Luis Terrazas, born José Luis Gonzaga Jesús Daniel Terrazas Fuentes (20 July 1829 in Chihuahua, Mexico – 18 June 1923 in Chihuahua), was a Mexican politician, businessman, rancher and soldier.
Chihuahua, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chihuahua, is one of the 31 states of Mexico. It is located in Northwestern Mexico and is bordered by the states of Sonora to the west, Sinaloa to the southwest, Durango to the south, and Coahuila to the east. To the north and northeast, it has a long border with the U.S. adjacent to the U.S. states of New Mexico and Texas. Its capital city is Chihuahua City.
Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.
He was a pivotal figure in the history of the state of Chihuahua from the middle of the 19th century through the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution. He was a leader of the Cientificos during the regime of Porfirio Diaz and was the founder of the influential Creel-Terrazas Family.
The Mexican Revolution, also known as the Mexican Civil War, was a major armed struggle, lasting roughly from 1910 to 1920, that radically transformed Mexican culture and government. Although recent research has focused on local and regional aspects of the Revolution, it was a genuinely national revolution. Its outbreak in 1910 resulted from the failure of the 35-year-long regime of Porfirio Díaz to find a managed solution to the presidential succession. This meant there was a political crisis among competing elites and the opportunity for agrarian insurrection. Wealthy landowner Francisco I. Madero challenged Díaz in the 1910 presidential election, and following the rigged results, revolted under the Plan of San Luis Potosí. Armed conflict ousted Díaz from power; a new election was held in 1911, bringing Madero to the presidency.
The Creel-Terrazas Family is a powerful and wealthy family based in the Mexican state of Chihuahua.
First elected Governor of Chihuahua in 1858, Terrazas was a host, political ally and confidant of President Benito Juárez during the French Intervention , when Juarez was living with his cabinet in exile in Chihuahua City from 1864 through 1866. He served as governor for various terms of office between 1858 and 1904.
According to the Political Constitution of the Free and Sovereign State of Chihuahua, Executive Power in that Mexican state resides with a single individual, the Constitutional Governor of the Free and Sovereign State of Chihuahua, who is chosen for a period of six years and cannot for any reason be re-elected. The term of governor begins on October 4 of the year of the election and finishes on October 3 after six years have elapsed. Gubernatorial elections are held two years prior to presidential elections.
Benito Pablo Juárez García was a Mexican lawyer and president of Mexico, of Zapotec origin from Oaxaca.
There are two anecdotal tales addressing Terrazas' wealth: when approached by American meat packer Swift and asked if he could provide a hundred thousand head of cattle, his rejoinder was "In what color?". And, when asked once at a social function if he were from Chihuahua, he was reported to have asserted "No soy de Chihuahua, Chihuahua es mío" ("I'm not from Chihuahua, Chihuahua is mine").
His ranches had once totaled more than 7 million acres (28,000 km²). He acquired his properties in a number of ways; one significant advantage was that, as governor of the state, Terrazas was able to move armed forces into and out of portions of the state, creating instability in prices and buy good rangeland where prices had decreased.
In 1902 he sold a ranch, Hacienda Humboldt at Julimes, near Delicias, Chihuahua, to a group of sponsors organized by President Theodore Roosevelt for a colony of South African Boer refugees. Roosevelt was represented by Edward Reeve Merritt and Marshall Latham Bond.
Hacienda Humboldt is an ejido in the municipality of Julimes Municipality, Chihuahua which was once a private cattle ranch. It belonged for a period of time to Luis Terrazas and was sold by him for the formation of a colony of South African refugees from the Anglo Boer War. Among them was the Boer general Ben Viljoen. The refugees were assisted in their project by President Theodore Roosevelt. He hired Marshall Latham Bond to represent him before Terrazas and the government of Mexico. The colony never particularly thrived. The Humboldt colonists already beginning in 1908 to emigrate to more active Mexican towns like Ciudad de Chihuahua and farming areas like the Mesilla Valley in the United States. Boers who stayed in Mexico married into local families, or moved away resulting in the loss of the community's identity with the Boers by the mid-1930s.
Delicias is a city in the Mexican state of Chihuahua and serves as the seat of the municipality of the same name. It is located southeast of the state capital, Chihuahua. Delicias was declared an official municipality of the state of Chihuahua on January 7, 1935. Delicias is a small industrial city and a major agricultural center located in the Conchos River Valley. As of 2015, the city of Delicias had a population of 148,045 inhabitants, while the metropolitan area had a population of 223,993 inhabitants. It was founded on 30 April 1933, making it one of Mexico's youngest cities. The municipality of Delicias is one of the smallest in the state in terms of size area.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was an American statesman, politician, conservationist, naturalist, and writer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909. He previously served as the 25th vice president of the United States from March to September 1901 and as the 33rd governor of New York from 1899 to 1900. As a leader of the Republican Party during this time, he became a driving force for the Progressive Era in the United States in the early 20th century. His face is depicted on Mount Rushmore, alongside those of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Abraham Lincoln. In polls of historians and political scientists, Roosevelt is generally ranked as one of the five best presidents.
Terrazas was said to have faced-down his enemy Pancho Villa in a confrontation during the early days of the Revolution; he had suspected Villa of rustling his cattle and refused to have any dealings with him, leading to a mutual enmity between the two. Villa was also the leading suspect in the abduction of Terrazas' eldest son, Luis, during the Revolution . He and Villa died in the same year (Terrazas from old age; Villa by assassination).
Francisco Ignacio Madero González was a Mexican revolutionary, writer and statesman who served as the 33rd president of Mexico from 1911 until shortly before his assassination in 1913. He was an advocate for social justice and democracy. Madero was notable for challenging Mexican President Porfirio Díaz for the presidency in 1910 and being instrumental in sparking the Mexican Revolution.
Francisco "Pancho" Villa was a Mexican revolutionary general and one of the most prominent figures of the Mexican Revolution.
The city of Chihuahua is the state capital of the Mexican state of Chihuahua. As of 2017, the city of Chihuahua had a population of 878,062 inhabitants. while the metropolitan area had a population of 1,036,806 inhabitants.
Pascual Orozco Vázquez was a Mexican revolutionary leader who rose up with Francisco I. Madero late 1910 to depose Porfirio Díaz. Sixteen months later he revolted against the Madero government and ultimately sided with the coup d'état that deposed Madero.
Venustiano Carranza Garza was one of the main leaders of the Mexican Revolution, whose victorious northern revolutionary Constitutionalist Army defeated the counter-revolutionary regime of Victoriano Huerta and then defeated fellow revolutionaries after Huerta's ouster. He secured power in Mexico, serving as head of state from 1915–1917. With the promulgation of a new revolutionary Mexican Constitution of 1917, he was elected president, serving from 1917 to 1920.
Abraham González de Hermosillo y Casavantes was the provisional and constitutional governor of the Mexican state of Chihuahua during the early period of the Mexican Revolution. He was the political mentor to the revolutionary Pancho Villa, whom he had met and befriended before the revolution.
Colonia Juárez is a small town in the northern part of the Mexican state of Chihuahua. Colonia Juárez is located in the valley of the Piedras Verdes River on the western edge of the Chihuahuan Desert and beneath the eastern front of the Sierra Madre Occidental. It is roughly 9 miles (14 km) north of Mata Ortiz and 12 miles (19 km) southeast of Nuevo Casas Grandes. The town had a population of 1,035 in 2010.
Félix María Zuloaga Trillo was a Mexican general and a Conservative leader in the War of Reform. In the late 1850s and early 1860s, Zuloaga served as unconstitutional interim conservative president of Mexico in opposition to the constitutional president Benito Juárez of the Liberal Party.
Francisco Javier Barrio Terrazas is a Mexican politician affiliated with the National Action Party (PAN). He is a former governor of Chihuahua and former secretary in the cabinet of President Vicente Fox.
Luis Héctor Álvarez Álvarez was a Mexican industrialist and politician. Álvarez was a member of the National Action Party. In 1958 he was a candidate for the Presidency of Mexico. He has also served as Mayor of Chihuahua, president of his party and was the coordinator of the dialogues for peace in Chiapas.
José Inés Salazar was a leading Orozquista General in the Mexican Revolution who later fought with Pancho Villa. He was a native of Casas Grandes, Chihuahua.
Enrique Clay Creel Cuilty, sometimes known as Henry Clay Creel was a Mexican businessman and politician member of the powerful Creel-Terrazas family of Chihuahua. He is considered the foremost banker during the Porfirato (1876-1910) and wielded considerable political power, becoming "one of the most hated symbols of the Porfirian regime." He served as governor of Chihuahua on two occasions, ambassador of Mexico to the United States, and served in the cabinet of President Porfirio Díaz as his Minister of Foreign Affairs in the last years of his regime.
The Treaty of Ciudad Juárez was a peace treaty signed between the then President of Mexico, Porfirio Díaz, and the revolutionary Francisco Madero on May 21, 1911. The treaty put an end to the fighting between forces supporting Madero and those of Díaz and thus concluded the initial phase of the Mexican Revolution.
The First Battle of Ciudad Juárez took place in April and May 1911 between federal forces loyal to President Porfirio Díaz and rebel forces of Francisco Madero, during the Mexican Revolution. Pascual Orozco and Pancho Villa commanded Madero's army, which besieged Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua. After two days of fighting the city's garrison surrendered and Orozco and Villa took control of the town. The fall of Ciudad Juárez to Madero, combined with Emiliano Zapata's taking of Cuautla in Morelos, convinced Díaz that he could not hope to defeat the rebels. As a result, he agreed to the Treaty of Ciudad Juárez, resigned and went into exile in France, thus ending the initial stage of the Mexican Revolution.
The Border War, or the Border Campaign, refers to the military engagements which took place in the Mexico–United States border region of North America during the Mexican Revolution. The Bandit War in Texas was part of the Border War. From the beginning of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, the United States Army was stationed in force along the border and on several occasions fought with Mexican rebels or federals. The height of the conflict came in 1916 when revolutionary Pancho Villa attacked the American border town of Columbus, New Mexico. In response, the United States Army, under the direction of General John J. Pershing, launched an expedition into northern Mexico, to find and capture Villa. Though the operation was successful in finding and engaging the Villista rebels, and in killing Villa's two top lieutenants, the revolutionary himself escaped and the American army returned to the United States in January 1917. Conflict at the border continued, however, and the United States launched several additional, though smaller operations into Mexican territory until after the American victory in the Battle of Ambos Nogales. Conflict was not only subject to Villistas and Americans; Maderistas, Carrancistas, Constitutionalistas and Germans also engaged in battle with American forces during this period.
Pedro Hinojosa de la Garza Falcón was a Mexican politician and military general who combated in the Mexican–American War, the Reform War, and in the French intervention in Mexico. In addition, Hinojosa was governor of Durango, Nuevo Leon, and Chihuahua, and served as Secretary of War and Navy.
Adriana Terrazas Porras is a Mexican politician from the Institutional Revolutionary Party. She represents the fourth electoral district of Chihuahua in the Chamber of Deputies for the LXIII Legislature of the Mexican Congress.