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|Unknown–c. 3150 BC|
|Common languages||Ancient Egyptian|
|Religion||Ancient Egyptian religion|
• c. 3150 BC
|c. 3150 BC|
|Today part of|
Lower Egypt (Arabic : مصر السفلىMiṣr as-Suflā, Coptic : ⲧⲥⲁϦⲏⲧTsakhit) is the northernmost region of Egypt, which consists of the fertile Nile Delta between Upper Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea, from El Aiyat, south of modern-day Cairo, and Dahshur. Historically, the Nile River split into seven branches of the delta in Lower Egypt. Lower Egypt was divided into nomes and began to advance as a civilization after 3600 BC. Today, it contains two major channels that flow through the delta of the Nile River.
In Ancient Egyptian Lower Egypt was known as mḥw and means "north". : ⲧⲥⲁϦⲏⲧ) or Psanamhit (Coptic : ⲡⲥⲁⲛⲉⲙϩⲓⲧ) "Northern part", which they also divided into three regions – western part called ⲛⲓⲫⲁⲓⲁⲧ Niphaiat ("Libyans"), central part called ⲡⲉⲧⲙⲟⲩⲣ Badmur ("the one which bounds, girds", Greek: Πτιμυρις ) and eastern one called ϯⲁⲣⲁⲃⲓⲁ Diarabia ("Arabia").Later on, during Antiquity and the Middle Ages, Greeks and Romans called it Κάτω Αἴγυπτος or Aegyptus Inferior both meaning "Lower Egypt". Native Coptic Egyptian population carried on using the old name related to north – Tsakhit (Coptic
In ancient times, Pliny the Elder, in Natural History (Book 5, chapter 11), said that upon reaching the delta the Nile split into seven branches (from east to west): the Pelusiac, the Tanitic, the Mendesian, the Phatnitic, the Sebennytic, the Bolbitine, and the Canopic. Today there are two principal channels that the Nile takes through the river delta: one in the west at Rashid and one in the east at Damietta.
The delta region is well watered, crisscrossed by channels and canals.
Owing primarily to its proximity to the Mediterranean Sea, the climate in Lower Egypt is milder than that of Upper Egypt, the southern portion of the country. Temperatures are less extreme and rainfall is more abundant in Lower Egypt.
It was divided into twenty districts called nomes, the first of which was at el-Lisht. Because Lower Egypt was mostly undeveloped scrubland, filled with all types of plant life such as grasses and herbs, the organization of the nomes underwent several changes.
The capital of Lower Egypt was Memphis. Its patron goddess was the goddess Wadjet, depicted as a cobra. Lower Egypt was represented by the Red Crown Deshret , and its symbols were the papyrus and the bee. After unification the patron deities of both Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt were represented together as the Two Ladies , Wadjet and Nekhbet (depicted as a vulture), to protect all of the ancient Egyptians.
By approximately 3600 BC, Neolithic Egyptian societies along the Nile River had based their culture on the raising of crops and the domestication of animals.Shortly after 3600 BC Egyptian society began to grow and advance rapidly toward refined civilization. A new and distinctive pottery, which was related to the pottery in the Southern Levant, appeared during this time. Extensive use of copper became common during this time. The Mesopotamian process of sun-dried bricks, and architectural building principles—including the use of the arch and recessed walls for decorative effect—became popular during this time.
Concurrent with these cultural advances, a process of unification of the societies and towns of the upper Nile River, or Upper Egypt, occurred. At the same time the societies of the Nile Delta, or Lower Egypt also underwent a unification process.Warfare between Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt occurred often. During his reign in Upper Egypt, King Narmer defeated his enemies in the Delta and merged the kingdoms of Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt under his single rule.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lower Egypt .|
|Periods and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt|
All years are BC
The Palermo stone, a royal annal written in the mid Fifth Dynasty (c. 2490 BC – c. 2350 BC) records a number of kings reigning over Lower Egypt before Narmer. These are completely unattested outside these inscriptions:
In contrast, the following kings are attested through archeological finds from Sinai and Lower Egypt: Double Falcon, Crocodile.
Part of a series on the
|History of Egypt|
|Number||Egyptian Name||Capital||Modern name of capital site||English Translation|
|1||Inebu-hedj||Ineb Hedj / Men-nefer / Menfe (Memphis)||Mit Rahina||White Walls|
|2||Khensu||Khem (Letopolis)||Ausim||Cow's thigh|
|3||Ahment||Imu (Apis)||Kom el-Hisn||West|
|5||Sap-Meh||Zau (Sais)||Sa el-Hagar||Northern shield|
|6||Khaset||Khasu (Xois)||Sakha||Mountain bull|
|7||A-ment||(Hermopolis Parva, Metelis)||Damanhur||West harpoon|
|8||A-bt||Tjeku / Per-Atum (Heroonpolis, Pithom)||Tell el-Maskhuta||East harpoon|
|9||Ati||Djed (Busiris)||Abu Sir Bara||Andjeti|
|10||Ka-khem||Hut-hery-ib (Athribis)||Banha (Tell Atrib)||Black bull|
|11||Ka-heseb||Taremu (Leontopolis)||Tell el-Urydam||Heseb bull|
|12||Theb-ka||Tjebnutjer (Sebennytos)||Samanud||Calf and Cow|
|13||Heq-At||Iunu (Heliopolis)||Materiya (suburb of Cairo)||Prospering Sceptre|
|14||Khent-abt||Tjaru (Sile, Tanis)||Tell Abu Sefa||Eastmost|
|15||Tehut||Ba'h / Weprehwy (Hermopolis Parva)||Baqliya||Ibis|
|16||Kha||Djedet (Mendes)||Tell el-Rubˁ||Fish|
|17||Semabehdet||Semabehdet (Diospolis Inferior)||Tell el-Balamun||The throne|
|18||Am-Khent||Per-Bastet (Bubastis)||Tell Bastah (near Zagazig)||Prince of the South|
|19||Am-Pehu||Dja'net (Leontopolis Tanis)||Tell Nebesha or San el-Hagar||Prince of the North|
|20||Sopdu||Per-Sopdu||Saft el-Hinna||Plumed Falcon|
In Egyptian history, the Upper and Lower Egypt period was the final stage of prehistoric Egypt and directly preceded the unification of the realm. The conception of Egypt as the Two Lands was an example of the dualism in ancient Egyptian culture and frequently appeared in texts and imagery, including in the titles of Egyptian pharaohs.
Memphis (Menefer)(Arabic: مَنْف Manf pronounced [mænf]; Bohairic Coptic: ⲙⲉⲙϥⲓ; Greek: Μέμφις) was the ancient capital of Inebu-hedj, the first nome of Lower Egypt that was known as mḥw ("north").. Its ruins are located near the modern town of Mit Rahina, 20 km (12 mi) south of Giza in Greater Cairo, Egypt.
Buto, Butus or Butosus was an ancient city located 95 km east of Alexandria in the Nile Delta of Egypt. What in classical times the Greeks called Buto stood about midway between the Taly (Bolbitine) and Thermuthiac (Sebennytic) branches of the Nile, a few kilometers north of the east-west Butic River and on the southern shore of the Butic Lake.
Upper Egypt is the southern portion of Ancient Egypt and is composed of the lands on both sides of the Nile that extend downriver between Nubia and Lower Egypt in the north.
Menes was a pharaoh of the Early Dynastic Period of ancient Egypt credited by classical tradition with having united Upper and Lower Egypt and as the founder of the First Dynasty.
The history of ancient Egypt spans the period from the early prehistoric settlements of the northern Nile valley to the Roman conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The pharaonic period, the period in which Egypt was ruled by a pharaoh, is dated from the 32nd century BC, when Upper and Lower Egypt were unified, until the country fell under Macedonian rule in 332 BC.
Narmer was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the Early Dynastic Period. He was the successor to the Protodynastic king Ka. Some consider him the unifier of Egypt and founder of the First Dynasty, and in turn the first king of a unified Egypt. A majority of Egyptologists believe that Narmer was the same person as Menes.
The Narmer Palette, also known as the Great Hierakonpolis Palette or the Palette of Narmer, is a significant Egyptian archeological find, dating from about the 31st century BC, belonging, at least nominally, to the category of cosmetic palettes. It contains some of the earliest hieroglyphic inscriptions ever found. The tablet is thought by some to depict the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the king Narmer. On one side, the king is depicted with the bulbed White Crown of Upper (southern) Egypt, and the other side depicts the king wearing the level Red Crown of Lower (northern) Egypt. Along with the Scorpion Macehead and the Narmer Maceheads, also found together in the Main Deposit at Nekhen, the Narmer Palette provides one of the earliest known depictions of an Egyptian king. The Palette shows many of the classic conventions of Ancient Egyptian art, which must already have been formalized by the time of the Palette's creation. The Egyptologist Bob Brier has referred to the Narmer Palette as "the first historical document in the world".
Bubastis, also known in Arabic as Tell-Basta or in Egyptian as Per-Bast, was an ancient Egyptian city. Bubastis is often identified with the biblical Pi-Beseth. It was the capital of its own nome, located along the River Nile in the Delta region of Lower Egypt, and notable as a center of worship for the feline goddess Bastet, and therefore the principal depository in Egypt of mummies of cats.
A nome was a territorial division in ancient Egypt.
The Archaic or Early Dynastic Period of Egypt is the era immediately following the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt c. 3100 BC. It is generally taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from the end of the Naqada III archaeological period until about 2686 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom. With the First Dynasty, the capital moved from Thinis to Memphis with a unified Egypt ruled by an Egyptian god-king. Abydos remained the major holy land in the south. The hallmarks of ancient Egyptian civilization, such as art, architecture and many aspects of religion, took shape during the Early Dynastic Period.
Hor-Aha is considered the second pharaoh of the First Dynasty of Egypt by some Egyptologists, others consider him the first one and corresponding to Menes. He lived around the 31st century BC and is thought to have had a long reign.
Scorpion II, also known as King Scorpion, was a ruler during the Protodynastic Period of Upper Egypt.
Deshret, from Ancient Egyptian, was the formal name for the Red Crown of Lower Egypt and for the desert Red Land on either side of Kemet, the fertile Nile river basin. When combined with the Hedjet of Upper Egypt, it forms the Pschent, in ancient Egyptian called the sekhemti.
Samannud is a city (markaz) located in Gharbia Governorate, Egypt. Known in classical antiquity as Sebennytos, Samannud is a historic city that has been inhabited since the Ancient Egyptian period. As of 2019, the population of the markaz of Samannud was estimated to be 410,388, with 83,417 people living in urban areas and 326,971 in rural areas.
Asyut is the capital of the modern Asyut Governorate in Egypt. It was built close to the ancient city of the same name, which is situated nearby. The modern city is located at, while the ancient city is located at . The city is home to one of the largest Coptic Catholic churches in the country.
Sakha, also known by the ancient name of Xois is a town in Kafr El Sheikh Governorate of Egypt. Located near the center of the Nile Delta, it is a city of great antiquity, identified with the ancient Egyptian city of Khasut.
Middle Egypt is the section of land between Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, stretching upstream from Asyut in the south to Memphis in the north. At the time, Ancient Egypt was divided into Lower and Upper Egypt, though Middle Egypt was technically a subdivision of Upper Egypt. It was not until the 19th century that archaeologists felt the need to divide Upper Egypt in two. As a result, they coined the term "Middle Egypt" for the stretch of river between Cairo and the Qena Bend. It was also associated with a region termed Heptanomis, generally as the district which separates the Thebaïd from the Delta.
Babylon Fortress is an ancient fortress in the Nile Delta, located in the area known today as Coptic Cairo. It is situated in the former area of the Heliopolite Nome, upon the east bank of the Nile, at latitude 30°N, near the commencement of the Pharaonic Canal, from the Nile to the Red Sea.
Fuwwah is a city in the Kafr El Sheikh Governorate, Egypt.