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Commander Luis Barceló Jover (right) being treated for a wound by a nurse.
|Birth name||Luis Barceló Jover|
Madrid, Kingdom of Spain
|Died||15 March 1939 (aged 42–43)|
|Commands held||Commander of the 35th Mixed Brigade (1936)|
2nd Division (1937)
I Army Corps of the Army of the Centre (1939)
|Battles/wars||Spanish Civil War|
Luis Barceló Jover (1896 – 15 March 1939) was a Spanish military officer.
A professional officer of the Spanish Army, he supported the Republican government during the Spanish Civil War. In 1936 he was a major of the Spanish army. In July 1936 he was one of the officers who set up summary courts to try the rebel officers captured after the failure of the coup in Madrid.In September 1936, he took part in the Siege of the Alcazar. Later he joined the PCE, and led one mixed brigade of Modesto's division in the Second Battle of the Corunna Road. Later, he was promoted to colonel and, on June 1937 he was one of the republican commanders in the Segovia Offensive. In 1939, he was the commander of the I Corps of the Republican Army of the Centre.
The Spanish Republic, commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic, was the democratic government that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939. The Republic was proclaimed on 14 April 1931, after the deposition of Alfonso XIII, and it lost the Spanish Civil War on 1 April 1939 to the rebel faction, that would establish a military dictatorship under the rule of Francisco Franco.
The Spanish Civil War took place from 1936 to 1939. Republicans loyal to the left-leaning Second Spanish Republic, in alliance with the Anarchists and Communists, fought against the Nationalists, an alliance of Falangists, Monarchists, Carlists, and Catholics, led by a military clique among whom General Francisco Franco soon achieved a preponderant role. Due to the international political climate at the time, the war had many facets, and different views saw it as class struggle, a war of religion, a struggle between dictatorship and republican democracy, between revolution and counterrevolution, between fascism and communism. The Nationalists won the war in early 1939 and ruled Spain until Franco's death in November 1975.
The Spanish coup of July 1936 fractured the Spanish Republican Armed Forces and marked the beginning of the Spanish Civil War. Following a period of troubles in the Second Spanish Republic, a group of officers attempted to overthrow the left-wing Popular Front government, elected five months previously, in a military coup. Planning started in early 1936, and the coup was launched on 17 and 18 July. The coup failed to take complete control of the country and civil war ensued.
On March 5, 1939, the Colonel Segismundo Casado, an officer of the Republican Army, supported a section of the PSOE (Julian Besteiro), a section of the UGT (Wenceslao Carrillo), the CNT (Cipriano Mera), the general Manuel Matallana and the secret service of the Republic (SIM), deposed the prime minister, Juan Negrin, and established the National Defence Council (Consejo Nacional de Defensa) in order to start peace negotiations with Francisco Franco. The Council dismissed the Communist commanders of the I, II, and III Corps of the Army of the Centre, among them Barceló, but he rejected the authority of the Council, and on March 7 he appointed himself as Commander of the Army of the Centre, setting up his headquarters in the Pardo Palace,and entered with his troops in Madrid, supported by the Bueno's II Corps and the Ortega's III Corps, starting a brief civil war inside the Republic. After some days of bloody combats he was defeated by Cipriano Mera's IV Corps and surrendered himself to the Council on March 12. On March 13, he and his commissar Jose Conesa, were sentenced to death by a military tribunal and executed.
Segismundo Casado López was a Spanish Army officer in the Second Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War, commanding the Republican Spanish Army in 1939.
The Unión General de Trabajadores is a major Spanish trade union, historically affiliated with the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE).
Cipriano Mera Sanz was a Spanish military and political figure during the Second Spanish Republic.
The Battle of the Ebro was the longest and largest battle of the Spanish Civil War. It took place between July and November 1938, with fighting mainly concentrated in two areas on the lower course of the Ebro River, the Terra Alta comarca of Catalonia, and the Auts area close to Fayón (Faió) in the lower Matarranya, Eastern Lower Aragon. These sparsely populated areas saw the largest array of armies in the war. The results of the battle were disastrous for the Second Spanish Republic, with tens of thousands of dead and wounded and little effect on the advance of the Nationalists.
Juan Guilloto León, usually referred to as Modesto or Juan Modesto, was a Republican army officer during the Spanish Civil War.
The Battle of Málaga was the culmination of an offensive in early 1937 by the combined Nationalist and Italian forces to eliminate Republican control of the province of Málaga during the Spanish Civil War. The participation of Moroccan regulars and Italian tanks from the recently arrived Corpo Truppe Volontarie resulted in a complete rout of the Spanish Republican Army and the capitulation of Málaga in less than a week.
The Catalonia Offensive was part of the Spanish Civil War. The Nationalist Army started the offensive on December 23, 1938, and rapidly conquered Republican-held Catalonia with Barcelona. Barcelona was captured on January 26, 1939. The Republican government headed for the French border. Thousands of people fleeing the Nationalists also crossed the frontier in the following month, to be placed in internment camps. Franco closed the border with France by February 10, 1939.
José Solchaga Zala was a Spanish general who fought for the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War.
The XYZ Line, or Matallana Line, was a system of fortifications built during the Spanish Civil War in order to defend the capital of the Second Spanish Republic in Valencia, Spain. Unlike the Maginot Line, or the Iron Belt of Bilbao, which were expensive systems of fortifications and bunkers made of reinforced concrete, the XYZ Line was a simpler system of defenses in depth consisting of trenches and bunkers that took advantage of some of the most difficult terrain in Spain in the Iberian System ranges to the north and northeast of Valencia. The defenses were built to withstand bombardment by either heavy artillery or 1,000-pound aerial bombs.
Gustavo Durán Martínez (1906–1969) was a Spanish composer, Lieutenant Colonel in the Spanish military, diplomat and United Nations official.
The Asturias Offensive was an offensive in Asturias during the Spanish Civil War which lasted from 1 September to 21 October 1937. 45,000 men of the Spanish Republican Army met 90,000 men of the Nationalist forces.
The Extremadura campaign was a campaign in Extremadura, Spain during the Spanish Civil War. It culminated in the Battle of Badajoz in August 1936, from which the troops of the Army of Africa under the command of Francisco Franco moved quickly to begin the march to Madrid.
The Battle of Seseña was an ill-fated Republican-Soviet assault on the Nationalist stronghold of Seseña, near Toledo, 30 km south of Madrid in October 1936 during the Spanish Civil War. After the fall of Talavera de la Reina and Toledo in September 1936, the Nationalist troops pushed towards Madrid and in October they were 30 km from Madrid. Then the Republican government which had received new Soviet weapons decided to launch a counteroffensive in order to stop the Nationalist offensive at Seseña. The attack failed and the Nationalists resumed their advance towards Madrid. The battle is notable for being the first time that tank warfare was seen in the Spanish War and for the use by Nationalist troops of Molotov cocktails against Soviet T-26 tanks.
The Segovia Offensive was a Republican diversionary offensive which took place between 31 May and 6 June 1937, during the Spanish Civil War. The main goal of the offensive was to occupy Segovia and divert Nationalist forces from their advance on Bilbao. After a brief initial advance the offensive failed due to Nationalist air superiority.
The Battle of Alfambra took place near Alfambra between 5 and the 8 February 1938, during the Spanish Civil War. This battle was a part of the Battle of Teruel. After, the conquest of Teruel by the Republican army, the Nationalists started a counteroffensive in order to reocuppy Teruel. On 5 February a huge nationalist force broke the republican lines in the north of the Teruel towards the Alfambra river, taking 7,000 republican prisoners and threatening the Republican forces in Teruel.
The final offensive of the Spanish Civil War took place between 26 March and 1 April 1939, towards the end of the Spanish Civil War. On 5 March 1939, the Republican Army led by Colonel Segismundo Casado and the politician Julián Besteiro rose against the Socialist prime minister Juan Negrín and formed a military junta, the National Defence Council in order to negotiate a peace deal. Negrín fled to France but the Communist troops around Madrid rose against the junta, starting a civil war within the civil war. Casado defeated them and started peace negotiations with the Nationalists. Francisco Franco, however, was prepared to accept only an unconditional surrender. On 26 March the Nationalists started a general offensive and by 31 March they controlled all Spanish territory. Hundreds of thousands of Republicans were arrested and interned in concentration camps.
Francisco Galán Rodriguéz (1902–1971), was a Spanish military officer.
Manuel Tagüeña Lacorte (1913–1971) was a Spanish military officer of the Spanish Republican Army. Before the Spanish Civil War, he was a member of the socialist youth and studied mathematics and physics at the Madrid University. In July 1936 he led a militia column in the Somosierra front, in August on the Tagus front and took part in the defense of Madrid. He joined the PCE in November 1936 and was one of the first commanders of the mixed brigades. He rose through the ranks from company to army corps commander and he was promoted to Colonel. He was one of the Republican commanders in the retreat of Aragon. In the battle of the Ebro and in the Catalonia Offensive, he led the XV Army Corps of Modesto's Army of the Ebro. After Casado’s coup in March 1939 he fled from the Monovar airport to France.
Julian Zugazagoitia. (1899–1940). Spanish journalist and politician. A member of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, he was close to Indalecio Prieto and the editor of the El Socialista. In the first weeks of the Spanish Civil War he wrote against the paseos and denounced the anarchist and communist secret prisons (checas). In October 1936 he wrote in El Socialista: "The life of an adversary who surrenders is unassailable; non combatant can dispose of that life. That is not how the rebels behave? It matters no. It is how we should behave.". In May 1937 he was appointed by the prime minister, Juan Negrín, as minister of Interior of the Second Spanish Republic. Because of the abduction and killing of Andreu Nin, he dismissed the Director General of Security, Antonio Ortega and threatened to resign as minister. In 1938, he supported the dissolution by force of the Anarchist controlled, Consejo de Aragon. He was replaced in May 1938, but in April 1938, he was appointed secretary of the ministry of defence. After the war, he fled to France, but in 1940 was arrested by the Gestapo, handed over to Spain and executed. In France he wrote a history about the Spanish Civil War: Historia de la guerra en España, published in 1940.
The Levante Offensive, launched near the end of March 1938, was an attempt by Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco to capture the Republican held city of Valencia during the Spanish Civil War. The Nationalists occupied the province of Castellón, but the offensive failed due to bad weather and the dogged resistance of the Republican troops at the XYZ defensive line.
Camilo Alonso Vega was a Spanish military officer and minister.
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