Lower Swan Bridge
Нижний Лебяжий мост
|Total length||23.9 m (78 ft)|
|Width||19.9 m (65 ft)|
|Opened||1733 (in wood)|
1837 (in stone)
Lower Swan Bridge (Russian : Нижний Лебяжий мост) is a single-span stone bridge in Saint Petersburg crossing the Swan Canal at its junction with the Moyka River.
Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.
Saint Petersburg is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015). An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject.
The Swan Canal is a waterway located in Saint Petersburg. Dating from the early years of the foundation of the city, it connects the Moyka and Neva Rivers.
The bridge is one of two which cross the Swan Canal, the other being the Upper Swan Bridge at the canal's northern end, at the confluence with the Neva River. The site of the Lower Swan Bridge was originally occupied by a wooden drawbridge built to the design of Harmen van Bol'es in the 1730s, replaced by a fixed bridge by 1760, and for a time known as the First Tsaritsyn Bridge, after the Tsaritsyn Meadow, now the Field of Mars. The wooden bridge was replaced with a stone one in the 1830s, but the speed of its construction led to significant problems, with the vaulting in danger of collapse. Numerous repairs and renovations have taken place over the bridge's existence, before finally being given a degree of stability after work in the 1920s, which retained the original appearance. Further restoration took place in 2002. Today the bridge links the Field of Mars with the Summer Garden at the Swan Canal's junction with the Moyka, close to the Mikhailovsky Castle.
Upper Swan Bridge is a single-span stone bridge in Saint Petersburg. It is one of the oldest stone bridges in the city and carries Palace Embankment across the Swan Canal.
The Neva ) is a river in northwestern Russia flowing from Lake Ladoga through the western part of Leningrad Oblast to the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland. Despite its modest length of 74 kilometres (46 mi), it is the fourth largest river in Europe in terms of average discharge.
Harmen van Bol'es was a royal master builder in Russia.
The Lower Swan Bridge is in Dvortsovy Municipal Okrug, part of the Tsentralny District of the city. It crosses the Swan Canal, one of the city's oldest, 23.9 m (78 ft) long and 19.9 m (65 ft) wide, and carries both foot and vehicle traffic. It is one of two bridges that currently span the Swan Canal, the other being the Upper Swan Bridge at the northern end of the canal at its juncture with the Neva River.at the point at which the canal joins the Moyka River, connecting the areas of the Field of Mars to the west, and the Summer Garden to the east. It comprises a single-span arched stone construction
Dvortsovy Municipal Okrug is a municipal okrug of Tsentralny District of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia. Population: 6,426 (2010 Census); 10,491 (2002 Census).
Tsentralny District is a district of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 214,625; down from 236,856 recorded in the 2002 Census.
The Moyka River is a small river in Russia that encircles the central portion of Saint Petersburg, effectively making it an island. The river, originally known as Mya, derives its name from the Ingrian word for "slush" or "mire". It is 5 kilometres (3 mi) long and 40 metres (130 ft) wide.
The point at which the Swan Canal diverged from the Moyka River was first crossed by a wooden drawbridge built to the design of engineer Harmen van Bol'es, and in existence between 1720 and 1733.It comprised a beam system with supports on a pile foundation. The supports and superstructure were covered with boards painted to resemble stone. It was called the First Tsaritsyn Bridge after the Tsaritsyn Meadow, now the Field of Mars. [a] It was replaced with a fixed wooden bridge by the 1760s. The wooden crossing was replaced with a stone and brick one over six months between December 1836 and mid-1837, as part of the redevelopment of the area around the Mikhailovsky Castle. Engineers Pierre-Dominique Bazaine, Andrei Gotman and A. I. Remezov were responsible for the design of the single-span brick-vaulted arched bridge, with its facades and pillars lined with granite, and cast-iron railings designed by Carlo Rossi. Prior to this the bridge had had several names, including the Swan Bridge, the Lower Swan Bridge, and the Wooden Swan Bridge, the latter name to distinguish it from the bridge across the northern end of the canal, which had been a stone construction since 1768. After being rebuilt in stone, the name Lower Swan Bridge took precedence, distinguishing it from the northern bridge, which became the Upper Swan Bridge.
Pierre-Dominique Bazaine (1786–1838) was a French scientist and engineer. He was educated at the École polytechnique in Paris as an engineer. At the request of Alexander I of Russia he was sent to Russia by Napoleon I as an army officer in the engineering corps to set up an institute for the education of transportation engineers, and in 1824 he became its director. Bazaine remained in Russia until 1834, organizing transportation routes and directing the work of inland navigation. He was responsible for many of the bridges of St. Petersburg and its outskirts, as well as other major civil engineering projects, including flood protection. He received many Honours and Awards for his extensive contribution to the infrastructure of Russia, as well as Honorary Fellowship of a number of science academies across Europe for his ground-breaking mathematical theses. He finally returned to France in 1834 and died in Paris aged 52 in 1838.
Carlo di Giovanni Rossi was an Italian architect who worked in Imperial Russia. He was the author of many classical buildings and architectural ensembles in Saint Petersburg and its environments.
The haste in which the bridge was constructed soon began to show. 25 cm (9.8 in), causing seams to open in the bridge's foundations. Attempts were made to fill the gaps with copper wedges, but by 1846 all the wedges had fallen out and the bridge was crumbling, pieces falling into the water at the slightest vibration. A repair plan was drawn up by March 1847, but failed to solve the problems, with new defects being found in the repair works. In 1849 the arch collapsed, necessitating further repairs. Defects were again discovered in the vaulting in the early 1900s, and an 1904 examination declared the condition of the bridge unsatisfactory. In 1907, another reconstruction project was drawn up, proposing the fitting of lattice metal trusses. Neither this nor several subsequent repair programmes were implemented, and the bridge continued to collapse.The brick vault of the bridge cracked almost immediately after completion, with the crack widening steadily over the next six years. By 1842 the gap had widened to
By the early 1920s the condition of the bridge was causing serious concern, and it was closed to traffic in 1924.It was again repaired between April 1925 and 1926 under the oversight of engineers B. D. Vasilyev and A. L. Salarev. The structure was strengthened with reinforced concrete and lined with granite, retaining the earlier appearance of the bridge, including Rossi's railings, which were restored. Another restoration took place in 2002 as part of the 300th anniversary of the founding of the city. Waterproofing was carried out, the railings were restored and the roadway and pavements repaired.
The Field of Mars is a large square in the centre of Saint Petersburg. Over its long history it has been alternately a meadow, park, pleasure garden, military parade ground, revolutionary pantheon and public meeting place.
The Anichkov Bridge is the oldest and most famous bridge across the Fontanka River in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The current bridge, built in 1841-42 and reconstructed in 1906-08, combines a simple form with some spectacular decorations. As well as its four famous horse sculptures (1849–50), the bridge has some of the most celebrated ornate iron railings in Saint Petersburg. The structure is mentioned in the works of Pushkin, Gogol, and Dostoevsky.
The Pevchesky Bridge, also known as the Choristers' Bridge or Yellow Bridge, is a single-span bridge across the Moika River in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The bridge is a part of the Palace Square. The length of the bridge is 21 metres, and the width is 72 metres. It is the third-widest bridge in Saint Petersburg, after the Blue Bridge and Kazansky Bridge. Before the February Revolution, the term "Choristers’ Bridge" was shorthand for the tsarist foreign ministry, just as the French foreign ministry is known as the Quai d'Orsay.
The First Engineer Bridge is one of several bridges that span the Moika River in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The bridge is one of a group of four bridges located near the Mars Field, and opposite the main entrance to the Summer Garden, spanning the Moika River, the Fontanka River, and the Swan Canal in the historic center of the city. The First Engineer Bridge is one of the most decorative of Saint Petersburg's more than 500 bridges.
The Potseluev Bridge is a bridge across the Moyka River in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The name of the bridge spurred numerous urban legends. The panoramic view of Saint Isaac's Cathedral that opens from the bridge makes it a popular subject of artists paintings.
The Demidov Bridge is a bridge across the Griboyedov Canal in Saint Petersburg, Russia. It connects Kazansky and Spassky islands.
The Hermitage Bridge is a bridge across the Winter Canal along Palace Embankment in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The bridge constitutes part of the Hermitage and Winter Palace ensemble.
The Hay Bridge is a bridge across the Griboedov Canal in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
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The Suvorov Monument is a bronze sculpture of Generalissimo Alexander Suvorov located in Saint Petersburg. It is at the centre of Suvorov Square, opposite the Field of Mars and the Trinity Bridge, and between the Marble Palace and the Saltykov Mansion.
Red Canal was an eighteenth-century waterway in Saint Petersburg. Built between 1711 and 1719, it was part of a series of canals dug to improve the drainage of the marshy areas of the city. The canal was one of two connecting the Moyka River and the Neva River in the area of what is now the Field of Mars. Opened in the presence of Peter the Great and Tsarina Catherine in 1719, the canal became a popular site for the nobility to construct large townhouses. By the 1770s the canal was no longer required for its original purpose, and with the expansion of buildings across the Neva embankment, the canal was filled in. A stone bridge built over the canal in 1768 was transferred to the Winter Canal, and survives today as the First Winter Bridge.
First Winter Bridge is a single-span stone bridge in Saint Petersburg, carrying Millionnaya Street across the Winter Canal. The current bridge was originally built in 1768 to cross a different watercourse, and was rebuilt and opened in its present location in 1784.
The Mikhailovsky Garden is a large area of parkland and landscape garden in the centre of Saint Petersburg.
The Rossi Bridge is a cast-iron bridge in the Mikhailovsky Garden in Saint Petersburg. It was designed by architect Carlo Rossi during his redevelopment of the garden in the early 1820s, and built in 1825.
The Rossi Pavilion is a pavilion on the bank of the Moyka River in the Mikhailovsky Garden in Saint Petersburg. It was designed by architect Carlo Rossi in the early 1820s and built in 1825 during his redevelopment of the garden.