(Capital of Lublin County but not part of it)
|Established||before 12th century|
|• Mayor||Krzysztof Żuk|
|• City||147 km2 (57 sq mi)|
(31 December 2019)
|• City||339,784 (9th)|
|• Density||2,310/km2 (6,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
20-001 to 20-999
|Area code(s)||+48 81|
Lublin ( // , US also // , Polish: [ˈlublin] ( listen )) is the ninth-largest city in Poland and the second-largest city of historical Lesser Poland. It is the capital and the center of Lublin Voivodeship (Lublin Province) with a population of 339,784 (December 2019). Lublin is the largest Polish city east of the Vistula River and is about 170 km (106 mi) to the southeast of Warsaw by road.
One of the events that greatly contributed to the city's development was the Polish-Lithuanian Union of Krewo in 1385. Lublin thrived as a centre of trade and commerce due to its strategic location on the route between Vilnius and Kraków; the inhabitants had the privilege of free trade in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Lublin Parliament session of 1569 led to the creation of a real union between the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, thus creating the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Lublin witnessed the early stages of Reformation in the 16th century. A Calvinist congregation was founded and groups of radical Arians appeared in the city, making it an important global centre of Arianism.
Until the partitions at the end of the 18th century, Lublin was a royal city of the Crown Kingdom of Poland. Its delegates and nobles had the right to participate in the royal election. In 1578, Lublin was chosen as the seat of the Crown Tribunal, the highest appeal court in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and for centuries, the city has been flourishing as a centre of culture and higher learning.
The city is viewed as an attractive location for foreign investment, and the analytical Financial Times Group has found Lublin to be one of the best cities for business in Poland.The Foreign Direct Investment ranking placed Lublin second among larger Polish cities in the cost-effectiveness category. Lublin is noted for its green spaces and a high standard of living; the city has been selected as the 2023 European Youth Capital. Its historical Old Town is one of Poland's national monuments ( Pomnik historii ) tracked by the National Heritage Board of Poland.
Archaeological finds indicate a long presence of cultures in the area. A complex of settlements started to develop on the future site of Lublin and in its environs in the sixth to seventh centuries. Remains of settlements dating back to the sixth century were discovered in the centre of today's Lublin on Czwartek ("Thursday") Hill.
The period of the early Middle Ages was marked by an intensification of habitation, particularly in the areas along river valleys. The settlements were centred around the stronghold on Old Town Hill, which was likely one of the main centres of Lendians tribe. When the tribal stronghold was destroyed in the 10th century, the centre shifted to the northeast, to a new stronghold above Czechówka valley and, after the mid-12th century, to Castle Hill. At least two churches are presumed to have existed in Lublin in the early medieval period. One of them was most probably erected on Czwartek Hill during the rule of Casimir the Restorer in the 11th century.The castle became the seat of a castellan, first mentioned in historical sources from 1224, but was quite possibly present from the start of the 12th or even 10th century. The oldest historical document mentioning Lublin dates from 1198, so the name must have come into general use some time earlier.
The location of Lublin at the eastern borders of the Polish lands gave it military significance. During the first half of the 13th century, Lublin was a target of attacks by Mongols, Ruthenians, and Lithuanians, which resulted in its destruction.It was also ruled by Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia between 1289 and 1302. Lublin was founded as a town by Władysław I the Elbow-high or between 1258 and 1279 during the rule of the prince Bolesław V the Chaste. Casimir III the Great, appreciating the site's strategic importance, built a masonry castle in 1341 and encircled the city with defensive walls. From 1326, if not earlier, the stronghold on Castle Hill included a chapel in honor of the Holy Trinity. A stone church dating to 1335–1370 exists to this day.
In 1392, the city received an important trade privilege from the king Władysław II Jagiełło. With the coming of peace between Poland and Lithuania, it developed into a trade centre, handling a large portion of commerce between the countries. In 1474, the area around Lublin was carved out of Sandomierz Voivodeship and combined to form the Lublin Voivodeship, the third voivodeship of Lesser Poland.
During the 15th and 16th centuries, the town grew rapidly. The largest trade fairs of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth were held in Lublin. During the 16th century, the noble parliaments ( sejm ) were held in Lublin several times. On 26 June 1569, one of the most important proclaimed the Union of Lublin, which united Poland and Lithuania. The Lithuanian name for the city is Liublinas. Lublin was one of the most influential citiesof the state enjoyed voting rights during the royal elections in Poland.
Some of the artists and writers of the 16th century Polish renaissance lived and worked in Lublin, including Sebastian Klonowic and Jan Kochanowski, who died in the city in 1584. In 1578, the Crown Tribunal, the highest court of the Lesser Poland region, was established in Lublin.
Since the second half of the 16th century, Protestant Reformation movements devolved in Lublin, and a large congregation of Polish Brethren was present in the city. One of Poland's most important Jewish communities was established in Lublin around this time.Jews established a widely respected yeshiva, Jewish hospital, synagogue, cemetery, and education centre (kahal) and built the Grodzka Gate (known as the Jewish Gate) in the historic district. Jews were a vital part of the city's life until the Holocaust, during which they were relocated to the infamous Lublin Ghetto and ultimately murdered.
The yeshiva became a centre of learning of Talmud and Kabbalah, leading the city to be called "the Jewish Oxford."In 1567, the rosh yeshiva (headmaster) received the title of rector from the king along with rights and privileges equal to those of the heads of Polish universities.
In the 17th century, the town declined due to a Russo-Ukrainian invasion in 1655 and a Swedish invasion during the Northern Wars.
After the third of the Partitions of Poland in 1795, Lublin was located in the Austrian empire, then 1809 in the Duchy of Warsaw, and then 1815 in the Congress Poland under Russian rule.
At the beginning of the 19th century, new squares, streets, and public buildings were built. In 1877, a railway connection to Warsaw and Kovel and Lublin Station were constructed, spurring industrial development. Lublin's population grew from 28,900 in 1873 to 50,150 in 1897 (including 24,000 Jews).
Russian rule ended in 1915, when the city was occupied by German and Austro-Hungarian armies. After the defeat of the Central Powers in 1918, Provisional People's Government of the Republic of Poland - the first government of independent Poland operated in Lublin for a short time. In the interwar years, the city continued to modernise and its population grew; important industrial enterprises were established, including the first aviation factory in Poland, the Plage i Laśkiewicz works, later nationalised as the LWS factory. The Catholic University of Lublin was founded in 1918.
In 1921, Roman Catholics constituted 58.9% of the city's population, Jews - 39.5%. In 1931, 63.7% of the inhabitants were Roman Catholic and 34.7% Jewish.
After the 1939 German and Soviet invasion of Poland, the city found itself in the General Government territory controlled by Nazi Germany. The population became a target of severe Nazi persecutions focusing on Polish Jews. An attempt to "Germanise" the city led to an influx of the ethnic Volksdeutsche , increasing the number of German minority from 10 to 15% in 1939 to 20–25%. Near Lublin, the so-called 'reservation' for the Jews was built based on the idea of racial segregation known as the "Nisko or Lublin Plan".
The Jewish population was forced into the newly established Lublin Ghetto near Podzamcze. The city served as headquarters for Operation Reinhardt, the main German effort to exterminate all Jews in occupied Poland. The majority of the ghetto inmates, about 26,000 people, were deported to the Bełżec extermination camp between 17 March and 11 April 1942. The remainder were moved to facilities around the Majdanek concentration camp established at the outskirts of the city. Almost all of Lublin's Jews were murdered during the Holocaust in Poland.
After the war, some survivors emerged from hiding with the Christian rescuers or returned from the Soviet Union, and re-established a small Jewish community in the city, but their numbers were insignificant. Most left Poland for Israel and the West.
On 24 July 1944, the city was taken by the Soviet Army and became the temporary headquarters of the Soviet-controlled communist Polish Committee of National Liberation established by Joseph Stalin, which was to serve as the basis for a puppet government. The capital of new Poland was moved to Warsaw in January 1945 after the Soviet westward offensive.
In the postwar years, Lublin continued to grow, tripling its population and greatly expanding its area. A considerable scientific and research base was established around the newly founded Maria Curie-Sklodowska University. A large automotive factory, Fabryka Samochodów Ciężarowych, was built in the city.
Lublin has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb) with cold, damp winters and warm summers.
|Climate data for Lublin (1936−2011)|
|Record high °C (°F)||18.0|
|Average high °C (°F)||−0.7|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−3.1|
|Average low °C (°F)||−5.9|
|Record low °C (°F)||−32.2|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||22.7|
|Average precipitation days||23.3||19.5||18.4||13.1||13.0||11.8||12.3||9.3||11.2||13.3||18.1||20.8||184.1|
|Average relative humidity (%)||88.7||85.9||79.8||68.9||71.9||73.7||75.1||74.4||79.8||84.0||89.4||90.2||80.1|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||53||73||115||174||226||237||238||248||165||124||48||37||1,738|
The diagram shows population growth over the past 400 years. In 1999, the population of Lublin was estimated to 359,154, the highest in the city's history.
The Lublin region is a part of eastern Poland, which has benefited less from the economic transformation after 1989 than regions of Poland located closer to Western Europe. Despite the fact that Lublin is one of the closest neighbour cities for Warsaw, the investment inflow in services from the Polish capital has secured a steady growth due to relatively fast connection, while external investments are progressing, enabling nearby satellite municipality Świdnik for large-scale industrial investments, seamlessly testing the capacity of the agglomeration. The close cooperation with Warsaw is significant to the regional economy, bringing quality cultural events inshore, yet the proximity of Warsaw is an underestimated asset.
Lublin is a regional centre of IT companies. Asseco Business Solutions S.A., eLeader Sp z o.o., CompuGroup Medical Polska Sp. z o.o., Abak-Soft Sp. z o.o. and others have their headquarters here. Other companies (for example Comarch S.A., Britenet Sp. z o.o., Simple S.A., Asseco Poland S.A.) outsourced to Lublin, to take advantage of the educated specialists. There is a visible growth in professionals eager to work in Lublin, due to reasons, like quality of life, culture management, the environment, improving connection to Warsaw, levels of education, or financial, because of usually higher operating margins of global organisations present in the area.
The large car factory Fabryka Samochodów Ciężarowych (FSC) seemed to have a brighter future when it was acquired by the South Korean Daewoo conglomerate in the early 1990s. With Daewoo's financial troubles in 1998 related to the Asian financial crisis, the production at FSC practically collapsed and the factory entered bankruptcy.[ citation needed ] Efforts to restart its van production succeeded when the engine supplier bought the company to keep its prime market.[ citation needed ] With the decline of Lublin as a regional industrial centre, the city's economy has been reoriented toward service industries. Currently, the largest employer is the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University.
The price of land and investment costs are lower than in western Poland. However, the Lublin area has to be one of the main beneficiaries of the EU development funds.Jerzy Kwiecinski, the deputy secretary of state in the Ministry for Regional Development at the Conference of the Ministry for Regional Development (Poland in the European Union — new possibilities for foreign investors) said:
In the immediate financial outlook, between 2007 and 2013, we will be the largest beneficiaries of the EU — every fifth Euro will be spent in Poland. In total, we will have at our disposal 120 billion EUR, assigned exclusively for post-development activities. This sum will be an enormous boost for our country.
In September 2007, the prime minister signed a bill creating a special economic investment zone in Lublin that offers tax incentives. It is part of “Park Mielec” — the European Economic Development area.At least 13 large companies had declared their wish to invest here, e.g., Carrefour, Comarch, Safo, Asseco, Aliplast, Herbapol, Modern-Expo and Perła Browary Lubelskie. At the same time, the energy giant Polska Grupa Energetyczna, which will build Poland's first nuclear power station, is to have its main offices in Lublin.
Modern shopping centers built in Lublin like Tarasy Zamkowe (Castle Terraces), Lublin Plaza, Galeria Olimp, Galeria Gala, the largest shopping mall in the city, covering 33,500 square meters of area. Similar investments are planned for the near future such as Park Felin (Felicity) and a new underground gallery ("Alchemy") between and beneath Świętoduska and Lubartowska Streets.
There is a public TV station in the city: TVP Lublin which owns a 104-meter-tall concrete television tower.The station put its first program on the air in 1985. In recent years it contributed programming to TVP3 channel and later TVP Info.
The radio stations airing from Lublin include 'Radio eR - 87.9 FM', Radio 'Eska Lublin' - 103.6 FM, Radio Lublin (regional station of the Polish Radio) - 102.2 FM, [ Radio Centrum (university radio station)] - 98.2 FM, Radio 'Free' (city station of the Polish Radio) - 89,9 FM, and Radio 'Złote Przeboje' (Golden Hits) Lublin - 95.6 FM.
Local newspapers include Kurier Lubelski daily, regional partner of the national newspaper Dziennik Wschodni daily, Gazeta Wyborcza [ Lublin Edition] daily (regional supplement to the national newspaper Gazeta Wyborcza), [ Metro] (daily, free) and Nasze Miasto Lublin weekly (free).
The Lublin Airport (Port Lotniczy Lublin) (IATA: LUZ) is located about 10 km (6.2 miles) SE of Lublin. With approximately 8 destinations and over 450 000 passengers served in 2018, it is the biggest airport in Eastern Poland. There is a direct train and bus link from the airport to downtown.
From Lublin Główny railway station, ten trains depart each day to Warsaw, and three to Kraków, as in other major cities in Poland. Lublin has also direct train connections with Rzeszów, Szczecin, Gdynia and other Polish cities and towns in the region as Nałęczów, Chełm or Zamość. The express train to Warsaw takes about two hours.
There are other smaller stations in Lublin for local trains:
Lublin is located at the intersection of expressways S12, S17 and S19. Expressway S17 between Lublin and Warsaw is currently finishing construction and should be ready by the second half of 2020. S19 between Lublin and Rzeszów is currently under construction and should be finished by 2023. The rest of the planned expressway network around the city that will be built in the coming years consists of S12 to the east in the direction Chełm, S19 north towards Białystok and S17 southeast towards Zamość. The expressway bypass of Lublin allows transit traffic to avoid the city centre.
Long-distance buses depart from near the Castle in the Old Town and serve most of the same destinations as the rail network.
Lublin is one of only four towns in Poland to have trolleybuses (the others are Gdynia, Sopot and Tychy).
Lublin is the largest city in eastern Poland and serves as an important regional cultural capital. Since then, many important international events have taken place here, involving international artists, researchers and politicians. The frescos at the Holy Trinity Chapel in Lublin Castle are a mixture of Roman Catholic motifs with eastern Byzantine styles, reinforcing how the city connects the west with the east.
The premier museum in the city is the National Museum of Lublin, one of the oldest and largest museums of Eastern Poland, as well as the Majdanek State Museum with 121,404 visitors in 2011.
Lublin is a culturally-active city with a filmmaking past. Some of the most notable films shot in Lublin include Oscar-winning The Reader was partially filmed at the Nazi Majdanek concentration camp.
In 2008, Lublin collaborated with Ukrainian Lviv, to film and distribute promotional materials which painted both cities as attractive to the filmmaking industry. Films were handed out between filmmakers present at Cannes Festival.This was sponsored by the European Union. There are numerous movie theatres in Lublin including Cinema City (multiplex), Multikino, Cinema Bajka, Cinema Chatka Żaka, Cinema Perla, Cinema Grazyna and Cinema Medyk.
The Lublin Film Fund has been active since 2009, actively taking care of and cultivating cinematographic talent in Lublin and promoting the city by providing financial and organisational support. Numerous feature films have been partially financed by the fund, including Kamienie na Szaniec, Panie Dulskie and award-winning Carte Blanche.
There are many cultural organizations in Lublin, either municipal, governmental and/or non-governmental. Among the popular venues are municipal theatres and playhouses such as:
There are numerous art galleries in Lublin; some are run by private owners, and some are municipal, government, NGO, or associations' venues. The Labyrinth Gallery (formerly "BWA", is the Artistic Exhibitions Office - Biuro Wystaw Artystycznych).
Lublin's Old Town shares a number of Lesser Poland traditions, historic architecture and a unique ambience with Kraków. It is, however, a distinct experience in itself, benefitting from artistic renovation and less commercialization. Historic buildings, including ruined townhouses, create a unique atmosphere of the renaissance city. Lublin's Old Town has cobbled, narrow streets and traditional, unspoilt design. Many venues around Old Town enjoy an architecture applicable for restaurants, art galleries, and clubs. Apart from entertainment, the area houses small businesses and prestigious offices. Old Town's Church of St. Josaphat was built in 1786.
Catering to students, who account for 35% of the population, the city offers a vibrant music and nightclub sceneLublin has many theatres and museums and a professional orchestra, the Lublin Philharmonic.
Lublin boasts a rich culinary scene. Just in the Old Town and the immediate environs, over 100 restaurants, cafes, pubs, clubs and other catering outlets are located. In the latter half of the 2010s, the international community surrounding Lublin's medical university impacted the growth of restaurants offering various cuisines.
Lublin aims to be known as the Polish Capital of Festivals.Most years, Lublin increases the number of festivals held in the city. The most significant of them include:
In 2007, Lublin joined the group of Polish cities as candidates for the title of European Capital of Culture. Lublin was shortlisted, but ultimately Wrocław was chosen. Lublin is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission Intercultural cities programme.
There are five public schools of higher education:
Lublin is home to private higher education establishments.
It is home to one of the oldest still-functioning schools in Poland, The Staszic School, which was established in 1586. The school has many notable alumni, such as Bolesław Prus, one of the most influential Polish writers and novelists, and Lesław Paga, the co-founder of the Warsaw Stock Exchange.
Lublin is the capital of the province called Lublin Voivodeship, a province (voivodeship) created in 1999. The city is a separate urban gmina and city county (powiat).
Lublin is governed by the municipal legislature known as the city council (Rada Miasta) and the city's mayor (Prezydent Miasta). The city council is made up of 31 councillors directly elected by the city's inhabitants. The remit of the council and president extends to all areas of municipal policy and development planning, up to and including the development of local infrastructure, transport, and planning permission. The city's current mayor is Krzysztof Żuk, who has served in this position since 2010.
Lublin has an official flag, a 5:8 rectangle divided into three horizontal stripes: white (top), green (narrow, middle), and red (bottom). In the central part, there is the coat of arms of Lublin. It is also allowed to hang the flag in the form of a vertical ribbon: then white should be on the left side or near the spar.
Lublin is divided into 27 administrative divisions (dzielnica):Abramowice, Bronowice, Czechów Południowy, Czechów Północny, Czuby Południowe, Czuby Północne, Dziesiąta, Felin, Głusk, Hajdów-Zadębie, Kalinowszczyzna, Konstantynów, Kośminek, Ponikwoda, Rury, Sławin, Sławinek, Stare Miasto, Szerokie, Śródmieście, Tatary, Węglin Południowy, Węglin Północny, Wieniawa, Wrotków, Za Cukrownią, Zemborzyce.
Lublin is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the EU Intercultural cities programme.In 2017, Lublin was awarded the Europe Prize by the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. In 2023, Lublin was selected as the European Youth Capital by international jury of the European Youth Forum.
Lublin is twinned with:
Kraków, written in English as Krakow and traditionally known as Cracow, is the second-largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in Lesser Poland Province, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków was the official capital of Poland until 1596 and has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, economic, cultural and artistic life. Cited as one of Europe's most beautiful cities, its Old Town was declared the first UNESCO World Heritage Site in the world.
Lesser Poland, often known by its Polish name Małopolska, is a historical region situated in southern and south-eastern Poland. Its capital and largest city is Kraków. Throughout centuries, Lesser Poland developed a separate culture featuring diverse architecture, folk costumes, dances, cuisine, traditions and a rare Lesser Polish dialect. The region is rich in historical landmarks, monuments, castles, natural scenery and UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Poznań is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region. It is best known for its renaissance Old Town and Ostrów Tumski Cathedral. Today, Poznań is an important cultural and business centre and one of Poland's most populous regions with many regional customs such as Saint John's Fair, traditional Saint Martin's croissants and a local dialect.
Toruń is a historical city on the Vistula River in north-central Poland and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Its population was 201,447 as of December 2019. Previously, it was the capital of the Toruń Voivodeship (1975–1998) and the Pomeranian Voivodeship (1921–1945). Since 1999, Toruń has been a seat of the self-government of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship and is one of its two capitals, together with Bydgoszcz. The cities and neighboring counties form the Bydgoszcz–Toruń twin city metropolitan area.
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland and its population is officially estimated at 1.8 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.1 million residents, which makes Warsaw the 7th most-populous capital city in the European Union. The city area measures 517.24 square kilometres (199.71 sq mi), while the metropolitan area covers 6,100.43 square kilometres (2,355.39 sq mi). Warsaw is an alpha-global city, a major international tourist destination, and a significant cultural, political, and economic hub. Its historical Old Town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Masovian Voivodeship or Mazovia Province is the largest and most populous of the 16 Polish provinces, or voivodeships, created in 1999. It occupies 35,579 square kilometres (13,737 sq mi) of east-central Poland, and has 5,411,446 inhabitants. Its principal cities are Warsaw in the centre of the Warsaw metropolitan area, Radom (212,230) in the south, Płock (119,709) in the west, Siedlce (77,990) in the east, and Ostrołęka (52,071) in the north. The capital of the voivodeship is the national capital, Warsaw.
Białystok is the largest city in northeastern Poland and the capital of the Podlaskie Voivodeship. Białystok is the tenth-largest city in Poland, second in terms of population density, and thirteenth in area.
Zamość is a historical city in southeastern Poland. It is situated in the southern part of Lublin Voivodeship, about 90 km (56 mi) from Lublin, 247 km (153 mi) from Warsaw. In 2014, the population was 65,149.
Piaseczno(listen) is a town in east-central Poland with 47,660 inhabitants. It is situated in the Masovian Voivodeship, approximately 16 kilometres south of Warsaw. It is a popular residential area and a suburb of Warsaw that is strongly linked to the capital, both economically and culturally. It is the capital city of Piaseczno County.
Nowe Miasto Lubawskie is a town in northern Poland, situated on the River Drwęca. The total population in June 2018 was 11,062. Nowe Miasto Lubawskie is the capital of Nowe Miasto County and was assigned to the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship in 1999.
Warsaw Old Town is the oldest part of Warsaw, the capital city of Poland. It is bounded by the Wybrzeże Gdańskie, along with the bank of the Vistula river, Grodzka, Mostowa and Podwale Streets. It is one of the most prominent tourist attractions in Warsaw. The heart of the area is the Old Town Market Place, rich in restaurants, cafés and shops. Surrounding streets feature medieval architecture such as the city walls, St. John's Cathedral and the Barbican which links the Old Town with Warsaw New Town.
Maharam's Synagogue was a synagogue in Lublin, Poland, which was located on a no-longer-existing Jateczna 3 Street. The synagogue was a part of synagogical complex in Podzamcze.
The Lublin Ghetto was a World War II ghetto created by Nazi Germany in the city of Lublin on the territory of General Government in occupied Poland. The ghetto inmates were mostly Polish Jews, although a number of Roma were also brought in. Set up in March 1941, the Lublin Ghetto was one of the first Nazi-era ghettos slated for liquidation during the most deadly phase of the Holocaust in occupied Poland. Between mid-March and mid-April 1942 over 30,000 Jews were delivered to their deaths in cattle trucks at the Bełżec extermination camp and additional 4,000 at Majdanek.
The architecture of Poland includes modern and historical monuments of architectural and historical importance.
Kurjer Lubelski is an historical newspaper that was published discontinuously — in five distinct phases — between 1865 and 1937 in the city of Lublin. The publication has considerable historical significance because of its association with many personages of Polish literature, and for other reasons, including the publication in its pages of a considerable amount of literary material in addition to daily news. The newspaper was responsible for bringing about a national awakening during the period of Partitions, not only in the Lublin Lands but in the whole country. The (freethinking) journal Myśl Niepodległa, edited by the poet Andrzej Niemojewski, wrote in 1910 of the Kurjer Lubelski that despite the vagaries of fate that its publication was subject to over the years it had arisen from "a certain cultural milieu to which it has consistently borne spiritual witness".
The "Grodzka Gate – NN Theatre" Centre is a cultural institution based in Lublin. It is housed in the Grodzka Gate also known as the Jewish Gate that historically used to be a passage from the Christian to the Jewish part of the city. In its activities the Center focuses on issues of cultural heritage. The Polish-Jewish past of Lublin is the corner stone of the art and educational programmes carried out by the "Gate".
Grodzka Street is a historical street in Old Town of Bydgoszcz, Poland. The street is located in the northern part of the Old Town: it stretches along Brda River waterfront, following an east-west axis. The street starts at the intersection with Bernardyńska street and ends at Tadeusz Malczewski street's crossing. Its length is approximately 430 m. The Grodzka Street was laid out in mid-14th century, when Bydgoszcz became a charter city. Grodzka Street buildings vary greatly one from the other, beginning with the three historic granaries from late 18th century, to the all-glass similar-shape modern mBank in Bydgoszcz, which became an icon of Polish architecture.
The Polish theatre or Polish: Polski Teatr of Bydgoszcz has been established in 1949, at Adam Mickiewicz Alley N°2, in downtown district. It is the outcome of a long and rich tradition of plays and performance in the city.
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