Lower Swan Bridge

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Lower Swan Bridge

Нижний Лебяжий мост
Nizhnij lebjazhij bridge 1.JPG
Coordinates 59°56′29″N030°20′09″E / 59.94139°N 30.33583°E / 59.94139; 30.33583 Coordinates: 59°56′29″N030°20′09″E / 59.94139°N 30.33583°E / 59.94139; 30.33583
CarriesVehicles
Pedestrians
Crosses Swan Canal
Locale Saint Petersburg
Characteristics
Total length23.9 m (78 ft)
Width19.9 m (65 ft)
History
Opened1733 (in wood)
1837 (in stone)

Lower Swan Bridge (Russian : Нижний Лебяжий мост) is a single-span stone bridge in Saint Petersburg crossing the Swan Canal at its junction with the Moyka River.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

Saint Petersburg Federal city in the Northwestern federal district, Russia

Saint Petersburg is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015). An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject.

Swan Canal Canal in Saint Petersburg

The Swan Canal is a waterway located in Saint Petersburg. Dating from the early years of the foundation of the city, it connects the Moyka and Neva Rivers.

Contents

The bridge is one of two which cross the Swan Canal, the other being the Upper Swan Bridge at the canal's northern end, at the confluence with the Neva River. The site of the Lower Swan Bridge was originally occupied by a wooden drawbridge built to the design of Harmen van Bol'es in the 1730s, replaced by a fixed bridge by 1760, and for a time known as the First Tsaritsyn Bridge, after the Tsaritsyn Meadow, now the Field of Mars. The wooden bridge was replaced with a stone one in the 1830s, but the speed of its construction led to significant problems, with the vaulting in danger of collapse. Numerous repairs and renovations have taken place over the bridge's existence, before finally being given a degree of stability after work in the 1920s, which retained the original appearance. Further restoration took place in 2002. Today the bridge links the Field of Mars with the Summer Garden at the Swan Canal's junction with the Moyka, close to the Mikhailovsky Castle.

Upper Swan Bridge Bridge in Saint Petersburg

Upper Swan Bridge is a single-span stone bridge in Saint Petersburg. It is one of the oldest stone bridges in the city and carries Palace Embankment across the Swan Canal.

Neva River River in Russia

The Neva ) is a river in northwestern Russia flowing from Lake Ladoga through the western part of Leningrad Oblast to the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland. Despite its modest length of 74 kilometres (46 mi), it is the fourth largest river in Europe in terms of average discharge.

Harmen van Boles Royal master builder

Harmen van Bol'es was a royal master builder in Russia.

Location and design

The Lower Swan Bridge is in Dvortsovy Municipal Okrug, part of the Tsentralny District of the city. It crosses the Swan Canal, one of the city's oldest, [1] at the point at which the canal joins the Moyka River, connecting the areas of the Field of Mars to the west, and the Summer Garden to the east. [2] It comprises a single-span arched stone construction 23.9 m (78 ft) long and 19.9 m (65 ft) wide, and carries both foot and vehicle traffic. [3] [2] It is one of two bridges that currently span the Swan Canal, the other being the Upper Swan Bridge at the northern end of the canal at its juncture with the Neva River. [1]

Dvortsovy Municipal Okrug human settlement in Russia

Dvortsovy Municipal Okrug is a municipal okrug of Tsentralny District of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia. Population: 6,426 (2010 Census); 10,491 (2002 Census).

Tsentralny District, Saint Petersburg District in federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia

Tsentralny District is a district of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 214,625; down from 236,856 recorded in the 2002 Census.

Moyka River river in Russia

The Moyka River is a small river in Russia that encircles the central portion of Saint Petersburg, effectively making it an island. The river, originally known as Mya, derives its name from the Ingrian word for "slush" or "mire". It is 5 kilometres (3 mi) long and 40 metres (130 ft) wide.

History

Iron latticework of the bridge's railings Fences of Nizhnij lebjazhij bridge 2.JPG
Iron latticework of the bridge's railings

The point at which the Swan Canal diverged from the Moyka River was first crossed by a wooden drawbridge built to the design of engineer Harmen van Bol'es, and in existence between 1720 and 1733. [2] [3] [4] It comprised a beam system with supports on a pile foundation. The supports and superstructure were covered with boards painted to resemble stone. [5] It was called the First Tsaritsyn Bridge after the Tsaritsyn Meadow, now the Field of Mars. [3] [4] [a] It was replaced with a fixed wooden bridge by the 1760s. [2] [3] The wooden crossing was replaced with a stone and brick one over six months between December 1836 and mid-1837, as part of the redevelopment of the area around the Mikhailovsky Castle. [4] Engineers Pierre-Dominique Bazaine, Andrei Gotman  [ ru ] and A. I. Remezov were responsible for the design of the single-span brick-vaulted arched bridge, with its facades and pillars lined with granite, and cast-iron railings designed by Carlo Rossi. [2] [3] Prior to this the bridge had had several names, including the Swan Bridge, the Lower Swan Bridge, and the Wooden Swan Bridge, the latter name to distinguish it from the bridge across the northern end of the canal, which had been a stone construction since 1768. After being rebuilt in stone, the name Lower Swan Bridge took precedence, distinguishing it from the northern bridge, which became the Upper Swan Bridge. [4] [5]

Pierre-Dominique Bazaine Russian mathematician

Pierre-Dominique Bazaine (1786–1838) was a French scientist and engineer. He was educated at the École polytechnique in Paris as an engineer. At the request of Alexander I of Russia he was sent to Russia by Napoleon I as an army officer in the engineering corps to set up an institute for the education of transportation engineers, and in 1824 he became its director. Bazaine remained in Russia until 1834, organizing transportation routes and directing the work of inland navigation. He was responsible for many of the bridges of St. Petersburg and its outskirts, as well as other major civil engineering projects, including flood protection. He received many Honours and Awards for his extensive contribution to the infrastructure of Russia, as well as Honorary Fellowship of a number of science academies across Europe for his ground-breaking mathematical theses. He finally returned to France in 1834 and died in Paris aged 52 in 1838.

Carlo Rossi (architect) Italian-born Russian architect

Carlo di Giovanni Rossi was an Italian architect who worked in Imperial Russia. He was the author of many classical buildings and architectural ensembles in Saint Petersburg and its environments.

The bridge from the Moyka, showing the junction with the Swan Canal Moyka River Embankment 7.jpg
The bridge from the Moyka, showing the junction with the Swan Canal

The haste in which the bridge was constructed soon began to show. [5] The brick vault of the bridge cracked almost immediately after completion, with the crack widening steadily over the next six years. By 1842 the gap had widened to 25 cm (9.8 in), causing seams to open in the bridge's foundations. [4] [5] Attempts were made to fill the gaps with copper wedges, but by 1846 all the wedges had fallen out and the bridge was crumbling, pieces falling into the water at the slightest vibration. [4] A repair plan was drawn up by March 1847, but failed to solve the problems, with new defects being found in the repair works. [5] In 1849 the arch collapsed, necessitating further repairs. [2] [3] [4] Defects were again discovered in the vaulting in the early 1900s, and an 1904 examination declared the condition of the bridge unsatisfactory. In 1907, another reconstruction project was drawn up, proposing the fitting of lattice metal trusses. Neither this nor several subsequent repair programmes were implemented, and the bridge continued to collapse. [5]

By the early 1920s the condition of the bridge was causing serious concern, and it was closed to traffic in 1924. [4] It was again repaired between April 1925 and 1926 under the oversight of engineers B. D. Vasilyev and A. L. Salarev. The structure was strengthened with reinforced concrete and lined with granite, retaining the earlier appearance of the bridge, including Rossi's railings, which were restored. [2] [3] [1] [4] Another restoration took place in 2002 as part of the 300th anniversary of the founding of the city. [3] [5] Waterproofing was carried out, the railings were restored and the roadway and pavements repaired. [5]

Notes

a. ^ The Second Tsaritsyn Bridge is now the First Sadovy Bridge  [ ru ].

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References

  1. 1 2 3 "Lebyazhya Kanavka (Swan Canal)". saint-petersburg.com. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Guzevich, D. Yu. "Лебяжьи мосты". encspb.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2 July 2019.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "Нижний Лебяжий мост". citywalls.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2 July 2019.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 "Нижне-Лебяжий мост". walkspb.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2 July 2019.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "Нижний Лебяжий мост". mostotrest-spb.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2 July 2019.