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|1st Prince of Canino and Musignano|
Portrait by François-Xavier Fabre, 1800
|Prince of Canino|
|Reign||18 August 1814 – 29 June 1840|
|Successor||Charles Lucien Bonaparte|
|Prince of Musignano|
|Reign||21 March 1824 – 29 June 1840|
|Successor||Charles Lucien Bonaparte|
|Born||21 May 1775|
Ajaccio, Corsica, France
|Died||29 June 1840 65) (aged|
Viterbo, Papal States
|Spouse|| Christine Boyer |
Alexandrine de Bleschamp
|Issue|| Charlotte Bonaparte, Princess Mario Gabrielli |
Christine Bonaparte, Lady Stuart
Charles Lucien Bonaparte, 2nd Prince of Canino and Musignano
Letizia Bonaparte, Lady Thomas Wyse
Joseph Lucien Bonaparte
Jeanne Bonaparte, Marchessa Honorato Honorati
Paul Marie Bonaparte
Louis Lucien Bonaparte
Pierre Napoleon Bonaparte
Alexandrine Bonaparte, Countess di Laviano
Lucien Bonaparte, Prince Français, 1st Prince of Canino and Musignano (born Luciano Buonaparte; 21 May 1775 – 29 June 1840), the third surviving son of Carlo Bonaparte and his wife Letizia Ramolino, was a French statesman, who served as the final President of the Council of Five Hundred at the end of the French Revolution.
Lucien was a younger brother of Joseph and Napoleon Bonaparte, and an older brother of Elisa, Louis, Pauline, Caroline and Jérôme Bonaparte. Lucien held genuinely revolutionary views, which led to an often abrasive relationship with his brother Napoleon, who seized control of the French government in 1799, when Lucien was 24.
Lucien Bonaparte's rise during the French Revolution, unlike Napoleon Bonaparte's other siblings, was not based on familial connections or nepotism. This was one of the issues that caused friction between Lucien and Napoleon in the early years of the 19th century, as their political differences deepened. Both Lucien and Napoleon had a very keen interest in historical antiquity when young.
Lucien was born in Ajaccio, Corsica in 1775, and was educated in mainland France, at the College d'Autun, the military school in Brienne, and at seminary in Aix-en-Provence. In 1769 the Corsican Republic had been conquered by French forces and annexed into France. Lucien's father Carlo Bonaparte had been a strong supporter of Corsican patriots under Pasquale Paoli, but later switched to become a supporter of French rule.
A 14-year-old Lucien returned to Corsica at the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789 and became an outspoken speaker in the Jacobin Club at Ajaccio, where he renamed himself "Brutus". An ally of Maximilien Robespierre before and during the Reign of Terror, he was briefly imprisoned (at Aix-en-Provence) after the coup of 9 Thermidor on 27 July 1794, which deposed Robespierre and led to Robespierre's execution the following day.
As president of the Council of Five Hundred — which he removed to the suburban security of Saint-Cloud — Lucien Bonaparte was crucial with a combination of bravado and disinformation to the coup d'état of 18 Brumaire (date based on the French Revolutionary Calendar) in which Napoleon Bonaparte overthrew the government of the Directory to replace it by the Consulate on 9 November 1799. Lucien mounted a horse and galvanized the grenadiers by pointing a sword at his brother and swearing to run him through if he ever betrayed the principles of Liberté, égalité, fraternité . The following day Lucien arranged for Napoleon's formal election as First Consul.
Napoleon made him Minister of the Interior under the Consulate, which enabled Lucien to falsify the results of the plebiscite but which brought him into competition with Joseph Fouché, the chief of police, who showed Napoleon a subversive pamphlet that was probably written by Lucien, and effected a breach between the brothers. Lucien was sent as ambassador to the court of Charles IV of Spain, (November, 1800), where his diplomatic talents won over the Bourbon royal family and, perhaps as importantly, the minister Manuel de Godoy.
Though he was a member of the Tribunat in 1802 and was made a senator of the First French Empire, Lucien came to oppose many of Napoleon's ideas. In 1804, with Lucien disliking Napoleon's intention to declare himself as Emperor of the French and to marry Lucien off to a Bourbon Spanish princess, the Queen of Etruria, Lucien spurned all imperial honours and went into self-imposed exile, living initially in Rome, where he bought the Villa Rufinella in Frascati.
In 1809, Napoleon increased pressure on Lucien to divorce his wife and return to France, even having their mother write a letter encouraging him to abandon her and return. With the whole of the Papal States annexed to France and the Pope imprisoned, Lucien was a virtual prisoner in his Italian estates, requiring permission of the Military Governor to venture off his property. He attempted to sail to the United States to escape his situation but was captured by the British. When he disembarked in Britain, he was greeted with cheers and applause by the crowd, many of whom saw him as anti-Napoleonic.
The government permitted Lucien to settle comfortably with his family at Ludlow, and later at Thorngrove House in Grimley, Worcestershire, where he worked on a heroic poem on Charlemagne. Napoleon, believing Lucien had deliberately gone to Britain and thus a traitor, had Lucien omitted from the Imperial almanacs of the Bonapartes from 1811 until his 1814 abdication.
Lucien returned to France following his brother's abdication in April 1814. Lucien continued to Rome where on 18 August 1814 he was made Prince of Canino, Count of Apollino, and Lord of Nemori by Pope Pius VII and Prince of Musignano on 21 March 1824 by Pope Leo XII.
In the Hundred Days after Napoleon's return to France from exile in Elba, Lucien rallied to his brother's cause, and they joined forces once again during Napoleon's brief return to power. His brother made him a French Prince and included his children into the Imperial Family, but this was not recognized by the Bourbons after Napoleon's second abdication. Subsequently, Lucien was proscribed at the Restoration and deprived of his fauteuil at the Académie française. In 1836 he wrote his Mémoires. He died in Viterbo, Italy, on 29 June 1840, of stomach cancer, the same disease that claimed his father, his sister Pauline and his brother Napoleon.
Lucien Bonaparte was the inspiration behind the Napoleonic reconstitution of the dispersed Académie française in 1803, where he took a seat. He collected paintings in la maison de campagne at Brienne, was a member of Jeanne Françoise Julie Adélaïde Récamier's salon and wrote a novel, La Tribu indienne. He was an amateur archeologist, establishing excavations at his property in Frascati which produced a complete statue of Tiberius, and at Musignano which rendered a bust of Juno. Bonaparte owned a parcel which had once formed part of Cicero's estate called Tusculum, and was much given to commenting on the fact. In 1825, Bonaparte excavated the so-called Tusculum portrait of Julius Caesar at the Tusculum's forum.
His first wife was his landlord's daughter, Christine Boyer (3 July 1771 – 14 May 1800), the illiterate sister of an innkeeper of Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume, and by her he had four children:
His second wife was Alexandrine de Bleschamp (23 February 1778 – 12 July 1855), widow of Hippolyte Jouberthon, known as "Madame Jouberthon", and by her he had ten children:
|Ancestors of Lucien Bonaparte|
The House of Bonaparte is a former imperial and royal European dynasty of Italian origin. It was founded in 1804 by Napoleon I, the son of Genoese nobleman Carlo Buonaparte. Napoleon was a French military leader who had risen to power during the French Revolution and who in 1804 transformed the First French Republic into the First French Empire, five years after his coup d'état of November 1799. Napoleon turned the Grande Armée against every major European power and dominated continental Europe through a series of military victories during the Napoleonic Wars. He installed members of his family on the thrones of client states, extending the power of the dynasty.
Louis Napoléon Bonaparte was a younger brother of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French. He was a monarch in his own right from 1806 to 1810, ruling over the Kingdom of Holland. In that capacity he was known as Louis I.
Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte, Comte de Survilliers, was a French lawyer and diplomat, the older brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples, and later King of Spain. After the fall of Napoleon, Joseph styled himself Comte de Survilliers.
Joseph Fesch, Prince of France was a French cardinal and diplomat, Prince of France and a member of the Imperial House of the First French Empire, Peer of France, Roman Prince, and the half-uncle of Napoleon Bonaparte. He was also one of the most famous art collectors of his period, remembered for having established the Musée Fesch in Ajaccio, which remains one of the most important Napoleonic collections of art.
Michel Louis Etienne Regnaud, later 1st Count Regnaud de Saint-Jean d'Angély was a French politician.
Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte, 2nd Prince of Canino and Musignano, was a French biologist and ornithologist. Lucien and his wife had twelve children, including Cardinal Lucien Bonaparte.
Carlo Maria Buonaparte or Charles-Marie Bonaparte was a Corsican lawyer and diplomat of Italian origin, best known as the father of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Maria Anna Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi Levoy was an imperial French princess and sister of Napoleon Bonaparte. She was Princess of Lucca and Piombino (1805-1814), Grand Duchess of Tuscany (1809-1814) and Countess of Compignano by appointment of her brother.
Maria Annunziata Carolina Murat, better known as Caroline Bonaparte, was the seventh surviving child and third surviving daughter of Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino, and a younger sister of Napoleon I of France. She was queen of Naples during the reign of her spouse there, and regent of Naples during his absence four times: in 1812-13, 1813, 1814 and 1815.
Maria Letizia Buonaparte, néeRamolino or Marie-Lætitia Bonaparte, and referred to as "Madame Mère de L'Empereur", was a Corsican noblewoman. She was the mother of Napoleon I of France.
Zénaïde Laetitia Julie Bonaparte, Princess of Canino and Musignano was the elder daughter of Joseph Bonaparte and Julie Clary, and the wife of Charles Lucien Bonaparte, who was also her cousin. She joined her father in exile for several years in Bordentown, New Jersey.
Napoléon Charles Bonaparte, 5th Prince of Canino and Musignano, was born in Rome as the son of Charles Lucien Bonaparte and his wife, Zénaïde Bonaparte.
The Princes of Canino and Musignano formed the genealogically senior line of the Bonaparte family following the death of Joseph Bonaparte in 1844. The line was succeeded by one of Emperor Napoleon's younger brothers, Lucien Bonaparte. It became extinct in the male line in 1924. The dynastic Bonapartist pretenders descend in the male line from Prince Jérôme Napoléon, Napoleon's youngest brother.
Roland Napoléon Bonaparte, 6th Prince of Canino and Musignano was a French prince and president of the Société de Géographie from 1910 until his death. He was the last direct descendant of Lucien Bonaparte, the genetically senior branch of the family since 1844.
Alexandrine Bonaparte, Princess of Canino and Musignano was a French aristocrat. She was already the widow of the banker Hippolyte Jouberthon, and thus known as "Madame Jouberthon", when she became the second wife of Prince Lucien Bonaparte, a younger brother of Napoleon I of France. She and her second husband had nine children, including:
The Hôtel de Brienne is an 18th-century French townhouse at 14 rue Saint-Dominique in the 7th arrondissement of Paris. It was built in 1724 to the designs of the architect François Debias-Aubry for François Duret, a real estate entrepreneur, who was also president of the Grand Conseil. In 1726 Duret sold it to Françoise de Mailly, who allowed her son, Louis Phélypeaux, Count of Saint-Florentin to stay on the upper floor. Françoise sold it to Louise-Elisabeth de Bourbon, Princesse de Conti in 1733, and it became known as the Hôtel de Conti. It was sold to Louis-Marie-Athanase of Loménie, Count of Brienne in 1776, when it acquired its current name. Laetizia Bonaparte, Napoleon's mother, lived here during the First French Empire, and Charles de Gaulle used it as his office at various times during the Second World War. It is currently occupied by the French Ministry of the Armed Forces.
Catherine Christine Eléonore Boyer was a member of the Bonaparte family as the first wife of Lucien Bonaparte, a younger brother of Napoleon.
Charlotte Bonaparte Gabrielli was a French Napoleonic princess and the eldest daughter of Lucien Bonaparte and Christine Boyer. She became princess Gabrielli following her marriage to Mario Gabrielli, prince of Prossedi and Roccasecca, duke of Pisterzo. In Italy, she was known as Carlotta.
Princess Marie-Félix Bonaparte was a French heiress. Born into a wealthy French bourgeoisie family with financial holdings in Monaco and Germany, she was left with a large inheritance after her father's death. Despite her mother's objections, in 1880, she married Prince Roland Bonaparte, a member of a morganatic branch of the House of Bonaparte. She died from an embolism a month after giving birth to her only child, Princess Marie Bonaparte.
Princess Éléonore-Justine Bonaparte was the wife of Prince Pierre-Napoléon Bonaparte. Under the pseudonym Nina Bonaparte she published a memoir titled History of My Life. As she was from a peasant background, her morganatic marriage to Prince Pierre-Napoléon, although recognized by the Catholic Church, was not accepted by Napoleon III and the House of Bonaparte and did not receive civil legitimacy until the fall of the Second French Empire.
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Lucien BonaparteBorn: 21 May 1775 Died: 29 June 1840
|Titles of nobility|
|New title|| Prince of Canino |
Charles Lucien Bonaparte
| Prince of Musignano |
|Ancestors of Lucien Bonaparte|