Lower Silesian Voivodeship
Location within Poland
Division into counties
|• Voivode||Jarosław Obremski (PiS)|
|• Marshal||Cezary Przybylski (BS)|
|• Total||19,946.74 km2 (7,701.48 sq mi)|
|• Density||150/km2 (380/sq mi)|
|ISO 3166 code||PL-02|
|HDI (2017)||0.875 |
very high · 3rd
Lower Silesian Voivodeship, or Lower Silesia Province [vɔjɛˈvut͡stfɔ dɔlnɔˈɕlɔ̃skʲɛ] ) in southwestern Poland, is one of the 16 voivodeships (provinces) into which Poland is divided. The voivodeship was created on 1 January 1999 out of the former Wrocław, Legnica, Wałbrzych and Jelenia Góra Voivodeships, following the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998. It covers an area of 19,946 square kilometres (7,701 sq mi), and as of 2019 [update] has a total population of 2,899,986.(Polish: województwo dolnośląskie
It is one of the richest provinces in Poland as it has valuable natural resources such as copper, brown coal and rock materials, which are exploited by the biggest enterprises. Its well developed and varied industries attract both domestic and foreign investors.
Its capital and largest city is Wrocław, situated on the Oder River. It is one of Poland's largest and most dynamic cities with a rapidly growing international profile, and is regarded as one of the most important commercial, educational and tourist sites in the whole country. Burial sites of Polish monarchs and consorts are located in Wrocław and Trzebnica. Furthermore, the voivodeship is famous for its many castles and palaces and is one of Poland's most visited regions by tourists.
The history of the region dates back over a thousand years and Lower Silesia was once part of Great Moravia, Medieval Poland, Bohemia, Austria, Prussia, Germany and modern Poland after 1945. Silesian tribes settled the lands at the end of the first millennium after the Migration Period. During the period of Germania Slavica, the region became part of Great Moravia under Svatopluk I of Moravia. Mieszko I brought the various existing Silesian duchies under the rule of the Piast dynasty and they became the Duchy of Silesia. It was again divided into small realms reigned by Piast princes after the testament of Bolesław III Wrymouth in 1138. With the Ostsiedlung, the cultural and ethnic Germanic influence grew with an influx of immigrants from the German-speaking areas of the Holy Roman Empire, of which Silesia was part until 1392 when it became part of the Kingdom of Bohemia, then the Habsburg Monarchy (1526), then the Kingdom of Prussia (1742), then the German Empire (1871). In 1945, Lower Silesia was made part of Poland as agreed at the post-war Potsdam Conference. As a consequence, Lower Silesia suffered a nearly total loss of its pre-war population between 1945 and 1950. Polish citizens dispossessed by the Soviets were then settled in the now emptied lands.
Lower Silesia was also a leading Polish cultural center. The Book of Henryków , which contains the earliest known sentence written in the Polish language, as well as a document which contains the oldest printed text in Polish, were both created here. Złotoryja, Poland's first town, was granted municipal privileges according to German Magdeburg rights by Henry the Bearded. Over the centuries, Lower Silesia experienced epochal events such as the Protestant Reformation, the Silesian Wars, industrialisation and the two World Wars.
Although much of the region is relatively low-lying it also includes Sudeten Foreland and part of the Sudetes mountain range running along the Polish/Czech border. Popular ski resorts in Lower Silesian Voivodeship include Karpacz and Szklarska Poręba in the Karkonosze mountains. Other important tourist destinations in the voivodeship include the chief city, Wrocław, as well as the towns of Jelenia Góra and Legnica. The town of Boleslawiec is famed for its pottery.
The voivodeship has the largest number of spa towns in Poland: Cieplice Śląskie-Zdrój, Długopole-Zdrój, Duszniki-Zdrój, Jedlina-Zdrój, Kudowa-Zdrój, Lądek-Zdrój, Polanica-Zdrój, Przerzeczyn-Zdrój, Szczawno-Zdrój, and Świeradów-Zdrój.
Lower Silesian Voivodeship is bordered by Lubusz Voivodeship to the north-west, Greater Poland Voivodeship to the north-east, Opole Voivodeship to the south-east, the Czech Republic (Hradec Králové Region, Liberec Region, Olomouc Region and Pardubice Region) to the south, and Germany (Saxony) to the west.
The Copernicus Airport Wrocław serves as an international and domestic airport.
Wrocław Główny is the largest railway station in Poland (21.2 million passengers annually), offering domestic and international connections of various carriers.
The A4 motorway, A8 motorway, A18 motorway and S3 Expressway, S5 Expressway, S8 Expressway run through the Voivodeship.
Lower Silesian Voivodeship is one of the most visited voivodeships in Poland. It is famous for a large number of castles (99) and palaces (hundreds), inter alia: Książ Castle, Bolków Castle, Czocha Castle, Chojnik Castle, Cisy Castle, Grodno Castle, Grodziec Castle, Gorzanów Castle, Kamieniec Ząbkowicki Palace, Kliczków Castle, Niesytno Castle, Świny Castle. There is also a lot in the Jelenia Góra valley.
The voivodship's most widely visited city is Wrocław with many sights and attractions, inter alia Ostrów Tumski, Market Square, open all year round Aquapark, Wrocław SPA Center and famous Wrocław's dwarfs.
The annual international Chopin Festival is held in the Fryderyk Chopin Theatre in Duszniki-Zdrój, established at the site of the first concert played by the Polish virtuoso pianist outside of the Russian Partition of Poland. Other major attraction of the town is the Museum of Papermaking, established in a 17th-century paper mill.
The Festival of Good Beer is held every year, on the second weekend of June.
Śnieżka is one of the first European peaks visited by tourists, it is also the highest peak of the Lower Silesian Voivodeship and the whole of the Sudetes.
Other highlights include: Kłodzko Fortress, Fort Srebrna Góra, Wambierzyce, Legnickie Pole, Henryków, Lubiąż Abbey, Krzeszów Abbey, Oleśnica Mała, Vang Stave Church, Churches of Peace, Sokołowsko, Cave Bear, Museum of Gold Mining and Metallurgy in Złoty Stok, Coal Mine in Nowa Ruda, Museum of Industry and Railway in Jaworzyna Śląska, Skull Chapel in Czermna, Mount Ślęża, Table Mountains, Owl Mountains, Karkonosze, The Main Trail Sudetes, Barycz Valley Landscape Park and connected with the history of World War II – complex tunnels Project Riese, a German Gross-Rosen concentration camp, German War Cemetery and Park Peace in the Nadolice Wielkie.
Protected areas in Lower Silesian Voivodeship:
and many areas of Natura 2000 network.
Lower Silesia is one of the richest regions in Poland. The Gross domestic product (GDP) of the province was 41.1 billion € in 2018, accounting for 8.3% of the Polish economic output. GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was 23,400 € or 78% of the EU27 average in the same year. The GDP per employee was 85% of the EU average. Lower Silesia Voivodship is the province with the second highest GDP per capita in Poland.
Since 2005, the voivodeship recorded the highest in the country economic growth rate (around 10% per annum).
Many global companies have their headquarters and plants in Lower Silesia, incl. Amazon, Microsoft, Google, IBM, LG Electronics, Toyota, Volvo, Hewlett-Packard, Nokia Networks, Siemens, Whirlpool Corporation, Qatar Airways.
GDP per capita in Lower Silesia Voivodeship: GDP in Poland:
|Lower Silesian Voivodeship||GDP per capita||Poland||GDP per capita|
|2000||$10 440 (+2.8%)||2000||$10 140 (+4.0%)|
|2005||$13 060 (+4.9%)||2005||$12 600 (+3.5%)|
|2006||$13 700 (+7.3%)||2006||$13 020 (+6.2%)|
|2007||$14 980 (+9.5%)||2007||$13 760 (+6.5%)|
|2008||$16 030 (+7.2%)||2008||$14 450 (+5.0%)|
|2009||$16 350 (+2.0%)||2009||$14 720 (+1.9%)|
The southwest part of the Voivodeship is considered part of the so-called Black Triangle, an area of heavily industrialization and environmental damage on the three-way border of Poland, Germany, and the Czech Republic.
The voivodeship contains 91 cities and towns. These are listed below in descending order of population (as of 2019):
Lower Silesian Voivodeship is divided into 30 counties (powiats), four of which are city counties. These are further divided into 169 gminas.
Lower Silesia is divided into three districts administracyji province government, the capital of Wrocław (administrative region):
Świdnica, Kłodzko, Ząbkowice Śląskie, Dzierżoniów
Glogów, Jawor, Lubin, Polkowice, Złotoryja
Boleslawiec, Kamienna Góra, Luban, Lwówek Śląski, Zgorzelec.
The counties are listed in the following table (ordering within categories is by decreasing population).
| Kłodzko County |
|1643.37||158,600||Kłodzko||Nowa Ruda, Bystrzyca Kłodzka, Kudowa-Zdrój, Polanica-Zdrój, Stronie Śląskie, Lądek-Zdrój, Szczytna, Duszniki-Zdrój, Międzylesie, Radków||14|
| Świdnica County |
|742.89||157,178||Świdnica||Świebodzice, Strzegom, Żarów, Jaworzyna Śląska||8|
| Wrocław County |
|1116.15||148,663||Wrocław*||Sobótka, Kąty Wrocławskie, Siechnice||9|
| Oleśnica County |
|1049.74||107,090||Oleśnica||Syców, Twardogóra, Bierutów, Międzybórz||8|
| Lubin County |
| Dzierżoniów County |
|478.34||101,118||Dzierżoniów||Bielawa, Gola Dzierżoniowska, Niemcza, Pieszyce, Piława Górna||7|
| Bolesławiec County |
| Zgorzelec County |
|838.11||89,612||Zgorzelec||Bogatynia, Pieńsk, Zawidów, Węgliniec||7|
| Głogów County |
| Trzebnica County |
|1025.55||85,092||Trzebnica||Oborniki Śląskie, Żmigród, Prusice||6|
| Oława County |
| Ząbkowice Śląskie County |
|801.75||65,104||Ząbkowice Śląskie||Ziębice, Złoty Stok, Bardo||7|
| Jelenia Góra County |
|628.21||63,639||Jelenia Góra*||Kowary, Szklarska Poręba, Piechowice, Karpacz||9|
| Polkowice County |
| Wałbrzych County |
|430.22||55,820||Wałbrzych*||Boguszów-Gorce, Głuszyca, Szczawno-Zdrój, Jedlina-Zdrój, Mieroszów||9|
| Legnica County |
| Środa Śląska County |
| Lubań County |
|428.30||54,493||Lubań||Olszyna, Leśna, Świeradów-Zdrój||7|
| Jawor County |
| Wołów County |
| Lwówek Śląski County |
|709.94||45,975||Lwówek Śląski||Gryfów Śląski, Mirsk, Wleń, Lubomierz||5|
| Złotoryja County |
| Strzelin County |
| Kamienna Góra County |
| Milicz County |
| Góra County |
|* seat not part of the county|
|Witold Krochmal||4 January 1999 – 22 October 2001|
|Ryszard Nawrat||22 October 2001 – 21 March 2003|
|Stanisław Łopatowski||31 March 2003 – 21 December 2005|
|Krzysztof Grzelczyk||21 December 2005 – 29 November 2007|
|Rafał Jurkowlaniec||29 November 2007 – 1 December 2010|
|Aleksander Skorupa||28 December 2010 – 11 March 2014|
|Tomasz Smolarz||12 March 2014 – 8 December 2015|
|Paweł Hreniak||8 December 2015 – 2019|
|Jarosław Obremski||Since 2019|
Silesian Voivodeship, or Silesia Province is a voivodeship, or province, in southern Poland, centered on the historic region known as Upper Silesia, with Katowice serving as its capital.
Poland is a part of the global tourism market with constantly increasing number of visitors. Tourism in Poland contributes to the country's overall economy. The most popular cities are Kraków, Warsaw, Wrocław, Gdańsk, Poznań, Szczecin, Lublin, Toruń, Zakopane, the Salt Mine in Wieliczka and the historic site of Auschwitz – A German nazi concentration camp in Oświęcim. The best recreational destinations include Poland's Masurian Lake District, Baltic Sea coast, Tatra Mountains, Sudetes and Białowieża Forest. Poland's main tourist offers consist of sightseeing within cities, historical monuments, natural monuments, business trips, agrotourism, bicycle touring, qualified tourism, mountain hiking (trekking) and climbing among others.
Kamienna Góra is a town in south-western Poland with 19,010 inhabitants (2019). It is the seat of Kamienna Góra County, and also of the rural district called Gmina Kamienna Góra, although it is not part of the territory of the latter.
Jelenia Góra is a historic city in southwestern Poland, within the historical region of Lower Silesia. Jelenia Góra is situated in the Lower Silesian Voivodeship, close to the Karkonosze mountain range running along the Polish-Czech border – ski resorts such as Karpacz and Szklarska Poręba are situated 10 to 15 kilometres from the city. Jelenia Góra constitutes a separate urban gmina as well as being the seat of surrounding Jelenia Góra County. In 2018 the population of Jelenia Góra was 79,480. The area, including the oldest spa district of Cieplice Śląskie-Zdrój, is one of the most valued recreational and leisure spots in Poland.
Jawor County is a unit of territorial administration and local government (powiat) in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, south-western Poland. It came into being on January 1, 1999, as a result of the Polish local government reforms passed in 1998. The county covers an area of 581.2 square kilometres (224.4 sq mi). Its administrative seat is the town of Jawor; the only other town in the county is Bolków.
Lwówek Śląski County is a unit of territorial administration and local government (powiat) in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, south-western Poland. It came into being on January 1, 1999, as a result of the Polish local government reforms passed in 1998. The county covers an area of 709.9 square kilometres (274.1 sq mi). Its administrative seat is the town of Lwówek Śląski, and it also contains the towns of Gryfów Śląski, Mirsk, Wleń and Lubomierz.
Złotoryja County is a unit of territorial administration and local government (powiat) in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, south-western Poland. It came into being on January 1, 1999, as a result of the Polish local government reforms passed in 1998. The county covers an area of 575.45 square kilometres (222.2 sq mi). Its administrative seat is Złotoryja, and it also contains the towns of Wojcieszów and Świerzawa.
Złotoryja is a historic town in Lower Silesian Voivodeship in southwestern Poland, the administrative seat of Złotoryja County, and of the smaller Gmina Złotoryja. Having been granted town privileges in 1211, Złotoryja is the oldest town in Poland. Since the Middle Ages, it was a centre of gold and copper mining. Złotoryja was also featured among the most beautiful towns in Poland due to its location and architectural heritage.
Bardo is a historical town in Ząbkowice Śląskie County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland. It is the seat of the administrative district (gmina) called Gmina Bardo.
The Duchy of Silesia with its capital at Wrocław was a medieval duchy located in the historic Silesian region of Poland. Soon after it was formed under the Piast dynasty in 1138, it fragmented into various Duchies of Silesia. In 1327 the remaining Duchy of Wrocław as well as most other duchies ruled by the Silesian Piasts passed to the Kingdom of Bohemia as Duchies of Silesia. The acquisition was completed, when King Casimir III the Great of Poland renounced his rights to Silesia in the 1335 Treaty of Trentschin.
Lower Silesia is the northwestern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia; Upper Silesia is to the southeast.
Szczawno-Zdrój is a spa town in Wałbrzych County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Chojnik Castle is a castle located above the town of Sobieszów, today part of Jelenia Góra in southwestern Poland. Its remains stand on top of the Chojnik hill within the Karkonosze National Park, overlooking the Jelenia Góra valley.
The Owl Mountains are a mountain range of the Central Sudetes in southwestern Poland. It includes a protected area called Owl Mountains Landscape Park.
Jedlina-Zdrój is a spa town in Wałbrzych County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland. It is located within the historic region of Lower Silesia.
Krzeszów (pronouncedKshe-shoof is a village in south-western Poland. It is part of the administrative district of Kamienna Góra County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship. Krzeszów boasts the former Grüssau Abbey, one of the most valuable relics of Baroque architecture in Europe.
This is a list of coats of arms of Poland.
Jelenia Góra Valley in Poland is a big valley at the Silesian northern side of the Western Sudetes and next to Kłodzko Valley the largest intermontane basin of the Sudetes. It is situated at an altitude of 250–400 meters above sea level and covers an area of 273 km2. In the 19th century, the lovely landscape attracted the Prussian high nobility, which built magnificent palaces, manors and parks. The enormous number of stately homes turned the valley into one of the most important garden landscapes in Middle Europe.
Duchy of Jawor was one of the Duchies of Silesia established in 1274 as a subdivision of the Duchy of Legnica. It was ruled by the Silesian Piasts, with its capital at Jawor in Lower Silesia.
Koleje Dolnośląskie is a regional rail operator in the Lower Silesian Voivodship of Poland.
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Dolnośląskie .|