|President of Italy|
12 May 1948 –11 May 1955
|Prime Minister|| Alcide De Gasperi |
|Preceded by||Enrico De Nicola|
|Succeeded by||Giovanni Gronchi|
|Deputy Prime Minister of Italy|
1 June 1947 –24 May 1948
|Prime Minister||Alcide De Gasperi|
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Giovanni Porzio|
|Minister of the Budget|
6 June 1947 –24 May 1948
|Prime Minister||Alcide De Gasperi|
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Giuseppe Pella|
|Governor of the Bank of Italy|
5 January 1945 –11 May 1948
|Preceded by||Vincenzo Azzolini|
|Succeeded by||Donato Menichella|
|Born||24 March 1874|
Carrù, Piedmont, Kingdom of Italy
|Died||30 October 1961 87) (aged|
Rome, Latium, Italy
|Political party||Italian Liberal Party|
|Alma mater||University of Turin|
Luigi Einaudi, [luˈiːdʒi eiˈnaudi] ; 24 March 1874 – 30 October 1961) was an Italian politician and economist. He served as the second president of Italy from 1948 to 1955.(Italian:
Einaudi was born to Lorenzo and Placida Fracchia in Carrù, in the province of Cuneo, Piedmont. In Turin he attended Liceo classico Cavour and completed his university studies; in the same years he became acquainted with socialist ideas and collaborated with the magazine Critica sociale, directed by the socialist leader Filippo Turati. In 1895, after overcoming financial difficulties, he graduated in jurisprudence, and was later appointed as professor in the University of Turin, the Polytechnic University of Turin and the Bocconi University of Milan.
|Part of a series on|
From the early 20th century Einaudi moved increasingly towards a more conservative stance. In 1919 he was named Senator of the Kingdom of Italy. He also worked as a journalist for important Italian newspapers such as La Stampa and Il Corriere della Sera , as well as being financial correspondent for The Economist .An anti-fascist, he stopped working for Italian newspapers from 1926, under the Fascist regime, resuming his professional relationship with the Corriere della Sera after the fall of the regime in 1943. After the Armistice (8 September 1943) he fled to Switzerland, returning to Italy in 1944.
Einaudi was Governor of the Bank of Italy from 5 January 1945 until 11 May 1948, and was also a founding member of the Consulta Nazionale which opened the way to the new Parliament of the Italian Republic after World War II. Later he was Minister of Finances, Treasury and Balance, as well as Vice-Premier, in 1947–48. He was also a member of the neo-liberal think tank the Mont Pelerin Society.
On 11 May 1948 he was elected the second President of the Italian Republic. At the end of the seven-year term of office in 1955 he became Life Senator. Einaudi was a member of numerous cultural, economic and university institutions. He was a supporter of the ideal of European Federalism.
Einaudi personally managed the activities of his farm near Dogliani, producing Nebbiolo wine, for which he boasted to be using the most advanced agricultural developments. In 1950, monarchist satirical magazine Candido published a cartoon in which Einaudi is at the Quirinal Palace, surrounded by a presidential guard of honour (the corazzieri) of giant bottles of Nebbiolo wine, each labeled with the institutional logo. The cartoon was judged a lèse-majesté by a court of the time, and Giovannino Guareschi, as the director of the magazine, was held responsible and sentenced.
Luigi Einaudi died in Rome in 1961.
Both his son Giulio, a prominent Italian publisher, and his grandson, Ludovico, a neo-Classical musician, subsequently made names for themselves.
Another son, Mario, was a Cornell University professor and active anti-fascist. The Mario Einaudi Center For International Studies is named after him. Additionally, Mario founded the Fondazione Luigi Einaudi in Turin in honor of his father.
Also the research center of the Bank of Italy, the Einaudi Institute for Economics and Finance (EIEF), is named in honor of Luigi Einaudi.
Vilfredo Federico Damaso Pareto was an Italian civil engineer, sociologist, economist, political scientist, and philosopher. He made several important contributions to economics, particularly in the study of income distribution and in the analysis of individuals' choices. He was also responsible for popularising the use of the term "elite" in social analysis.
Piero Sraffa was an influential Italian economist who served as lecturer of economics at the University of Cambridge. His book Production of Commodities by Means of Commodities is taken as founding the neo-Ricardian school of economics.
The Corriere della Sera is an Italian daily newspaper published in Milan with an average daily circulation of 410,242 copies in December 2015.
Giovannino Oliviero Giuseppe Guareschi was an Italian journalist, cartoonist and humorist whose best known creation is the priest Don Camillo.
Normative economics is a part of economics whose objective is fairness or what the outcome of the economy or goals of public policy ought to be.
Benedetto Croce was an Italian idealist philosopher, historian and politician, who wrote on numerous topics, including philosophy, history, historiography and aesthetics. In most regards, Croce was a liberal, although he opposed laissez-faire free trade and had considerable influence on other Italian intellectuals, including both Marxist Antonio Gramsci and fascist Giovanni Gentile. Croce was President of PEN International, the worldwide writers' association, from 1949 until 1952. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature sixteen times. He is also noted for his "major contributions to the rebirth of Italian democracy."
Carlo Levi was an Italian painter, writer, activist, anti-fascist, and doctor.
The Libera Università Internazionale degli Studi Sociali "Guido Carli", known by the acronym "Luiss" or "Luiss Guido Carli", is an independent private university located in Rome, Italy, founded in 1974 by a group of entrepreneurs led by Umberto Agnelli, brother of Gianni Agnelli.
Federico Caffè was a notable Italian economist from the "Keynesian School".
Giulio Einaudi was an Italian book publisher. The eponymous company that he founded in 1933 became "a European wellspring of fine literature, intellectual thought and political theory" and was once considered the most prestigious publishing house in Italy. He was also the author of books on literature, history, philosophy, art and science.
Luigi Pareysón was an Italian philosopher, best known for challenging the positivist and idealist aesthetics of Benedetto Croce in his 1954 monograph, Estetica. Teoria della formatività, which builds on the hermeneutics of the Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein.
Paolo Fossati was an Italian author, professor and art historian.
Mario Einaudi was an Italian scholar of political theory and European comparative politics.
Italian modern and contemporary architecture refers to architecture in Italy during the 20th and 21st centuries.
Paolo Alberto Brera was an Italian economist, academic, journalist, multilingual translator and novelist.
Luigi Veronesi was an Italian photographer, painter, scenographer and film director born in Milan.
Elsa Fornero is an Italian economist, university lecturer, and politician who served as Minister of Labour, Social Policies, and Gender Equality in the Monti cabinet from November 2011 to April 2013.
Fernando Vianello was an Italian economist and academic.
Laura Mancinelli was an Italian writer, germanist, medievalist and university professor.
Giorgio Ficara is an Italian essayist and literary critic. He is Full Professor of Italian Literature at the University of Turin.
| Governor of the Bank of Italy |
|New office|| Minister of the Budget |
Enrico De Nicola
| President of Italy |