Location of Lower Navarre within the Pyrénées-Atlantiques departement.
|Capital||Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port (Donibane Garazi)|
|• Total||1.325 km2 (511.59 sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
Lower Navarre (Basque : Nafarroa Beherea/Baxenabarre; Gascon/Bearnese: Navarra Baisha; French : Basse-Navarre [bɑs navaʁ] ; Spanish : Baja Navarra) is a traditional region of the present-day French département of Pyrénées-Atlantiques. It corresponds to the northernmost merindad of the Kingdom of Navarre during the Middle Ages. After the Spanish conquest of Iberian Navarre (1512–24), this merindad was restored to the rule of the native king, Henry II. Its capitals were Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port and Saint-Palais. In the extreme north there was the little sovereign Principality of Bidache, with an area of 1,284 km2 (496 sq mi) and a decreasing population of 44,450 (in 1901), 25,356 (in 1990).
Although this denomination is not completely correct from the historical point of view, it is also known as Merindad de Ultrapuertos ("the regions beyond the mountain passes") by the southerners, and Deça-ports ("this side of the mountain passes") by the Gascon-speakers. Despite its lost administrative cohesion, the memory of its past heyday has left an imprint on its inhabitants, who keep identifying themselves as Lower Navarrese and therefore Navarrese. The Nafarroaren Eguna or Day of Navarre is a festival held in Baigorri every year to strengthen their bonds and celebrate their Basque identity. The territory is also claimed by Basque nationalists to be one of the seven constituent regions making up the Basque Country.
Lower Navarre is a collection of valleys in the foothills of the Pyrenees. The Aldudes valley, around the town of Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry in the south of Lower Navarre, preserves many old traditions, with houses of pink sandstone and contests of Force Basque, the games of strength. The Irouléguy wines are produced in the area around the town of Irouléguy.
The river Nive rises in Lower Navarre and flows through the province and on to Bayonne, where it meets the Adour. Beyond Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port itself, the Nive enters the Ossès valley, with many beautiful old houses with carved lintels in the villages of Ossès, Irissarry and Bidarray. A reserve for the pottok, the wild Basque Pyrenean pony, in the valley conserves this rare breed. The Baigura massif towers over the western valleys and sets a natural boundary with the rolling valleys of Labourd.
North of Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port is the Mixe region around the town of Saint-Palais, a former Navarrese capital. Although close to Béarn, Basque influence and traditions are strong. Lower Navarrese is a dialect of the Basque language spoken in the region. Just south of Saint-Palais, the three principal routes to Santiago de Compostela on the Way of St James met at the hamlet of Ostabat, bringing much wealth and trade to the area in medieval times.
The Way of St James headed south from Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port towards the mountain pass above Roncesvalles. Pilgrims travelled across the Cize region of Lower Navarre on their way to Navarre across the mountains. In these rolling hills, ewes' milk cheese, pur brebis , is commonly made, including Ossau-Iraty cheese. Villages like Estérençuby and Lecumberry are popular for agro-tourism and the Iraty beech forest on the Spanish border is known for its views and history. Dolmens and other neolithic monuments dot the landscape, including the Tour d'Urkulu high in the mountains at 1,149m—a 2,000-year-old circular platform of huge stone blocks. Lower Navarre is well delimited by mountain ranges on the west (with Mount Iparla as its highest and most iconic landmark), south (Roncevaux, Mount Urkulu and Pyrenees altogether) and the east (bounded by the western mountains of Soule).
The lands of the Lower Navarre were part of the Duchy of Vasconia that turned into Gascony by the end of the first millennium. At the time of Sancho III of Navarre, called the Great (died in 1035), Sancho VI William of Gascony pledged allegiance to the Navarrese king, for a short period Gascony becoming suzerain to the Kingdom of Navarre, with whom it had always held close ties. Moreover, the valleys of Baigorri, Ossès, Arberoa, Cize and Arberoa were attached to the latter, so establishing the first nucleus of the Navarrese grip on the lands north of the Pyrenees. While these valleys were taken over again by Gascony for a period, the Ultrapuertos County (called Merindad in Navarre) was regained for Navarre in 1234, coming to be governed by the sheriff of Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port. However, the definite boundaries were not established until the 1244-1245 war between Labourdins and Navarrese came to an end.
In 1512 the Duke of Alba under orders from king Ferdinand II of Aragon led an army that invaded Navarre, seizing Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port, beginning the Spanish conquest of Iberian Navarre. In 1516 king John III of Navarre re-captured the town, while Spain's Charles I's 10,000 strong army captured it again. Charles I's troops retained Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port and its hinterland besides devastating the region, but was met with strong resistance led by local lords loyal to Henry II of Navarre. Saint-Palais remained out of Spanish reach. Eventually, the legitimate Navarrese king, stripped de facto of the rest of Navarre now under Spanish rule, restored Navarrese official institutions and bodies in the Lower Navarre, e.g. the Conseil Souverain in 1523, the Chancery in 1524, the Royal Mint a bit later in Saint-Palais (Donapaleu in Basque), etc. In 1525 a new military inroad led by the Spanish viceroy of Navarre subdued the region, and tried to earn the loyalty of the nobles, but they hung unanimously onto their allegiance to the Albrets, and both the lord of Luxa and the lord of Miossens, Esteban of Albret, reconquered the region in 1527. By 1528, the Spanish emperor Charles lost interest in conquering the Navarre across the Pyrenees, difficult to defend, in order to sign a treaty with France—the 1530 Treaty of Cambray. In 1555, Henry II of Navarre died and was succeeded by his daughter Jeanne, who ruled until her death in 1572.
During the 16th century the Albrets ruled over a wider territory (Béarn, etc.) and the seat of the Navarrese Royalty shifted to Pau, capital city of Béarn, where Henry III, the son of Jeanne d'Albret was born. Henry III respected generally the laws issued from the parliament, despite sometimes raising objections to their wordings. His son Louis XIII of France was definitely reluctant to any binding reading of the Navarrese laws, and forced more loose wordings, devoid of specific meaning in order to feel his hands free. Ultimately this led to a progressive French centralization of all relevant decisions and prerogatives during the 17 and 18th centuries.
In 1620 and 1624 respectively the House of Commons and the Justice system were merged with those of Béarn and transferred from Saint-Palais to Pau, despite protests voiced by the Navarrese representatives, who pointed to their different traditions and languages— Basque and Béarnese. The title of King of Navarre continued to be held by the lineage of the Albrets and the Bourbons up to the French Revolution, while the kingdom itself merged with France in 1620. It retained its historic personality as a kingdom and, albeit fragmented, a separate legal status. The two third estate representatives of Lower Navarre did not vote at the States-General of 1789 and its follow-up, the French National Assembly (1790), arguing that the impending new administrative arrangement was none of their business, since they did not belong in the Kingdom of France. All the same, the new French administrative design did not spare Lower Navarre. It came to be integrated in the Basses-Pyrénées department along with the rest of French Basque districts, and Béarn.
The administration of the independent Kingdom of Navarre after 1512 was centralized in Saint-Palais and consisted of a handful of institutions organized in a structure generally found in the Kingdom of France.By 1527 these administrations had been partially decentralized to Pau, and consisted of:
Henry II, nicknamed Sangüesino because he was born at Sangüesa, was the King of Navarre from 1517, although his kingdom had been reduced to a small territory north of the Pyrenees by the Spanish conquest of 1512. Henry succeeded his mother, Queen Catherine, upon her death. His father was her husband and co-ruler, King John III, who died in 1516.
Labourd is a former French province and part of the present-day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. It is one of the traditional Basque provinces, and identified as one of the territorial component parts of the Basque Country by many, especially by the Basque nationalists.
The Kingdom of Navarre, originally the Kingdom of Pamplona, was a Basque kingdom that occupied lands on both sides of the western Pyrenees, alongside the Atlantic Ocean between present-day Spain and France.
The Béarn is one of the traditional provinces of France, located in the Pyrenees mountains and in the plain at their feet, in southwest France. Along with the three Basque provinces of Soule, Lower Navarre, and Labourd, the principality of Bidache, as well as small parts of Gascony, it forms in the southwest the current département of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (64). The capitals of Béarn were Beneharnum, Morlaàs, Orthez, and then Pau.
Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France close to Ostabat in the Pyrenean foothills. The town is also the old capital of the traditional Basque province of Lower Navarre. Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port is also a starting point for the French Way Camino Francés, the most popular option for travelling the Camino de Santiago.
Ossès is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France.
John III was jure uxoris King of Navarre from 1484 until his death, as husband and co-ruler with Queen Catherine.
Blanche II, was the titular queen of Navarre between 1461 and 1464. She was the daughter of John II of Aragon and Blanche I of Navarre. She was also Princess of Asturias by marriage.
Francis Phoebus was King of Navarre (1479–1483), Viscount of Bearn, and Count of Foix (1472). He was the son of Gaston, Prince of Viana, and grandson of Queen Eleanor, whom he succeeded. She recommended him to ally with France.
Catherine, Queen of Navarre, reigned from 1483 until 1517. She was also Duchess of Gandia, Montblanc, and Peñafiel, Countess of Foix, Bigorre, and Ribagorza, and Viscountess of Béarn.
Ainhice-Mongelos is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France.
Aïcirits-Camou-Suhast is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France.
Amendeuix-Oneix is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France.
Anhaux is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France in the former province of Lower Navarre.
The viscounts of Béarn were the rulers of the viscounty of Béarn, located in the Pyrenees mountains and in the plain at their feet, in southwest France. Along with the three Basque provinces of Soule, Lower Navarre, and Labourd, as well as small parts of Gascony, it forms the current département of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (64).
The Spanish conquest of the Iberian part of Navarre was initiated by Ferdinand II of Aragon and completed by his grandson and successor Charles V in a series of military campaigns lasting from 1512 to 1524. Ferdinand was both the king of Aragon and regent of Castile in 1512. When Pope Julius II declared a Holy League against France in late 1511, Navarre attempted to remain neutral. Ferdinand used this as an excuse to attack Navarre, conquering it while its potential protector, France, was beset by England, Venice, and Ferdinand's own Italian armies.
Pedro de Navarra was a nobleman in Navarre and its highest military authority as Marshal of Navarre during the kingdom's last years of independence, as well as the following tumultuous period.
When the Kingdom of Navarre was united with France by the marriage of Philip IV of France with Joan I Queen Regnant of Navarre and Countess of Champagne on 16 August 1284, it kept the long existing Chancery of Navarre(French: Chancellerie de Navarre). The Kings of Navarre had private Chancellors dating back to ancient kings. Theobald II of Navarre had a Vice-Chancellor, according to letters dated 1259.
The Estates of Navarre(French: États de Navarre, États généraux de Navarre, Cortes de Navarre) were created in 1317 under Philip II. The Estates of Lower Navarre(French: États de Basse-Navarre, Cortes de la Basse-Navarre) were first called into session on 28 August 1523 by Henry II after the definitive loss of Upper Navarre,