Lunéville

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Lunéville
TheatreLuneville.jpg
Theater, whose archway gives access to the château gardens.
Blason Luneville 54.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Lunéville
France location map-Regions and departements-2016.svg
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Lunéville
Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine region location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Lunéville
Coordinates: 48°35′22″N6°30′06″E / 48.5894°N 6.5017°E / 48.5894; 6.5017 Coordinates: 48°35′22″N6°30′06″E / 48.5894°N 6.5017°E / 48.5894; 6.5017
Country France
Region Grand Est
Department Meurthe-et-Moselle
Arrondissement Lunéville
Canton Lunéville-1 and 2
Intercommunality Lunévillois
Government
  Mayor (2008-) Jacques Lamblain
Area
1
16.34 km2 (6.31 sq mi)
Population
 (2016-01-01) [1]
19,161
  Density1,200/km2 (3,000/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
54329 /54300
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Lunéville (French pronunciation:  [lynevil] ; German, obsolete: Loudspeaker.svg Lünstadt  ) is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in France.

Contents

It is a subprefecture of the department and lies on the Meurthe River at its confluence with the Vezouze.

History

Eglise Saint-Jacques in Luneville, established by Stanislaus I of Poland in 1745. Eglise Saint Jacques Luneville.jpg
Église Saint-Jacques in Lunéville, established by Stanislaus I of Poland in 1745.

Lunéville was a renowned resort in the 18th century, known as the capital of Lorraine. The grand Château de Lunéville, built in 1702 for Leopold, Duke of Lorraine to replace an older palace, was the residence of the duke of Lorraine until the duchy was annexed by France in 1766. The château was designed in the style of Versailles to satisfy Leopold's wife, Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans, the niece of Louis XIV, and became known as the "Versailles of Lorraine". It includes a chapel designed by Germain Boffrand. Leopold and his wife were the parents of Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor (through him they were the grandparents of Marie Antoinette).

The last duke of Lorraine was Stanislaus I, the former king of Poland. A devout Catholic, an author and a philanthropist, Stanislaus had a church built and several follies in his gardens for the amusement and education of visiting Polish nobility and followers of the Enlightenment. The more famous visitors to his court were Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, André Morellet, and Montesquieu. After the death of his father-in-law in 1766, Louis XV of France annexed the duchy and turned the castle into a barracks, but much of the original construction has survived, and what remains is open to the public and the château's intricate parterre gardens, designed by Yves Hours (a pupil of André Le Nôtre) in 1711 and Louis de Nesle in 1724, are a public park today.

It was over the nearby Parroy Forest, directly east of Lunéville, only some 11 months after the outbreak of World War I, that the first aerial victory by a fighter aircraft armed with a synchronised machine gun occurred on July 1, 1915, as Lieutenant Kurt Wintgens of the German Army air force forced down an Aeronautique Militaire Morane-Saulnier L parasol monoplane. Neither member of the French air crew was seriously wounded, while the French aircraft's Gnome Lambda engine received multiple hits to disable the aircraft. [2] [3]

Treaties

The Treaty of Lunéville was signed in the Treaty House, one of the houses built up against the château gardens of Lunéville on 9 February 1801, between the French Republic and the Austrian Empire by Count Ludwig von Cobenzl and Joseph Bonaparte.

Another treaty, signed in Germany, was the Treaty of Frankfurt (1871), which made Lunéville into a border town attracting the best and the brightest of Alsace and Moselle who relocated to keep their French nationality. A new period of economic prosperity, known as the Belle Époque, restored some of the glory of Stanislas's ducal court of the 18th century.

Industry

Luneville faience was made famous for its widely copied collectable figurines mostly designed by Paul-Louis Cyffle. This group is from 1770-1780, Sevres museum collection. Groupe Luneville Sevres.jpg
Lunéville faience was made famous for its widely copied collectable figurines mostly designed by Paul-Louis Cyfflé. This group is from 1770-1780, Sèvres museum collection.

Lunéville faience, a kind of unglazed faience produced from 1723 at Lunéville by Jacques Chambrette, became the Manufacture Royale du Roi de Pologne (“Royal Factory of the King of Poland”) after Stanislaus sponsored it in 1749. The earthenware first became famous for its detailed figurines and in the 20th century for its art deco designs, and it still exists today as "Terres d'Est". [4]

In 1858, the glass factory of Croismare was built. It became famous when the Müller brothers settled there in 1897 and began creating Art Deco glass designs.

Louis Ferry-Bonnechaux discovered a technique using beads and sequins on embroidery in 1865. His craft was widely copied and became known as Lunéville Point, and its heritage can still be seen in modern haute couture.

A subsidiary of the Dietrich company, Lorraine-Dietrich moved to Luneville after the 1871 treaty of Frankfurt. Today it is known for its trailers, but it started off as a manufacturer of cars and railway equipment.

Demographics

The population of Lunéville in 2016 was 18,566.

Historical population
YearPop.±%
179311,691    
180010,436−10.7%
180611,555+10.7%
182111,247−2.7%
183112,378+10.1%
183612,798+3.4%
184112,285−4.0%
184612,278−0.1%
185112,476+1.6%
185615,301+22.6%
186115,528+1.5%
187212,369−20.3%
187616,041+29.7%
188118,136+13.1%
188620,500+13.0%
189121,542+5.1%
189622,599+4.9%
190123,269+3.0%
190624,266+4.3%
191125,587+5.4%
192124,366−4.8%
192623,263−4.5%
193124,668+6.0%
193623,665−4.1%
194620,377−13.9%
195422,690+11.4%
196221,618−4.7%
196823,177+7.2%
197522,709−2.0%
198221,468−5.5%
199020,711−3.5%
199920,200−2.5%
200619,881−1.6%
201119,909+0.1%
201618,566−6.7%

Notable people

Lunéville was the birthplace of :

See also

Related Research Articles

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Anne Charles Basset de Montaigu, born 10 June 1751 in Versailles (Yvelines), died 8 May 1821 at Luneville was a general of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars. Tainted by his association with Charles Pichegru, he was cleared by a courts-martial in 1797, and served subsequently in the Army of the Danube and in the Grande Armée until his retirement from military service in 1811.

References

  1. "Populations légales 2016". INSEE . Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  2. Grosz, Peter M., Windsock Datafile No. 91, Fokker E.I/II, Albatros Publications, Ltd. 2002. ISBN No. 1-902207-46-7.
  3. Sands, Jeffrey, "The Forgotten Ace, Ltn. Kurt Wintgens and his War Letters", Cross & Cockade USA, Summer 1985.
  4. Website Luneville faience