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Ludovico Manin, portrait by Bernardino Castelli
|Doge of Venice|
|Reign||10 March 1789 – 12 May 1797|
(Fall of Venice, annexation to the Austrian Empire)
|Born||Ludovico Giovanni Manin|
14 May 1725
|Died||24 October 1802 77) (aged|
Venice, Habsburg Empire
Elisabetta Grimani (m. 1748–1792); her death
|Father||Lodovico Alvise Manin|
Ludovico Giovanni Manin (IPA /.ma'niŋ/, 14 May 1725 – 24 October 1802) was a Venetian politician, a Patrician of Venice and the last Doge of Venice. He governed the Venetian Republic from 9 March 1789 until 1797, when he was forced to abdicate by Napoleon Bonaparte.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language. The IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, linguists, speech-language pathologists, singers, actors, constructed language creators and translators.
A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government. Politicians propose, support and create laws or policies that govern the land and, by extension, its people. Broadly speaking, a "politician" can be anyone who seeks to achieve political power in any bureaucratic institution.
The Doge of Venice, sometimes translated as Duke, was the chief magistrate and leader of the Republic of Venice between 726 and 1797.
Lodovico Manin was the eldest of five sons of Lodovico III Alvise (1695–1775) and Lucrezia Maria Basadonna, the great-granddaughter of cardinal Pietro Basadonna. He attended the University of Bologna and was a boarder at the noble College of St. Xavier: there he printed some propositions of natural law, which he incurred in this period. When he began public life, was quickly noticed for his generosity, his honesty, his kindness and above all his wealth. He married Elisabetta Grimani (d 1792) on 14 September 1748;she bore him a dowry of 45,000 ducats. Elisabetta had been educated in a monastery in Treviso and was in poor health since childhood. She gave birth to no children.
The University of Bologna was founded in 1088 by an organised guild of students. It is often referred to as the oldest university of the world, however, UNESCO recognises the University of Al Quaraouiyine, an African university in Morocco, founded in 859AD. It is one of the most prestigious Italian universities, commonly ranking first in national rankings.
Elisabetta Grimani, was the last Dogaressa of Venice by marriage to the Doge Ludovico Manin.
At twenty-six he was elected captain of Vicenza, then to Verona where he had to cope with the flood of 1757, finally Brescia. In 1764 he was appointed procurator de ultra of Saint Mark's. Fond of religious meditations, in 1769 he asked and obtained permission to not hold an office because of ill health and bad hearing. In 1787 he was chosen to honor Pope Pius VI as he crossed the possessions of Venice and the Pope rewarded him by a knighthood and awarded him a number of spiritual privileges.
Pope Pius VI, born Count Giovanni Angelo Braschi, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 15 February 1775 to his death in 1799.
As the eldest son he owned Villa Manin di Passariano, that was inherited by his nephew, Lodovico Leonardo I (1771–1853) the son of his brother Giovanni (1736–1774) and Caterina (Pesaro), the heiress of a wealthy noble Israelite family who claimed to descend from Cyrus the Great.
Cyrus II of Persia, commonly known as Cyrus the Great, and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire. Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East, expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Western Asia and much of Central Asia. From the Mediterranean Sea and Hellespont in the west to the Indus River in the east, Cyrus the Great created the largest empire the world had yet seen. Under his successors, the empire eventually stretched at its maximum extent from parts of the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east. His regal titles in full were The Great King, King of Persia, King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, and King of the Four Corners of the World. The Nabonidus Chronicle notes the change in his title from simply "King of Anshan", a city, to "King of Persia". Assyriologist François Vallat wrote that "When Astyages marched against Cyrus, Cyrus is called ‘King of Anshan’, but when Cyrus crosses the Tigris on his way to Lydia, he is ‘King of Persia’. The coup therefore took place between these two events."
Lodovico was elected Doge of Venice on 9 March 1789, approximately four months before the start of the French Revolution, on the first ballot (the electoral assembly was composed of 41 members). His traditional coronation ceremony required him to throw coins to the Venetians, which cost more than 458,197 Lira, less than a quarter of which was paid from the funds of the Republic of Venice, the rest coming out of his own pocket. By the year 1792, he had allowed the once great Venetian merchant fleet to decline to a mere 309 merchantmen.
The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.
Lira is the name of several currency units. It is the current currency of Turkey and also the local name of the currencies of Lebanon and Syria. It is the former currency of Italy, Malta, San Marino and the Vatican City, all of which were replaced in 2002 with the euro, and of Israel, which replaced it with the old shekel in 1980. The term originates from the value of a troy pound of high purity silver. The libra was the basis of the monetary system of the Roman Empire. When Europe resumed a monetary system, during the Carolingian Empire, the Roman system was adopted, the so-called £sd.
A cargo ship or freighter ship is a merchant ship that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another. Thousands of cargo carriers ply the world's seas and oceans each year, handling the bulk of international trade. Cargo ships are usually specially designed for the task, often being equipped with cranes and other mechanisms to load and unload, and come in all sizes. Today, they are almost always built by welded steel, and with some exceptions generally have a life expectancy of 25 to 30 years before being scrapped.
When Napoleon invaded Italy, Venice, along with the Republic of Genoa, did not initially join the coalition of Italian states formed in 1795, instead maintaining neutrality. On 15 April 1797, French general Jean-Andoche Junot gave the Doge an ultimatum which was not accepted. A secret addition to the Treaty of Leoben, signed on 17 April 1797, gave Venice—as well as Istria and Dalmatia — to Austria. On 25 April 1797, the French fleet arrived at the Lido. Venetian cannons sank one of the ships, but did not succeed in repelling the invasion since the Venetian war fleet numbered only 4 galleys and 7 galliots. The Doge surrendered on 12 May 1797 and left the Doge's Palace two days later.
The Republic of Genoa was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
Jean-Andoche Junot, 1st Duke of Abrantès was a French general during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
An ultimatum is a demand whose fulfillment is requested in a specified period of time and which is backed up by a threat to be followed through in case of noncompliance. An ultimatum is generally the final demand in a series of requests. As such, the time allotted is usually short, and the request is understood not to be open to further negotiation. The threat which backs up the ultimatum can vary depending on the demand in question and on the other circumstances.
On 16 May French troops entered Piazza San Marco and the surrender contract was officially signed, submitting Venice to French rule.
After his abdication, Lodovico Manin refused an offer to become the interim head of the municipality and withdrew from society, living in near seclusion in the Palazzo Dolfin Manin, reportedly refusing even to answer his door to friends. He returned the ducal insignia (principally the distinctive ducal crown known as the corno ducale) alongside the " Golden Book" that served as a register of the oligarchical families of the republic to the Piazza San Marco where they were hidden by the new city authorities.
Due to health reasons he was forced to walk a lot and on these occasions was sometimes made the object of insults from former citizens who lamented Venice's changed fortunes and were angered by his decision to avoid bloodshed by surrendering the freedom of the ancient republic to the French. He wanted to end his days in a monastery but this proved impossible.
He died in his house of dropsy and heart problems on 24 October 1802. His will ordered that his funeral should take place "with the least possible pomp". He left 110,000 ducats to the Manin Foundation for the benefit of the city's lunatics, orphans, and girls from poor families needing a dowry. His remains were interred in the chapel of the Church of the Scalzi in Venice near the present railway station of Venice Saint Lucia in the family tomb of Manin where his late wife already lay. The tomb slab survives and bears the simple inscription Manini Cineres ("ashes of Manin").
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Piazza San Marco, often known in English as St Mark's Square, is the principal public square of Venice, Italy, where it is generally known just as la Piazza. All other urban spaces in the city are called campi ("fields"). The Piazzetta is an extension of the Piazza towards the lagoon in its south east corner. The two spaces together form the social, religious and political centre of Venice and are commonly considered together. This article relates to both of them.
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The ducat was a gold or silver coin used as a trade coin in Europe from the later Middle Ages until as late as the 20th century. Many types of ducats had various metallic content and purchasing power throughout the period. The gold ducat of Venice gained wide international acceptance, like the medieval Byzantine hyperpyron and the Florentine florin, or the modern British Pound sterling and the United States dollar.
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The Republic of Venice, traditionally known as the Most Serene Republic of Venice, was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century. It was based in the lagoon communities of the historically prosperous city of Venice, and was a leading European economic and trading power during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.
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The Republic of San Marco, an Italian revolutionary state, existed for 17 months in 1848–1849. Based on the Venetian Lagoon, it extended into most of Venetia, or the Terraferma territory of the Venetian Republic, suppressed 51 years earlier in the French Revolutionary Wars. After declaring independence from the Habsburg Austrian Empire, the republic later joined the Kingdom of Sardinia in an attempt, led by the latter, to unite northern Italy against foreign domination. But the First Italian War of Independence ended in the defeat of Sardinia, and Austrian forces reconquered the Republic of San Marco on 28 August 1849 following a long siege.
Giovanni Dolfin, also known as Giovanni Delfino or Delfin was the fifty-seventh Doge of Venice, appointed on August 13, 1356. Despite his value as general, during his reign Venice lost Dalmatia. He was blind from one eye after a wound received in battle.
Francesco Molin or Francesco Da Molin was the 99th Doge of Venice, reigning from his election on 20 January 1646 until his death. Molin's reign is notable because of Venice's participation in a prolonged war with the Ottoman Empire over Crete; this war was begun during the reign of Molin's predecessor Francesco Erizzo, and dragged on until 1669. To fund the cost of this war, Molin sold access to the Venetian patriciate at a cost of 100,000 ducats per person.
Bertuccio Valiero was the 102nd Doge of Venice, reigning from his election on 15 June 1656 until his death.
This article presents a detailed timeline of the history of the Republic of Venice from its legendary foundation to its collapse under the efforts of Napoleon.
The gold chain, called Manin, consists of a 22-karat gold wire. The process involves making tiny rings of gold, with semi-circular hollow section, to be welded together and form a fine mesh. If the work is very skilled from 1 gram of gold can be obtained chains of 12–15 cm.
Palazzo Dolfin Manin is a palace in the sestiere of San Marco on the Canal Grande of Venice, northern Italy. It is located near the Palazzo Bembo, not far from the Rialto Bridge.
The Fall of the Republic of Venice was a series of events in 1797 that led to the dissolution and dismemberment of the Republic of Venice at the hands of Napoleon Bonaparte and Habsburg Austria.
| Doge of Venice |