Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle

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Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle
Niederrheinisch-Westfälischer Reichskreis
Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire
Locator Westphalian Circle.svg
The Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle during the mid 16th century (after the Burgundian treaty of 1548)

Historical map of the Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle of 1710 by Peter Schenk the Elder Reichskreis Niederrhein-Westfalen 1710.jpg
Historical map of the Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle of 1710 by Peter Schenk the Elder

The Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle (German : Niederrheinisch-Westfälischer Reichskreis, Dutch : Nederrijns-Westfaalse Kreits) was an Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire. It comprised territories of the former Duchy of Lower Lorraine, Frisia and the Westphalian part of the former Duchy of Saxony.

Contents

The circle was made up of numerous small states, however the Counts De la Marck were able to collect a significant amount of territories, the United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg from 1521 on. The Empire's largest ecclesiastical territory was held by the Prince-Bishops of Münster.

Composition

The circle was made up of the following states:

NameType of entityComments
Stadtwappen der kreisfreien Stadt Aachen.svg   Aachen Imperial City Reichsfreiheit granted by Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa in 1166
DEU Anholt COA.svg Anholt Lordship Former territory of the Utrecht bishops, reichsfrei since the 14th century, held by the Lords of Gemen, fell to Salm-Salm in 1641
Wappen Beilstein (Wuerttemberg).svg Beilstein LordshipFief of Trier since 1488, held by the Freiherren von Metternich from 1635, Reichsgrafen from 1679
Blason Simon de Bentheim.svg Bentheim County Inherited by the Freiherren von Steinfurt in 1421, Bentheim-Bentheim since 1454, again held by Steinfurt from 1530
Bergischer Lowe.svg Berg Duchy Raised to duchy by King Wenceslaus of Luxembourg in 1380, part of Jülich-Cleves-Berg from 1521 to 1614, with Jülich to Palatinate-Neuburg according to the Treaty of Xanten
DEU Blankenheim (Ahr) COA.svg Blankenheim-Gerolstein CountyInherited by Manderscheid in 1468
Blason ville be Bouillon.svg Bouillon DuchyA protectorate of France by the 1679 Peace of Nijmegen but not annexed until 1795
Stadtwappen der Stadt Brakel.svg Brakel Imperial CityStatus challenged by the Prince-Bishopric of Paderborn
Blason cambrai.svg Cambray Imperial CityStatus challenged by the Cambrai bishops, declared to a duchy by Emperor Maximilian I of Habsburg in 1510
CoA Cambrai Diocese.svg Cambrésis Prince-Bishopric Diocese established in the 6th century, Reichsfreiheit granted by King Henry II in 1007, archbishopric from 1559, fell to France by the 1679 Peace of Nijmegen
Cleves Arms.svg Cleves DuchyPart of Jülich-Cleves-Berg from 1521 to 1614, with Mark and Ravensberg to Brandenburg according to the Treaty of Xanten
Wappen Koeln.svg  Cologne Imperial CityStatus acknowledged by Emperor Frederick III of Habsburg in 1475
Corvey-abt.PNG Corvey Prince-Abbacy Established in 815 by King Louis the Pious
Blason Comtes de Delmenhorst.svg Delmenhorst CountyEstablished by a junior branch of the House of Oldenburg, held by Oldenburg since 1436
Diepholz-Grafschaft.PNG Diepholz CountyEstablished about 1160, to Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1585
Coat of arms of Dortmund.svg  Dortmund Imperial CityStatus confirmed by Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen in 1236
Drenthe Countyto the Burgundian Circle in 1548
Stadtwappen der Stadt Duisburg.svg  Duisburg Imperial CityGiven in pawn to Cleves by King Rudolph of Habsburg in 1290, finally divested of the Imperial title by Elector Frederick William I of Brandenburg in 1674
Wappen der Stadt Duren.svg Düren Imperial CityStatus confirmed by Emperor Otto III in 1000, given in pawn to Jülich by Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen in 1241
Ostfriesland CoA.svg East Frisia CountyRaised to Principality 1662, fell to Prussia in 1744
Coat of arms echternach luxbrg.svg Echternach Prince-AbbacyEstablished about 698 by Saint Willibrord, immediacy granted by King Pepin the Short in 751, annexed by France in 1794
Wappen Stift Essen.svg Essen Prince-AbbacyEstablished in 845 by Saint Altfrid, immediacy probably granted by King Conrad I (911-918), secularised to Prussia in 1803
Blason Fecocourt 54.svg Fagnolle LordshipHeld by the House of Ligne, raised to county in 1770
Wapen Gemen.png Gemen LordshipHeld by the Counts of Holstein-Schauenburg, fell to the House of Limburg-Stirum in 1640
Gimborn LordshipHeld by the House of Schwarzenberg, Reichsfreiheit granted by Emperor Ferdinand II of Habsburg in 1631, raised to county in 1698, sold to Johann Ludwig von Wallmoden in 1782
Groningen Lordshipto the Burgundian Circle in 1548
Wapengronsveld.gif Gronsveld LordshipRichsfreiheit granted by Emperor Maximilian I of Habsburg in 1498, raised to county about 1588, annexed by France in 1794
Guelders Duchyto the Burgundian Circle in 1548
Hallermund Arms.png Hallermund CountyFief of Brunswick-Calenberg around Springe, raised to Imperial county in 1706
POL heraldy - pas.svg Herford Prince-AbbacyNunnery established in 789, immediate prince-abbacy since 1147, confirmed by Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa in 1152
DEU Herford COA.svg Herford Imperial CityReichsfreiheit derived from Herford Abbey, challenged by Jülich-Cleves-Berg from 1547, annexed by Brandenburgian Ravensberg in 1652
Wappen Holzappel.png Holzappel CountyFormer Esterau possession of Nassau, granted by Emperor Ferdinand III of Habsburg to his field marshal Peter Melander in 1643, to Anhalt-Bernburg in 1676
Hoya-Grafschaft.PNG Hoya CountyFief of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1519, line extinct in 1582
Julich-Herzogtum.PNG Jülich DuchyReichsfreiheit confirmed by Emperor Louis IV of Wittelsbach in 1328, raised to duchy by Emperor Charles IV of Luxembourg in 1356, part of Jülich-Cleves-Berg 1521 to 1614, with Berg to Palatinate-Neuburg according to the Treaty of Xanten
Kerpen and Lommersum LordshipAnnexed by Brabant from Cologne after the 1288 Battle of Worringen, inherited by Burgundy in 1406 and the House of Habsburg in 1482, fell to Jülich in 1710, raised to county in 1712, gained Reichsfreiheit in 1786
Wappen Reichsabtei Kornelimunster.svg Kornelimünster Prince-AbbacyEstablished in 814 by Saint Benedict of Aniane
Wappen Lemgo.svg Lemgo Imperial CityEstablished about 1190 by Lord Bernard II of Lippe, Reichsfreiheit ascertained by the Imperial Chamber Court
Armoiries Principaute de Liege.svg Liège Prince-BishopricEstablished about 315 by Saint Maternus of Cologne at Tongeren
DE Ibbenburen COA.svg Lingen CountyEmerged from Tecklenburg in 1493, seized as a reverted fief by Emperor Charles V of Habsburg in 1547, with the Burgundian Netherlands to King Philip II of Spain in 1555, conquered by Prince Maurice of Nassau in 1597, inherited by Prussia in 1702
Kreiswappen des Kreises Lippe.svg Lippe LordshipLordship established about 1123, raised to county in 1528, split off Lippe-Alverdissen in 1613 (Schaumburg-Lippe from 1643), raised to principality in 1789
Armoiries Comtes de Luxembourg superseding.svg Luxemburg Duchyto the Burgundian Circle in 1512
Armoiries d'Erpeldange.svg Manderscheid CountyHeld Schleiden since 1445, raised to Imperial county by Emperor Frederick III of Habsburg in 1457, inherited Blankenheim-Gerolstein in 1468, Sternberg-Manderscheid from 1780, annexed by France in 1794
Armoiries de la Marck 1.svg Mark CountyEstablished about 1160, acquired Cleves in 1368, part of Jülich-Cleves-Berg from 1521 to 1614, with Cleves and Ravensberg to Brandenburg according to the Treaty of Xanten
Arms-Myllendonk.png Myllendonk LordshipRegained Reichsfreiheit in 1700, held by the Counts of Ostein from 1732
Minden-Bistum.PNG Minden Prince-BishopricSecularised to Brandenburg by the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, as the Principality of Minden
Moers-Grafschaft.png Moers CountyFirst documented in 1186, held by Wied since 1493, to the Counts of Neuenahr in 1519, inherited by Adolf van Nieuwenaar in 1578, by Maurice of Nassau in 1594, to Prussia as principality in 1702
Wappen Werne.svg Münster Prince-BishopricBishopric established by Saint Ludger about 805, reichsfrei territory emerged in 1180 from the Duchy of Saxony, held in personal union by the Wittelsbach Prince-Bishops of Cologne 1612-1650, 1683–1688 and 1723–1801
Blason Nassau-Dillenbourg.svg Nassau-Dillenburg CountyEmerged from Nassau in 1303, split off Orange in 1559, principality in 1654, inherited by Orange-Nassau in 1739
Wappen stadt diez.gif Nassau-Diez CountyFormer County of Diez, inherited by Nassau-Dillenburg in 1386, emerged from Nassau-Dillenburg in 1606, principality 1654, inherited Orange in 1702, name changed to Orange-Nassau
Wappen Hadamar.png Nassau-Hadamar CountyEmerged from Nassau-Dillenburg in 1606, Principality 1650, line extinct in 1711, inherited by Orange-Nassau in 1743
BlasonChristian Ier (1143-1167), comte d'Oldenbourg.svg Oldenburg CountyEstablished in Saxony after the deposition of Henry the Lion in 1180, personal union with Denmark 1667-1773, raised to duchy ruled by Holstein-Gottorp in 1774
Overijssel Lordshipto the Burgundian Circle in 1548
Wappen Bistum Osnabruck.svg Osnabrück Prince-Bishopric
DEU Paderborn COA.svg Paderborn Prince-Bishopric
Wappen bad pyrmont.svg Pyrmont County
Ravensberg Arms.svg Ravensberg CountyEstablished about 1140 out of former County of Calvelage, held by Berg since 1346, part of Jülich-Cleves-Berg from 1521 to 1614, with Cleves and Mark to Brandenburg according to the Treaty of Xanten
Wapen van Rekem.jpg Reckheim County
ReichensteinLordship
Wappen der Stadt Rietberg.svg Rietberg County
Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck Countystatus unclear
Blason Sayn.svg Sayn County
Wappen Landkreis Schaumburg.svg Schaumburg County
Wappen Landkreis Schaumburg.svg Schaumburg-Hesse County
Coat of Arms of the Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe.svg Schaumburg-Lippe County
DEU Schleiden COA.svg Schleiden County
Soest-coa.svg Soest Imperial City
DEU Spiegelberg COA.svg Spiegelberg County
Stavelot-Malmedy Prince-Abbacy
Bentheim-Steinfurt.PNG Steinfurt County Bentheim-Steinfurt since 1454, Reichsfreiheit granted by Emperor Frederick III of Habsburg in 1486, County of Steinfurt in 1495
DE Tecklenburg COA.svg Tecklenburg County Bentheim-Tecklenburg from 1557
Thorn wapen.png Thorn Prince-Abbacy
Utrecht-bisdom.PNG Utrecht Prince-Bishopricto the Burgundian Circle in 1548
DEU Verden (Aller) COA.svg Verden Prince-BishopricSecularized as a principality held by the King of Sweden from 1648
DEU Verden (Aller) COA.svg Verden Imperial Citystatus unclear
Virneburg wappen.gif Virneburg County
Stadtwappen der Stadt Warburg.svg Warburg Imperial City
DEU Werden an der Ruhr COA.svg Werden Prince-Abbacy
DEU Wesel COA.svg Wesel Imperial Citystatus unclear
Wappen Wickrath.png Wickrath County
Wied-Grafschaft.PNG Wied County
Winneburg Lordship
Wittem Lordship
Zutphen Countyto the Burgundian Circle in 1548

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