Lunéville

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Lunéville
TheatreLuneville.jpg
Theater, whose archway gives access to the château gardens.
Blason Luneville 54.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Lunéville
France location map-Regions and departements-2016.svg
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Lunéville
Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine region location map.svg
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Lunéville
Coordinates: 48°35′22″N6°30′06″E / 48.5894°N 6.5017°E / 48.5894; 6.5017 Coordinates: 48°35′22″N6°30′06″E / 48.5894°N 6.5017°E / 48.5894; 6.5017
Country France
Region Grand Est
Department Meurthe-et-Moselle
Arrondissement Lunéville
Canton Lunéville-1 and 2
Intercommunality Lunévillois
Government
  Mayor (2008-) Jacques Lamblain
Area
1
16.34 km2 (6.31 sq mi)
Population
 (2016-01-01) [1]
19,161
  Density1,200/km2 (3,000/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
54329 /54300
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Lunéville (French pronunciation:  [lynevil] ; German, obsolete: Loudspeaker.svg Lünstadt  ) is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in France.

German language West Germanic language

German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol (Italy), the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.

The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain. The United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered. The communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France.

Contents

It is a subprefecture of the department and lies on the Meurthe River at its confluence with the Vezouze.

A subprefecture is an administrative division of a country that is below prefecture or province.

Meurthe (river) river in France

The Meurthe is a river in north-eastern France, right tributary to the river Moselle. Its source is in the Vosges mountains, near the Col de la Schlucht in the Vosges département, from where it flows in an overall north-westerly direction. Its name gave rise to the naming of the present French département Meurthe-et-Moselle and the former département Meurthe.

History

Eglise Saint-Jacques in Luneville, established by Stanislaus I of Poland in 1745. Eglise Saint Jacques Luneville.jpg
Église Saint-Jacques in Lunéville, established by Stanislaus I of Poland in 1745.

Lunéville was a renowned resort in the 18th century, known as the capital of Lorraine. The grand Château de Lunéville, built in 1702 for Leopold, Duke of Lorraine to replace an older palace, was the residence of the duke of Lorraine until the duchy was annexed by France in 1766. The château was designed in the style of Versailles to satisfy Leopold's wife, Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans, the niece of Louis XIV, and became known as the "Versailles of Lorraine". It includes a chapel designed by Germain Boffrand. Leopold and his wife were the parents of Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor (through him they were the grandparents of Marie Antoinette).

Château de Lunéville castle

The Château de Lunéville which had belonged to the Dukes of Lorraine since the thirteenth century, was rebuilt as “the Versailles of Lorraine” by Duke Léopold from 1703 to 1723, from designs of Pierre Bourdict and Nicolas Dorbay and then of the architect Germain Boffrand, whose masterwork it became. It became the home of King Stanisław Leszczyński, last duke of Lorraine and Bar.

Leopold, Duke of Lorraine

Leopold, surnamed the Good, was Duke of Lorraine and Bar from 1690 to his death. He is the ancestor of all rulers of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty, including all Emperors of Austria.

Palace of Versailles French palace on the outskirts of Paris

The Palace of Versailles was the principal royal residence of France from 1682, under Louis XIV, until the start of the French Revolution in 1789, under Louis XVI. It is located in the department of Yvelines, in the region of Île-de-France, about 20 kilometres southwest of the centre of Paris.

The last duke of Lorraine was Stanislaus I, the former king of Poland. A devout Catholic, an author and a philanthropist, Stanislaus had a church built and several follies in his gardens for the amusement and education of visiting Polish nobility and followers of the Enlightenment. The more famous visitors to his court were Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, André Morellet, and Montesquieu. After the death of his father-in-law in 1766, Louis XV of France annexed the duchy and turned the castle into a barracks, but much of the original construction has survived, and what remains is open to the public and the château's intricate parterre gardens, designed by Yves Hours (a pupil of André Le Nôtre) in 1711 and Louis de Nesle in 1724, are a public park today.

<i>Szlachta</i> legally privileged noble class in the Kingdom of Poland, and in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania

The szlachta was a legally privileged noble class in the Kingdom of Poland, and in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. After the Union of Lublin in 1569, the Grand Duchy and its neighbouring Kingdom became a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Age of Enlightenment European cultural movement of the 18th century

The Age of Enlightenment was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, the "Century of Philosophy".

Voltaire French writer, historian, and philosopher

François-Marie Arouet, known by his nom de plumeVoltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his criticism of Christianity, especially the Roman Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech, and separation of church and state.

It was over the nearby Parroy Forest, directly east of Lunéville, only some 11 months after the outbreak of World War I, that the first aerial victory by a fighter aircraft armed with a synchronised machine gun occurred on July 1, 1915, as Lieutenant Kurt Wintgens of the German Army air force forced down an Aeronautique Militaire Morane-Saulnier L parasol monoplane. Neither member of the French air crew was seriously wounded, while the French aircraft's Gnome Lambda engine received multiple hits to disable the aircraft. [2] [3]

World War I 1914–1918 global war originating in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

Fighter aircraft Military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft

A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets. The hallmarks of a fighter are its speed, maneuverability, and small size relative to other combat aircraft.

Kurt Wintgens German flying ace

LeutnantKurt Wintgens was a German World War I fighter ace. He was the first military fighter pilot to score a victory over an opposing aircraft, while piloting an aircraft armed with a synchronized machine gun. Wintgens was the recipient of the Iron Cross and the Pour le Mérite.

Treaties

The Treaty of Lunéville was signed in the Treaty House, one of the houses built up against the château gardens of Lunéville on 9 February 1801, between the French Republic and the Austrian Empire by Count Ludwig von Cobenzl and Joseph Bonaparte.

Another treaty, signed in Germany, was the Treaty of Frankfurt (1871), which made Lunéville into a border town attracting the best and the brightest of Alsace and Moselle who relocated to keep their French nationality. A new period of economic prosperity, known as the Belle Époque, restored some of the glory of Stanislas's ducal court of the 18th century.

Industry

Luneville faience was made famous for its widely copied collectable figurines mostly designed by Paul-Louis Cyffle. This group is from 1770-1780, Sevres museum collection. Groupe Luneville Sevres.jpg
Lunéville faience was made famous for its widely copied collectable figurines mostly designed by Paul-Louis Cyfflé. This group is from 1770-1780, Sèvres museum collection.

Lunéville faience, a kind of unglazed faience produced from 1723 at Lunéville by Jacques Chambrette, became the Manufacture Royale du Roi de Pologne (“Royal Factory of the King of Poland”) after Stanislaus sponsored it in 1749. The earthenware first became famous for its detailed figurines and in the 20th century for its art deco designs, and it still exists today as "Terres d'Est". [4]

In 1858, the glass factory of Croismare was built. It became famous when the Müller brothers settled there in 1897 and began creating Art Deco glass designs.

Louis Ferry-Bonnechaux discovered a technique using beads and sequins on embroidery in 1865. His craft was widely copied and became known as Lunéville Point, and its heritage can still be seen in modern haute couture.

A subsidiary of the Dietrich company, Lorraine-Dietrich moved to Luneville after the 1871 treaty of Frankfurt. Today it is known for its trailers, but it started off as a manufacturer of cars and railway equipment.

Demographics

The population of Lunéville in 2016 was 18,566.

Historical population
YearPop.±%
179311,691    
180010,436−10.7%
180611,555+10.7%
182111,247−2.7%
183112,378+10.1%
183612,798+3.4%
184112,285−4.0%
184612,278−0.1%
185112,476+1.6%
185615,301+22.6%
186115,528+1.5%
187212,369−20.3%
187616,041+29.7%
188118,136+13.1%
188620,500+13.0%
189121,542+5.1%
189622,599+4.9%
190123,269+3.0%
190624,266+4.3%
191125,587+5.4%
192124,366−4.8%
192623,263−4.5%
193124,668+6.0%
193623,665−4.1%
194620,377−13.9%
195422,690+11.4%
196221,618−4.7%
196823,177+7.2%
197522,709−2.0%
198221,468−5.5%
199020,711−3.5%
199920,200−2.5%
200619,881−1.6%
201119,909+0.1%
201618,566−6.7%

Notable people

Lunéville was the birthplace of :

See also

Related Research Articles

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Stanisław Leszczyński king of Poland

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Meurthe (department) former department of France

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Longwy Commune in Grand Est, France

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Lorraine Place in Grand Est, France

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Richard Mique French architect

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Élisabeth Charlotte dOrléans French duchess

Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans was a petite-fille de France, and duchess of Lorraine and Bar by marriage to Leopold, Duke of Lorraine. She was regent of Lorraine and Bar during the minority (1729–1730) and absence of her son (1730–1737), and suo jure Princess of Commercy 1737–1744. Among her children was Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, a co-founder of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine.

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Léopold Clément, Hereditary Prince of Lorraine heir apparent to the throne of the sovereign Duchy of Lorraine

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Louis, Hereditary Prince of Lorraine French prince

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Luneville Faience

Luneville Faience is one of the most famous French pottery manufacturers. It has been located in Lunéville, Lorraine, France since 1730.

German Lorraine

The region of German Lorraine was the German-speaking part of Lorraine, now in France, that existed for centuries until into the 20th century. The name is also used more specifically in to refer to Bezirk Lothringen, that part of Lorraine that belonged to the German Empire from 1871–1918.

References

  1. "Populations légales 2016". INSEE . Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  2. Grosz, Peter M., Windsock Datafile No. 91, Fokker E.I/II, Albatros Publications, Ltd. 2002. ISBN No. 1-902207-46-7.
  3. Sands, Jeffrey, "The Forgotten Ace, Ltn. Kurt Wintgens and his War Letters", Cross & Cockade USA, Summer 1985.
  4. Website Luneville faience