Lu Kun (1772–1835; courtesy name Jingzhi, hao Houshan 厚山), was a Chinese politician of the Qing dynasty. He was a student of politician and scholar Ruan Yuan. He was born in Zhuozhou Prefecture (涿州 modern day Zhuozhou City, Hebei province), Shuntian Fu (顺天府).
In 1799 he became a jinshi (進士, lit. "advanced scholar") following the Imperial Examinations, ranking 140th in the third grade that year before joining the staff of the Hanlin Academy. A succession of official posts followed, including spells at the Ministry of War and the bureaus responsible for managing the affairs of Guangdong and Shandong respectively. In August 1822 he became Governor-general of Guangxi then in November Governor-general of Shaanxi.
After a rebellion broke out in Xinjiang under the leadership of East Turkestani warlord Jahangir Khoja in 1826,the Daoguang Emperor sent Lu Kun to Shaanxi and Gansu where he was to raise troops to retake the four western cities captured by the rebels. He was also to stockpile materiel for the coming attack and arrange the logistics to transport supplies to Xinjiang. Subsequently, a large Qing army recaptured the lost territory and transported Jhoja to Beijing for execution. Lu Kun gained the admiration of Daoguang for his successful accomplishment of this mission and received promotion to first grade scholar-official (Yīpǐn dǐngdài, 一品顶戴).
Following on from his success in Xinjiang, Lu received the appointment of Governor-general of Huguang then on 14 September 1832 he became Governor-general of Liangguang with responsibility for Guangdong and Guangxi. Canton (now Guangzhou), the capital of Guangdong, had long been the epicentre of foreign trade with China. Lu now became responsible for the Canton System operated in the southern port by a group of Chinese merchants known as the Cohong from the Thirteen Factories on the banks of the Pearl River.
In 1834 Lord Napier arrived in China aboard HMS Andromache on a mission to open further ports for trade besides Canton. Instead of remaining in Macau and awaiting official clearance as advised, he made straight for Canton where he tried to deliver a letter to Lu Kun. This was a serious breach of normal protocol - the Cohong had been established explicitly to manage all dealings with foreigners. On the orders of the emperor, Lu rebuffed the Englishman's approach: "The Barbarian Eye (a reference to Napier), if he wishes to come to Canton, must inform the Hong merchants so that they may petition me."Local Mandarins rejected a further letter from Napier and a stand off ensued, which Lu considered a significant diplomatic victory. Lu then issued an edict ordering the British emissary to return to Macao and decreed a temporary halt on trade with Great Britain to back up his words. Many of the British traders believed that forceful intervention by the British government was now inevitable. Napier next tried to circumvent the Governor-general through a direct appeal to the people of Canton. This only made matters worse, leading Lu to announce publicly: "The Barbarian Eye is indeed stupid, blinded, ignorant ... there can be no quiet while he remains here. I therefore formally close the trade until he goes." Lu then ordered all British residents to leave Canton and take up residence in Macao. He irked the British further by allowing French, Dutch and American traders to continue as before. In response, Napier gave orders to three British frigates at anchor in the Canton River, which then sailed upstream to Whampoa. An exchange of fire followed between the British warships and shore batteries during which two British sailors died and all 60 Chinese cannon were knocked out. This incident would form part of casus belli for the First Opium War five years later. Lu Kun agreed to let Napier leave Canton for Macao on the advice of his doctor, where the Englishman died a few days later, probably of Malaria.
A year after Napier's visit, on 25 February 1835, Lu sent a memorial to Daoguang listing "Eight regulations for dealing with foreigners" (Fángfàn yírén zhāngchéng bā tiáo, 防範夷人章程八條 / 防范夷人章程八条) that brought in further restrictions on the activities of foreign traders in Canton.
Lu Kun died in office in Guangzhou in 1835 at the age of 64. He was given two honorific titles and the posthumous name of Minsu (敏肃).
The First Opium War, also known as the Opium War or the Anglo-Chinese War, was a series of military engagements fought between Britain and the Qing dynasty of China. The immediate issue was Chinese official seizure of opium stocks at Canton to stop the banned opium trade, and threatening the death penalty for future offenders. The British government insisted on the principles of free trade, equal diplomatic recognition among nations, and backed the merchants' demands. The British navy defeated the Chinese using technologically superior ships and weapons, and the British then imposed a treaty that granted territory to Britain and opened trade with China.
The Second Opium War, also known as the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China, was a war pitting the British Empire and the French Empire against the Qing dynasty of China that lasted from 1856 to 1860.
The Opium Wars were two wars waged between the Qing dynasty and Western powers in the mid-19th century. The First Opium War, fought in 1839–1842 between the Qing and Great Britain, was triggered by the dynasty's campaign against the British merchants who sold opium to Chinese merchants. The Second Opium War was fought between the Qing and Britain and France, 1856–1860. In each war, the European force's modern military technology led to easy victory over the Qing forces, with the consequence that the government was compelled to grant favorable tariffs, trade concessions, and territory to the Europeans.
The Daoguang Emperor was the seventh Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the sixth Qing emperor to rule over China proper, reigning from 1820 to 1850. His reign was marked by "external disaster and internal rebellion," that is, by the First Opium War, and the beginning of the Taiping Rebellion which nearly brought down the dynasty. The historian Jonathan Spence characterizes the Daoguang Emperor as a "well meaning but ineffective man" who promoted officials who "presented a purist view even if they had nothing to say about the domestic and foreign problems surrounding the dynasty."
William John Napier, 9th Lord Napier, Baron Napier FRSE was a British Royal Navy officer and trade envoy in China.
Lin Zexu, courtesy name Yuanfu, was a Chinese head of states (Viceroy), Governor General, scholar-official under Emperor of the Qing dynasty best known for his role in the First Opium War of 1839–42. He was from Fuzhou, Fujian Province. Lin's forceful opposition to the opium trade was a primary catalyst for the First Opium War. He is praised for his constant position on the "moral high ground" in his fight, but he is also blamed for a rigid approach which failed to account for the domestic and international complexities of the problem. The Daoguang Emperor endorsed the hardline policies and anti-drugs movement advocated by Lin, but then blamed Lin for the resulting disastrous war.
The Canton System (1757–1842) served as a means for China to control trade with the West within its own country by focusing all trade on the southern port of Canton. Known in Chinese as the Yīkǒu tōngshāng the policy arose in 1757 as a response to a perceived political and commercial threat from abroad on the part of successive Chinese emperors.
Yishan, courtesy name Jingxuan, was a Manchu lesser noble and official of the Qing dynasty. He is best known for his failure to defend Guangzhou (Canton) from British forces during the First Opium War, and for signing the treaties of Kulja and Aigun with the Russian Empire in 1851 and 1858 respectively.
Ye Mingchen was a high-ranking Chinese official during the Qing dynasty, known for his resistance to British influence in Canton (Guangzhou) in the aftermath of the First Opium War and his role in the beginning of the Second Opium War.
The Cohong, sometimes spelled kehang or gonghang, a guild of Chinese merchants or hongs, operated the import-export monopoly in Canton during the Qing dynasty (1644–1911). During the century prior to the First Opium War of 1839-1842, trade relations between China and Europe took place exclusively via the Cohong - a system formalised by an imperial edict of the Qianlong Emperor in 1760. The Chinese merchants who made up the Cohong were referred to as hangshang (行商) and their foreign counterparts as yanghang.
The Battle of Kowloon was a skirmish between British and Chinese vessels off the Kowloon Peninsula, China, on 4 September 1839, located in Hong Kong, although Kowloon was then part of the Guangdong province. The skirmish was the first armed conflict of the First Opium War and occurred when British boats opened fire on Chinese war junks enforcing a food sales embargo on the British community. The ban was ordered after a Chinese man died in a drunken brawl with British sailors at Tsim Sha Tsui. The Chinese authorities did not consider the punishment to be sufficient as meted out by British officials, so they suspended food supplies in an attempt to force the British to turn over the culprit.
The First Battle of Canton was fought between British and Chinese forces in Canton, Guangdong Province, China, on 18 March 1841 during the First Opium War. The capture led to the hoisting of the Union Jack on the British factory in Canton and the resumption of trade between the British and the Chinese.
Yijing was a Manchu prince of the Qing Dynasty. He was a nephew of the Daoguang Emperor. In 1826, he served at Kashgar as a junior officer in the campaign against Jahangir Khoja. During the First Opium War, after the British captured Zhenhai and Ningpo, the emperor ordered Yijing to go to Zhejiang on 18 October 1841 and take command of a counter-offensive. In the Battle of Ningpo on 10 March 1842, Yijing's troops attempted to retake the city, but the British successfully repelled the attack.
Robert Thom was an English nineteenth century Chinese language translator and diplomat based in Canton who worked for the trading house Jardine, Matheson & Co. and was seconded to the British armed forces during the First Opium War (1839 – 1842). For his literary works Thom used Sloth as a nom de plume.
Yang Fang (1770–1846) was a Han Chinese general and diplomat during the Qing dynasty (1644–1911). Born in Songtao, Guizhou Province, he joined the military as a young man and became a secretary, where he came to the attention of General Yang Yuchun, who recommended him for military school.
The history of opium in China began with the use of opium for medicinal purposes during the 7th century. In the 17th century the practice of mixing opium with tobacco for smoking spread from Southeast Asia, creating a far greater demand.
The destruction of opium at Humen began on 3 June 1839 and involved the destruction of 1,000 long tons of illegal opium seized from British traders under the aegis of Lin Zexu, an Imperial Commissioner of Qing China. Conducted on the banks of the Pearl River outside Humen Town, Dongguan, China, the action provided casus belli for Great Britain to declare war on Qing China. What followed is now known as the First Opium War (1839–1842), a conflict that initiated China's opening for trade with foreign nations under a series of treaties with the western powers.
Lu Rongting, also spelled as Lu Yung-ting and Lu Jung-t'ing, was a late Qing/early Republican military and political leader from Wuming, Guangxi. Lu belonged to the Zhuang ethnic group.
Events from the year 1842 in China.
Events from the year 1839 in China.
Li Hongbin (李鴻賓)
| Governor-general of Liangguang |
14 September 1832 –15 October 1835