Ludovico Manin

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Ludovico Manin
Lodovico Manin.jpg
Ludovico Manin, portrait by Bernardino Castelli
Doge of Venice
Reign10 March 1789 – 12 May 1797
Predecessor Paolo Renier
SuccessorPosition abolished
(Fall of Venice, annexation to the Austrian Empire)
BornLudovico Giovanni Manin
(1725-05-14)14 May 1725
Venice, Flag of Most Serene Republic of Venice.svg  Republic of Venice
Died24 October 1802(1802-10-24) (aged 77)
Venice, Habsburg Empire
Elisabetta Grimani (m. 17481792)
; her death
FatherLodovico Alvise Manin
MotherMaria Basadonna
Religion Roman Catholicism
Occupation Merchant

Ludovico Giovanni Manin (IPA /.ma'niŋ/, 14 May 1725 – 24 October 1802) was a Venetian politician, a Patrician of Venice and the last Doge of Venice. He governed the Venetian Republic from 9 March 1789 until 1797, when he was forced to abdicate by Napoleon Bonaparte.

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language. The IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, linguists, speech-language pathologists, singers, actors, constructed language creators and translators.

A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government. Politicians propose, support and create laws or policies that govern the land and, by extension, its people. Broadly speaking, a "politician" can be anyone who seeks to achieve political power in any bureaucratic institution.

Doge of Venice chief magistrate of Venetian Republic

The Doge of Venice, sometimes translated as Duke, was the chief magistrate and leader of the Republic of Venice between 726 and 1797.



Early life

Lodovico Manin was the eldest of five sons of Lodovico III Alvise (1695–1775) and Lucrezia Maria Basadonna, the great-granddaughter of cardinal Pietro Basadonna. He attended the University of Bologna and was a boarder at the noble College of St. Xavier: there he printed some propositions of natural law, which he incurred in this period. When he began public life, was quickly noticed for his generosity, his honesty, his kindness and above all his wealth. He married Elisabetta Grimani (d 1792) on 14 September 1748; [1] she bore him a dowry of 45,000 ducats. Elisabetta had been educated in a monastery in Treviso and was in poor health since childhood. She gave birth to no children.

University of Bologna university in Bologna, Italy

The University of Bologna was founded in 1088 by an organised guild of students. It is often referred to as the oldest university of the world, however, UNESCO recognises the University of Al Quaraouiyine, an African university in Morocco, founded in 859AD. It is one of the most prestigious Italian universities, commonly ranking first in national rankings.

Elisabetta Grimani, was the last Dogaressa of Venice by marriage to the Doge Ludovico Manin.

At twenty-six he was elected captain of Vicenza, then to Verona where he had to cope with the flood of 1757, finally Brescia. In 1764 he was appointed procurator de ultra of Saint Mark's. Fond of religious meditations, in 1769 he asked and obtained permission to not hold an office because of ill health and bad hearing. In 1787 he was chosen to honor Pope Pius VI as he crossed the possessions of Venice and the Pope rewarded him by a knighthood and awarded him a number of spiritual privileges.

Pope Pius VI pope and sovereign of the Papal States

Pope Pius VI, born Count Giovanni Angelo Braschi, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 15 February 1775 to his death in 1799.

As the eldest son he owned Villa Manin di Passariano, that was inherited by his nephew, Lodovico Leonardo I (1771–1853) the son of his brother Giovanni (1736–1774) and Caterina (Pesaro), the heiress of a wealthy noble Israelite family who claimed to descend from Cyrus the Great.

Cyrus the Great King and founder of the Achaemenid Empire

Cyrus II of Persia, commonly known as Cyrus the Great, and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire. Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East, expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Western Asia and much of Central Asia. From the Mediterranean Sea and Hellespont in the west to the Indus River in the east, Cyrus the Great created the largest empire the world had yet seen. Under his successors, the empire eventually stretched at its maximum extent from parts of the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east. His regal titles in full were The Great King, King of Persia, King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, and King of the Four Corners of the World. The Nabonidus Chronicle notes the change in his title from simply "King of Anshan", a city, to "King of Persia". Assyriologist François Vallat wrote that "When Astyages marched against Cyrus, Cyrus is called ‘King of Anshan’, but when Cyrus crosses the Tigris on his way to Lydia, he is ‘King of Persia’. The coup therefore took place between these two events."


Lodovico was elected Doge of Venice on 9 March 1789, approximately four months before the start of the French Revolution, on the first ballot (the electoral assembly was composed of 41 members). His traditional coronation ceremony required him to throw coins to the Venetians, which cost more than 458,197 Lira, less than a quarter of which was paid from the funds of the Republic of Venice, the rest coming out of his own pocket. By the year 1792, he had allowed the once great Venetian merchant fleet to decline to a mere 309 merchantmen.

French Revolution Revolution in France, 1789 to 1798

The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.

Lira monetary unit of a number of countries

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Cargo ship ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials onboard from one port to another

A cargo ship or freighter ship is a merchant ship that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another. Thousands of cargo carriers ply the world's seas and oceans each year, handling the bulk of international trade. Cargo ships are usually specially designed for the task, often being equipped with cranes and other mechanisms to load and unload, and come in all sizes. Today, they are almost always built by welded steel, and with some exceptions generally have a life expectancy of 25 to 30 years before being scrapped.

Villa Manin, in Passariano, where the Treaty of Campoformio was signed. Villa Manin - Passariano.jpg
Villa Manin, in Passariano, where the Treaty of Campoformio was signed.

When Napoleon invaded Italy, Venice, along with the Republic of Genoa, did not initially join the coalition of Italian states formed in 1795, instead maintaining neutrality. On 15 April 1797, French general Jean-Andoche Junot gave the Doge an ultimatum which was not accepted. A secret addition to the Treaty of Leoben, signed on 17 April 1797, gave Veniceas well as Istria and Dalmatia to Austria. On 25 April 1797, the French fleet arrived at the Lido. Venetian cannons sank one of the ships, but did not succeed in repelling the invasion since the Venetian war fleet numbered only 4 galleys and 7 galliots. The Doge surrendered on 12 May 1797 and left the Doge's Palace two days later.

Republic of Genoa former state on the Apennine Peninsula between 1005–1797

The Republic of Genoa was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.

Jean-Andoche Junot French general

Jean-Andoche Junot, 1st Duke of Abrantès was a French general during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.

Ultimatum demand backed up by a threat

An ultimatum is a demand whose fulfillment is requested in a specified period of time and which is backed up by a threat to be followed through in case of noncompliance. An ultimatum is generally the final demand in a series of requests. As such, the time allotted is usually short, and the request is understood not to be open to further negotiation. The threat which backs up the ultimatum can vary depending on the demand in question and on the other circumstances.

On 16 May French troops entered Piazza San Marco and the surrender contract was officially signed, submitting Venice to French rule.

Later life and death

Tomb of Ludovico Manin Santa Maria degli Scalzi (Venice) - Cappella Manin.jpg
Tomb of Ludovico Manin

After his abdication, Lodovico Manin refused an offer to become the interim head of the municipality and withdrew from society, living in near seclusion in the Palazzo Dolfin Manin, reportedly refusing even to answer his door to friends. He returned the ducal insignia (principally the distinctive ducal crown known as the corno ducale) alongside the " Golden Book" that served as a register of the oligarchical families of the republic to the Piazza San Marco where they were hidden by the new city authorities.

Due to health reasons he was forced to walk a lot and on these occasions was sometimes made the object of insults from former citizens who lamented Venice's changed fortunes and were angered by his decision to avoid bloodshed by surrendering the freedom of the ancient republic to the French. He wanted to end his days in a monastery but this proved impossible.

He died in his house of dropsy and heart problems on 24 October 1802. His will ordered that his funeral should take place "with the least possible pomp". He left 110,000 ducats to the Manin Foundation for the benefit of the city's lunatics, orphans, and girls from poor families needing a dowry. His remains were interred in the chapel of the Church of the Scalzi in Venice near the present railway station of Venice Saint Lucia in the family tomb of Manin where his late wife already lay. The tomb slab survives and bears the simple inscription Manini Cineres ("ashes of Manin").

He also left his memoirs which were later collected and published by his grandson Louis Joseph Manin (1815-1877). The son of Louis Joseph, namely Louis Leonardo Manin (1851-1950) had no legitimate children.[ citation needed ]

Ducatus Venetus, Venetian ducat, of the reign of Manin. Ducatus Venetus, Venetian ducat, of the reign of Ludovicus Manin Dux.jpg
Ducatus Venetus, Venetian ducat, of the reign of Manin.
Venetian ducat, of the reign of Manin (San Marco side). Ducatus Venetus, Venetian ducat, of the reign of Ludovicus Manin Dux (San Marco side).jpg
Venetian ducat, of the reign of Manin (San Marco side).


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  1. Staley, Edgcumbe: The dogaressas of Venice : The wives of the doges. London : T. W. Laurie
Political offices
Preceded by
Paolo Renier
Doge of Venice
Office abolished