Lucy Minnigerode

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Lucy Minnigerode
LucyMinnigerodeLOC.jpg
Lucy Minnigerode in uniform, from a 1919 publication.
BornFebruary 8, 1871
Middleburg, Virginia
DiedMarch 24, 1935(1935-03-24) (aged 64)
Alexandria, Virginia
CitizenshipAmerican
EducationBellevue Hospital
Occupationnurse
Known forAmerican nurse in World War I; first superintendent of the United States Public Health Service Nursing Corps

Lucy Minnigerode (February 8, 1871 – March 24, 1935) was an American nurse in World War I, and founder of the United States Public Health Service Nursing Corps. She was the eighth American recipient of the Florence Nightingale Medal, awarded by the International Committee of the Red Cross in 1925.

World War I 1914–1918 global war originating in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

United States Public Health Service division of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services concerned with public health

The United States Public Health Service (USPHS) is a division of the Department of Health and Human Services concerned with public health. It contains eight out of the department's eleven operating divisions. The Assistant Secretary for Health (ASH) oversees the PHS. The Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC) is the federal uniformed service of the USPHS, and is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.

Florence Nightingale Medal Red Cross award

At the Eighth International Conference of Red Cross Societies in London in 1907, the assembled delegates decided to create a commemorative International Nightingale Medal to be awarded to those distinguished in the nursing field. Subsequently, the Florence Nightingale Medal was instituted in 1912 by the International Committee of the Red Cross. It is the highest international distinction a nurse can achieve and is awarded to nurses or nursing aides for "exceptional courage and devotion to the wounded, sick or disabled or to civilian victims of a conflict or disaster" or "exemplary services or a creative and pioneering spirit in the areas of public health or nursing education".

Contents

Early life

Lucy Minnigerode was born in Middleburg, Virginia, the daughter of Charles Minnigerode and Virginia Cuthbert Powell Minnigerode. Her father served in the Confederate States Army in the American Civil War. [1] Her sister was artist Marietta Minnigerode Andrews, who was married to another artist, Eliphalet Frazer Andrews. Her grandfather, Charles Frederick Ernest Minnigerode, was a German classics professor and clergyman, known as the "Father Confessor of the Confederacy" because he was the pastor of a prominent Episcopal church in Richmond, Virginia. [2]

Middleburg, Virginia Town in Virginia

Middleburg is a town in Loudoun County, Virginia, United States. The population was 673 at the 2010 census.

Confederate States Army Army of the Confederate States

The Confederate States Army was the military land force of the Confederate States of America (Confederacy) during the American Civil War (1861–1865), fighting against the United States forces. On February 28, 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress established a provisional volunteer army and gave control over military operations and authority for mustering state forces and volunteers to the newly chosen Confederate president, Jefferson Davis. Davis was a graduate of the U.S. Military Academy, and colonel of a volunteer regiment during the Mexican–American War. He had also been a United States Senator from Mississippi and U.S. Secretary of War under President Franklin Pierce. On March 1, 1861, on behalf of the Confederate government, Davis assumed control of the military situation at Charleston, South Carolina, where South Carolina state militia besieged Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor, held by a small U.S. Army garrison. By March 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress expanded the provisional forces and established a more permanent Confederate States Army.

American Civil War Civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1865

The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North (Union) and the South (Confederacy). The most studied and written about episode in U.S. history, the Civil War began primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people. War broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States. The loyalists of the Union in the North, which also included some geographically western and southern states, proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery.

Lucy Minnigerode attended Arlington Institute, a girls' school in Alexandria, Virginia. [3] She trained as a nurse at Bellevue Hospital in New York, completing her studies in 1905. [4]

Alexandria, Virginia Independent city in Virginia, United States

Alexandria is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 139,966, and in 2016, the population was estimated to be 160,530. Located along the western bank of the Potomac River, Alexandria is approximately 7 miles (11 km) south of downtown Washington, D.C.

Bellevue Hospital Hospital in New York, United States

Bellevue Hospital, founded on March 31, 1736, is the oldest public hospital in the United States. Located on First Avenue in the Kips Bay neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City, Bellevue Hospital is also home to FDNY EMS Station 08, formerly NYC EMS Station 13.

Career

Minnigerode was superintendent of nurses at the Episcopal Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital in Washington, D.C. from 1910 to 1914. She joined an American Red Cross "mercy ship" to work at a hospital in Kiev in 1914, serving as supervising nurse for Unit C, under senior supervisor Helen Scott Hay. [5] From 1915 to 1917, she directed the Columbia Hospital for Women in Washington D.C.; [6] then she joined the staff of Clara Noyes at American Red Cross headquarters in that city. In 1919 she was chosen by Noyes to inspect and report on U. S. Public Health Service hospitals, and was appointed superintendent of the new department of nurses under the Public Health Service. One of her first tasks was to recruit nurses to work in veterans' hospitals after 1921. She is remembered as the founder of the U. S. Public Health Service Nursing Corps. [7] [8] She also chaired the Nurses in Government section of the American Nurses Association. [9] She was considered part of the informal "Women's Cabinet" in Washington in 1925, along with Grace Abbott, Kathryn Sellers, and Mabel Walker Willebrandt. [10]

American Red Cross Nonprofit organization

The American Red Cross (ARC), also known as The American National Red Cross, is a humanitarian organization that provides emergency assistance, disaster relief, and disaster preparedness education in the United States. It is the designated US affiliate of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and the United States movement to the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.

Kiev City with special status in Kiev City Municipality, Ukraine

Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine, located in the north-central part of the country on the Dnieper. The population in July 2015 was 2,887,974, making Kiev the 7th most populous city in Europe.

Helen Scott Hay American nurse

Helen Scott Hay was an American Red Cross nurse and nursing educator, working in Kiev and Sofia during World War I. She was awarded the Florence Nightingale Medal by the International Red Cross Society for her contributions.

In 1925, she became the eighth American nurse to receive the Florence Nightingale Medal from the International Red Cross in Geneva. [11] She also received the Order of Saint Anna in Russia. [12]

Geneva Large city in Switzerland

Geneva is the second-most populous city in Switzerland and the most populous city of Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland. Situated where the Rhône exits Lake Geneva, it is the capital of the Republic and Canton of Geneva.

Order of Saint Anna chivalric order

The Order of Saint Anna was established as a Holstein ducal and then Russian imperial order of chivalry established by Karl Friedrich, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, on 14 February 1735, in honour of his wife Anna Petrovna, daughter of Peter the Great of Russia. The motto of the Order is "Amantibus Justitiam, Pietatem, Fidem". Its festival day is 3 February. Originally, the Order of Saint Anna was a dynastic order of knighthood; but between 1797 and 1917 it had dual status as a dynastic order and as a state order. The Head of the Imperial House of Russia always is Master of the imperial Order of Saint Anna. The Order of St. Anna continued to be awarded after the revolution by Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich, Grand Duke Vladimir Kirillovich, and Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna. Today, the Russian Imperial Order of St. Anna, awarded by Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna is recognized as an order of chivalry by the privately operated ICOC as a continuation of the pre-Revolutionary order, and has been approved for wear with military uniform by the Russian Federation, but not by some members of the Romanov Family Association.

Death and legacy

U.S. Public Health Service Nursing Research Conference in 1994 featured Minnigerode Third annual U.S. Public Health Service Nursing Research Conference-img.jpg
U.S. Public Health Service Nursing Research Conference in 1994 featured Minnigerode

Minnigerode died at her niece's home in Alexandria, Virginia, in 1935, aged 64 years. [13] [14] The American Nurses Association established a Lucy Minnigerode Memorial Fund soon after her death. The five Minnigerode Awards for Nursing Excellence (MANE), given by the U. S. Public Health Service, are named for her. [15]

In 1994, the U. S. Public Health Service Nursing Research Conference honored Lucy Minnigerode, and her image was used for the event's poster. [16]

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Minnigerode is a surname. Notable people with this name include:

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References

  1. Person Record: Charles Frederick Ernest Minnigerode Jr., The American Civil War Museum.
  2. Robert McHenry, ed., Famous American Women: A Biographical Dictionary (Courier Corporation 1983): 285. ISBN   9780486245232
  3. "Arlington Institute Commencement" Alexandria Gazette (June 25, 1886): 2. via Newspapers.com
  4. Kara Rogers, ed., Medicine and Healers Through History (Rosen Publishing 2011): 176-177. ISBN   9781615303670
  5. Lucy Minnigerode, "Experiences of Unit C at Kief, Russia" American Journal of Nursing (December 1915): 223.
  6. Lucy Minnigerode, "Report of the Training School for Nurses" Report of the Government of the District of Columbia (1916): 573, 587.
  7. History of American Red Cross Nursing (American National Red Cross 1922): 155-158, 239-241, 1025.
  8. Capt. Meribeth Meixner Reed, "100 Veterans, 100 Years: Military Nurses" MOAA (Military Officers Association of America)(November 2, 2018).
  9. "History of Nursing in the USPHS" Commissioned Corps of the U.S. Public Health Service.
  10. "Washington 'Women's Cabinet'" Casper Star-Tribune (November 1, 1925): 6. via Newspapers.com
  11. "Nightingale Medal Awarded Red Cross Nurse" Carry On (August 1925): 11.
  12. "Lucy Minnigerode, 64, Dies; Public Health Nurse Head" St. Louis Post-Dispatch (March 25, 1935): 13. via Newspapers.com
  13. "Lucy Minnigerode: Sanitarian, Administrator and Loyal Friend" Nursing World (1935): 321.
  14. "Lucy Minnigerode, 64, Noted U. S. Nurse, Dies" Windsor Star (March 25, 1935): 14. via Newspapers.com
  15. MANE Awards, U. S. Public Health Service Nursing.
  16. Third annual U.S. Public Health Service Nursing Research Conference (1994), poster, National Library of Medicine.