Manchester, née Luise Fredericke Auguste, Countess von Alten (15 June 1832 – 15 July 1911) was a German-born British aristocrat sometimes referred to as the "Double Duchess" due to her marriages to first the Duke of Manchester and later to the Duke of Devonshire. [ third-party source needed ]
Spencer Compton Cavendish, 8th Duke of Devonshire,, styled Lord Cavendish of Keighley between 1834 and 1858 and Marquess of Hartington between 1858 and 1891, was a British statesman. He has the distinction of having served as leader of three political parties: as Leader of the Liberal Party in the House of Commons (1875–1880) and as of the Liberal Unionist Party (1886–1903) and of the Unionists in the House of Lords (1902–1903). He also declined to become Prime Minister on three occasions, not because he was not a serious politician but because the circumstances were never right.
Louisa Frederica Augusta, Countess of Alten was born 15 June 1832 in Hanover in what was then the Kingdom of Hanover. She was the daughter of Karl Franz Viktor, Count of Alten (1800–1879), and his wife, Hermine de Schminke (1806–1868). [ citation needed ]Her siblings included Helene Charlotte Auguste, Countess of Alten (1830–1890), who married Andrei Bludov, Carl Friedrich Franz Victor, Count of Alten (1833–1901), who married Carolina Frederica Groeninx van Zoelen, and Guidobaldine, Countess of Alten (1838–1922), who married Graf August Grote and Don Luigi Maria Colonna, Prince of Stigliano, and Detlof von Bülow.
Hanover or Hannover is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony. Its 535,061 (2017) inhabitants make it the thirteenth-largest city of Germany, as well as the third-largest city of Northern Germany after Hamburg and Bremen. The city lies at the confluence of the River Leine and its tributary Ihme, in the south of the North German Plain, and is the largest city of the Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region. It is the fifth-largest city in the Low German dialect area after Hamburg, Dortmund, Essen, and Bremen.
The Kingdom of Hanover was established in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories after the Napoleonic era. It succeeded the former Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and joined 38 other sovereign states in the German Confederation in June 1815. The kingdom was ruled by the House of Hanover, a cadet branch of the House of Welf, in personal union with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until 1837. Since its monarch resided in London, a viceroy handled the administration of the Kingdom of Hanover.
Her paternal grandparents were Adolf Viktor Christian Jobst, Count of Alten (1755–1820) and Charlotte Louise Wilhelmine Kinsky von Wchinitz und Tettau (1775–1842).[ citation needed ]
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"A social climber with a nose for power", the 26-year-old Duchess - through her friendship with Lord Derby, the then prime minister - was appointed Mistress of the Robes to Queen Victoria in February 1858, resigning in June 1859, when Lord Derby's government fell.Victoria regretted her departure, calling her "a very pleasant, nice, sensible person". The Duchess soon developed close friendships with Edward, Prince of Wales and Alexandra, Princess of Wales.
Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, was a British statesman, three-time Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and, to date, the longest-serving leader of the Conservative Party. He was known before 1834 as Edward Stanley, and from 1834 to 1851 as Lord Stanley. He is one of only four British prime ministers to have three or more separate periods in office. However, his ministries each lasted less than two years and totalled three years and 280 days.
The Mistress of the Robes is the senior lady in the Royal Household of the United Kingdom. Formerly responsible for the queen's clothes and jewellery, the post now has the responsibility for arranging the rota of attendance of the ladies-in-waiting on the queen, along with various duties at state ceremonies. In modern times, the Mistress of the Robes is almost always a duchess. During the 17th and 18th centuries, this role often overlapped with or was replaced as First Lady of the Bedchamber.
Edward VII was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910.
Lady Eleanor Stanley recorded in her diary in 1859 that during a "paper chase", the Duchess caught her hoop while climbing over a stile, and was left with the entirety of her crinoline and skirts thrown over her head, revealing her scarlet drawers to the assembled company. [ relevant? ] The Duc de Malakoff, the French ambassador, is said to have exclaimed "C'était diabolique!" at the sight. [ relevant? ]
Paper Chase is a racing game played outdoors with any number of players. At the start of the game, one person is designated the 'hare' and everyone else in the group are the 'hounds'. The 'hare' starts off ahead of everyone else leaving behind themselves a trail of paper shreds which represents the scent of the hare. Just as scent is carried on the wind, so too are the bits of paper, sometimes making for a difficult game. After some designated time, the hounds must chase after the hare and attempt to catch them before they reach the ending point of the race. It is generally done over a long distance, but shorter courses can be set. If the hare makes it to the finish line, they get to choose the next hare, or to be the hare themselves. Similarly, the person who catches the hare gets to choose the next hare.
A stile is a structure or opening that provides people passage over or through a boundary via steps, ladders, or narrow gaps. Stiles are often built in rural areas along footpaths, fences, walls, or hedges that enclose animals, allowing people to move freely.
A crinoline is a stiffened or structured petticoat designed to hold out a woman's skirt, popular at various times since the mid-19th century. Originally, crinoline described a stiff fabric made of horsehair ("crin") and cotton or linen which was used to make underskirts and as a dress lining.
In 1897, the Duchess hosted the Devonshire House Fancy Dress Ball at Devonshire House, the London residence of the Dukes of Devonshire in the 18th and 19th centuries. The party was a costume ball thrown to celebrate Queen Victoria's diamond jubilee. The Queen's Private Secretary, Francis Knollys, wrote to the Duchess that the Prince of Wales (who dressed as the Grand Master of the Knights of Malta) thought the party a success. At the ball, the Duchess dressed as Queen Zenobia of Palmyra.
Devonshire House in Piccadilly was the London residence of the Dukes of Devonshire in the 18th and 19th centuries. Following a fire in 1733 it was rebuilt for William Cavendish, 3rd Duke of Devonshire, in the Palladian style, to designs by William Kent. Completed circa 1740, it stood empty after the First World War and was demolished in 1924.
A diamond jubilee is a celebration held to mark a 60th anniversary of an event related to a person.
The Private Secretary to the Sovereign is the senior operational member of the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. The Private Secretary is the principal channel of communication between the monarch and the governments in each of the Commonwealth realms. They also have responsibility for the official programme and correspondence of the Sovereign. Through these roles the position wields considerable influence.
On 22 July 1852, the twenty-year old Louisa was married at Hanover to Viscount Mandeville, eldest son and heir of the 6th Duke of Manchester. Upon his father's death on 8 August 1855, he succeeded his father as 7th Duke of Manchester, and Louisa became Duchess of Manchester. [ citation needed ]They had five children:
Louisa became estranged from the Duke, and they lived apart for many years.[ citation needed ] Louisa became the companion of the Marquess of Hartington, and a notable political hostess.[ citation needed ] The Duke died in Naples on 22 March 1890.[ citation needed ]
On 16 August 1892, at Christ Church, Mayfair, the sixty-year-old Dowager Duchess of Manchester married Hartington, now the 8th Duke of Devonshire. She thereby became Duchess of Devonshire, with the nickname of "The Double Duchess".[ citation needed ]
After the Duke of Devonshire's death on 24 March 1908, she was widowed for the second time, becoming the Dowager Duchess of Devonshire.[ citation needed ] On 15 July 1911, at the Sandown Races in Esher Park, the Duchess died after a seizure, aged 79, and was interred at Edensor, Derbyshire.[ citation needed ]
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Duke of Devonshire is a title in the Peerage of England held by members of the Cavendish family. This branch of the Cavendish family has been one of the wealthiest British aristocratic families since the 16th century and has been rivalled in political influence perhaps only by the Marquesses of Salisbury and the Earls of Derby.
Deborah Vivien Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire, was an English aristocrat, writer, memoirist and socialite. She was the youngest and last surviving of the six Mitford sisters, who were prominent members of English society in the 1930s and 1940s.
William Cavendish, 7th Duke of Devonshire,, styled as Lord Cavendish of Keighley between 1831 and 1834 and known as The Earl of Burlington between 1834 and 1858, was a British landowner, benefactor, nobleman, and politician.
Louisa Jane Montagu Douglas Scott, Duchess of Buccleuch and Queensberry was the daughter of James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Abercorn. In 1884, she became the Duchess of Buccleuch and Duchess of Queensberry, the wife of William Henry Walter Montagu Douglas Scott, 6th Duke of Buccleuch & 8th Duke of Queensberry. She was the paternal grandmother of Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester and of Marian Louisa, Lady Elmhirst, as well as the maternal great-grandmother of Prince William of Gloucester, Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester and great-great-grandmother of Sarah, Duchess of York.
Colonel William Montagu, 5th Duke of Manchester, styled Viscount Mandeville until 1788, was a British peer, soldier, colonial administrator and politician.
William Drogo Montagu, 7th Duke of Manchester KP, known as Lord Kimbolton from 1823 to 1843 and as Viscount Mandeville from 1843 to 1855, was a British peer and Conservative Member of Parliament.
Evelyn Emily Mary Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire, DStJ, was the wife of The 9th Duke of Devonshire. She was born the elder daughter of the politician and diplomat The 5th Marquess of Lansdowne, and grew up amidst public life. Evelyn's marriage to Cavendish, the heir of The 8th Duke of Devonshire, led to her becoming Duchess of Devonshire in 1908. With her position, she oversaw the reorganisation of the Devonshire estates and presided over four English houses and one Irish castle.
Frederica Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt was Queen consort of Prussia as the second spouse of King Frederick William II.
The Lady of the Bedchamber is the title of a lady-in-waiting holding the official position of personal attendant on a British queen or princess. The position is traditionally held by a female member of a noble family. They are ranked between the First Lady of the Bedchamber and the Women of the Bedchamber. They are also styled Gentlewoman of Her Majesty's Bedchamber.
Elizabeth Christiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire was an English novelist and duchess. She is best known as Lady Elizabeth Foster, the close friend of Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire. Elizabeth supplanted the Duchess, gaining the affections of William Cavendish, 5th Duke of Devonshire, and later marrying him.
George Victor Drogo Montagu, 8th Duke of Manchester, styled Lord Kimbolton from 1853 to 1855 and Viscount Mandeville from 1855 to 1890, was a British peer and Member of Parliament.
Louisa Augusta Beatrice Acheson, Countess of Gosford,, née Lady Louisa Augusta Beatrice Montagu, was the wife of the 4th Earl of Gosford.
The House of Cavendish is a British noble house. The Cavendish family has been one of the richest and most influential aristocratic families in England since the 16th century, and has been rivalled in political influence perhaps only by the Marquesses of Salisbury and the Earls of Derby. They are descended from Sir John Cavendish of Cavendish in the county of Suffolk, and their numerous peerages included the Dukedom of Devonshire, the Dukedom of Newcastle, the Barony of Waterpark. and the Barony of Chesham. The head of the family is Peregrine Cavendish, 12th Duke of Devonshire, whose seat is Chatsworth House, one of the grandest private homes in the world.
Louisa Jane Hamilton, Duchess of Abercorn, VA was a member of the British aristocracy. She was the sister of Prime Minister John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, and among her descendants are two British princesses and Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester.
Consuelo Montagu, Duchess of Manchester, née Consuelo Yznaga was a Cuban American woman who married George Montagu, Viscount Mandeville, and later became the Duchess of Manchester.
The Devonshire House Ball or the Devonshire House Fancy Dress Ball was an elaborate fancy dress ball, hosted by the Duke and Duchess of Devonshire, held on 2 July 1897 at Devonshire House in Piccadilly to celebrate Queen Victoria’s diamond jubilee. Due to the many prominent royals, aristocrats, and society figures who attended as well as the overall lavishness of the ball, it was considered the event of the 1897 London Season.
Elizabeth Montagu, Duchess of Manchester, formerly Elizabeth Dashwood, was the wife of George Montagu, 4th Duke of Manchester.
Duchess of Manchester is a title given to the wife of the Duke of Manchester. Women who have held the title include:
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The Duchess of Sutherland
| Mistress of the Robes |
The Duchess of Sutherland