Luca Pacioli

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Luca Bartolomeo de Pacioli
Pacioli.jpg
Portrait of Luca Pacioli , traditionally attributed to Jacopo de' Barbari, 1495 [1]
Bornc. 1447 [2]
DiedJune 19, 1517(1517-06-19) (aged 69–70)
Sansepolcro, Republic of Florence
CitizenshipFlorentine
OccupationFriar, mathematician, writer
Known for Summa de arithmetica ,
Divina proportione ,
double-entry bookkeeping

Fra Luca Bartolomeo de Pacioli (sometimes Paccioli or Paciolo; c. 1447 19 June 1517) [3] was an Italian mathematician, Franciscan friar, collaborator with Leonardo da Vinci, and an early contributor to the field now known as accounting. He is referred to as "The Father of Accounting and Bookkeeping" in Europe and he was the first person to publish a work on the double-entry system of book-keeping on the continent. [4] He was also called Luca di Borgo after his birthplace, Borgo Sansepolcro, Tuscany.

Italy republic in Southern Europe

Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a European country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Italian Alps and surrounded by several islands. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean sea and traversed along its length by the Apennines, Italy has a largely temperate seasonal climate. The country covers an area of 301,340 km2 (116,350 sq mi) and shares open land borders with France, Slovenia, Austria, Switzerland and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. Italy has a territorial exclave in Switzerland (Campione) and a maritime exclave in the Tunisian sea (Lampedusa). With around 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the fourth-most populous member state of the European Union.

Mathematician person with an extensive knowledge of mathematics

A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.

Friar member of a mendicant religious order in Catholic Christianity

A friar is a brother member of one of the mendicant orders founded in the twelfth or thirteenth century; the term distinguishes the mendicants' itinerant apostolic character, exercised broadly under the jurisdiction of a superior general, from the older monastic orders' allegiance to a single monastery formalized by their vow of stability. The most significant orders of friars are the Dominicans, Franciscans, Augustinians and Carmelites.

Contents

Life

A woodcut of Pacioli which appears throughout the Summa de arithmetica Luca Pacioli in the Summa.jpg
A woodcut of Pacioli which appears throughout the Summa de arithmetica

Luca Pacioli was born between 1446 and 1448 in the Tuscan town of Sansepolcro where he received an abbaco education. This was education in the vernacular (i.e., the local tongue) rather than Latin and focused on the knowledge required of merchants. His father was Bartolomeo Pacioli; however, Luca Pacioli was said to have lived with the Befolci family as a child in his birth town Sansepolcro. [6] He moved to Venice around 1464, where he continued his own education while working as a tutor to the three sons of a merchant. It was during this period that he wrote his first book, a treatise on arithmetic for the boys he was tutoring. Between 1472 and 1475, he became a Franciscan friar. [6] Thus, he could be referred to as Fra ('Friar') Luca.

Sansepolcro Comune in Tuscany, Italy

Sansepolcro, formerly Borgo Santo Sepolcro, is a town and comune founded in the 11th century, located in the Italian Province of Arezzo in the eastern part of the region of Tuscany.

Abacus school is a term applied to any Italian school or tutorial after the 13th century, whose commerce-directed curriculum placed special emphasis on mathematics, such as algebra, among other subjects. These schools sprang after the publication of Fibonacci’s Book of the Abacus and his introduction of the Hindu-Arabic numeral system. In Fibonacci’s viewpoint, this system, originating in India around 400 BCE, and later adopted by the Arabs, was simpler and more practical than using the existing Roman numeric tradition. Italian merchants and traders quickly adopted the structure as a means of producing accountants, clerks, and so on, and subsequently abacus schools for students were established. These were done in many ways: communes could appeal to patrons to support the institution and find masters; religious institutions could finance and oversee the curriculum; independent masters could teach pupils. Unless they were selected for teaching occupations that were salaried, most masters taught students who could pay as this was their main source of income.

Venice Comune in Veneto, Italy

Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated on a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and linked by over 400 bridges. The islands are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave rivers. In 2018, 260,897 people resided in the Comune di Venezia, of whom around 55,000 live in the historical city of Venice. Together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area (PATREVE), which is considered a statistical metropolitan area, with a total population of 2.6 million.

In 1475, he started teaching in Perugia, first as a private teacher, from 1477 holding the first chair in mathematics. He wrote a comprehensive textbook in the vernacular for his students. He continued to work as a private tutor of mathematics and was instructed to stop teaching at this level in Sansepolcro in 1491. In 1494, his first book, Summa de arithmetica, geometria, Proportioni et proportionalita , was published in Venice. In 1497, he accepted an invitation from Duke Ludovico Sforza to work in Milan. There he met, taught mathematics to, collaborated, and lived with Leonardo da Vinci. In 1499, Pacioli and Leonardo were forced to flee Milan when Louis XII of France seized the city and drove out their patron. Their paths appear to have finally separated around 1506. Pacioli died at about the age of 70 on 19 June 1517, most likely in Sansepolcro where it is thought that he had spent much of his final years. [6]

Mathematics Field of study concerning quantity, patterns and change

Mathematics includes the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

<i>Summa de arithmetica</i> Renaissance mathematics textbook

Summa de arithmetica, geometria, proportioni et proportionalita is a book on mathematics written by Luca Pacioli and first published in 1494. It contains a comprehensive summary of Renaissance mathematics, including practical arithmetic, basic algebra, basic geometry and accounting, written in Italian for use as a textbook.

Ludovico Sforza Duke of Milan

Ludovico Maria Sforza, was Duke of Milan from 1494, following the death of his nephew Gian Galeazzo Sforza, until 1499. A member of the Sforza family, he was the fourth son of Francesco I Sforza. He was famed as a patron of Leonardo da Vinci and other artists, and presided over the final and most productive stage of the Milanese Renaissance. He is probably best known as the man who commissioned The Last Supper.

Mathematics

The first printed illustration of a rhombicuboctahedron, by Leonardo da Vinci, published in Divina proportione De divina proportione - Vigintisex Basium Planum Vacuum.jpg
The first printed illustration of a rhombicuboctahedron, by Leonardo da Vinci, published in Divina proportione
Woodcut illustrating the proportions of the human face from the second part of Divina proportione, which covers the Vitruvian system Pacioli De Divina Proportione Head Equilateral Triangle 1509.jpg
Woodcut illustrating the proportions of the human face from the second part of Divina proportione, which covers the Vitruvian system

Pacioli published several works on mathematics, including:

Balance sheet summary of the financial balances of a sole proprietorship, a business partnership, a corporation or other business organization

In financial accounting, a balance sheet or statement of financial position or statement of financial condition is a summary of the financial balances of an individual or organization, whether it be a sole proprietorship, a business partnership, a corporation, private limited company or other organization such as Government or not-for-profit entity. Assets, liabilities and ownership equity are listed as of a specific date, such as the end of its financial year. A balance sheet is often described as a "snapshot of a company's financial condition". Of the four basic financial statements, the balance sheet is the only statement which applies to a single point in time of a business' calendar year.

Income statement

An income statement or profit and loss account is one of the financial statements of a company and shows the company’s revenues and expenses during a particular period.

Trial balance list of all the General ledger accounts contained in the ledger of a business

A trial balance is a list of all the general ledger accounts contained in the ledger of a business. This list will contain the name of each nominal ledger account and the value of that nominal ledger balance. Each nominal ledger account will hold either a debit balance or a credit balance. The debit balance values will be listed in the debit column of the trial balance and the credit value balance will be listed in the credit column. The trading profit and loss statement and balance sheet and other financial reports can then be produced using the ledger accounts listed on the same balance.

Translation of Piero della Francesca's work

The majority of the second volume of Summa de arithmetica, geometria. Proportioni et proportionalita was a slightly rewritten version of one of Piero della Francesca's works. The third volume of Pacioli's Divina proportione was an Italian translation of Piero della Francesca's Latin writings On [the] Five Regular Solids. In neither case, did Pacioli include an attribution to Piero. He was severely criticized for this and accused of plagiarism by sixteenth-century art historian and biographer Giorgio Vasari. R. Emmett Taylor (1889–1956) said that Pacioli may have had nothing to do with the translated volume Divina proportione, and that it may just have been appended to his work. However, no such defence can be presented concerning the inclusion of Piero della Francesca's material in Pacioli's Summa.

Piero della Francesca Italian painter

Piero della Francesca, originally named Piero di Benedetto, was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance. To contemporaries he was also known as a mathematician and geometer. Nowadays Piero della Francesca is chiefly appreciated for his art. His painting is characterized by its serene humanism, its use of geometric forms and perspective. His most famous work is the cycle of frescoes The History of the True Cross in the church of San Francesco in the Tuscan town of Arezzo.

Giorgio Vasari Italian painter, architect, writer and historian

Giorgio Vasari was an Italian painter, architect, writer, and historian, most famous today for his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing.

Impact on accounting and business

Pacioli dramatically affected the practice of accounting by describing the double-entry accounting method used in parts of Italy. This revolutionized how businesses oversaw their operations, enabling improved efficiency and profitability. The Summa's section on accounting was used internationally as an accounting textbook up to the mid-16th century. The essentials of double-entry accounting have for the most part remain unchanged for over 500 years. "Accounting practitioners in public accounting, industry, and not-for-profit organizations, as well as investors, lending institutions, business firms, and all other users for financial information are indebted to Luca Pacioli for his monumental role in the development of accounting." [10]

The ICAEW Library’s rare book collection at Chartered Accountants' Hall holds the complete published works of Luca Pacioli. Sections of two of Pacioli's books, 'Summa de arithmetica' and 'Divina proportione' can be viewed online using Turning the Pages, an interactive tool developed by the British Library. [11]

Chess

Luca Pacioli also wrote an unpublished treatise on chess, De ludo scachorum (On the Game of Chess). Long thought to have been lost, a surviving manuscript was rediscovered in 2006, in the 22,000-volume library of Count Guglielmo Coronini. A facsimile edition of the book was published in Pacioli's home town of Sansepolcro in 2008. Based on Leonardo da Vinci's long association with the author and his having illustrated Divina proportione, some scholars speculate that Leonardo either drew the chess problems that appear in the manuscript or at least designed the chess pieces used in the problems. [12] [13] [14] [15]

See also

Footnotes

  1. The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City claims that the "M" logo it uses to decorate souvenir items (which the museum calls "the Renaissance M") is from an illustration originally in the Divina proportione . See "Renaissance 'M' bookmark". The Met Store (Metropolitan Museum of Art shopping catalog)..

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<i>Portrait of Luca Pacioli</i> painting by Jacopo de Barbari

The Portrait of Luca Pacioli is a painting attributed to the Italian Renaissance artist Jacopo de' Barbari, dating to around 1500 and housed in the Capodimonte Museum, Naples, southern Italy. The painting portrays the Renaissance mathematician Luca Pacioli and may have been painted by his collaborator Leonardo da Vinci. The person on the right has not been identified conclusively, but could be the German painter Albrecht Dürer, whom Barbari met between 1495 and 1500.

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References

  1. "THE ENIGMA OF LUCA PACIOLI'S PORTRAIT". RitrattoPacioli. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
  2. Di Teodoro, Francesco Paolo (2014). "PACIOLI, Luca". Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani (in Italian). 80. Treccani. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
  3. Profile of Fra Luca Bartolomeo de Pacioli
  4. Diwan, Jaswith. Accounting Concepts & Theories. London: Morre. pp. 001–002. id# 94452.
  5. MacKinnon, Nick (1993). "The Portrait of Fra Luca Pacioli". The Mathematical Gazette . 77 (479): 132, 160. doi:10.2307/3619717.
  6. 1 2 3 "Pacioli biography". www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  7. Heeffer, 2010
  8. St-and.ac.uk A Napierian logarithm before Napier, John J O'Connor and Edmund F Robertson
  9. McDonald, Lucy (10 April 2007). "And that's renaissance magic ..." The Guardian . Retrieved 30 January 2015.
  10. Smith, Murphy (2018). "Luca Pacioli: The Father of Accounting". Rochester, NY. doi:10.2139/ssrn.2320658.
  11. "Turning the Pages: ICAEW's collection of rare books". ICAEW.com. ICAEW. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  12. Times Online: Renaissance chess master and the Da Vinci decode mystery
  13. International Herald Tribune: Experts link Leonardo da Vinci to chess puzzles in long-lost Renaissance treatise
  14. Winnipeg Free Press: Chess
  15. Experts link Leonardo da Vinci to chess puzzles

Sources